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Special Issue "Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 March 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Fadi Al-Turjman

Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Turkey
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Smart-cities; Internet of Things; Wireless Sensor Networks; Edge computing
Guest Editor
Dr. Mihai T. Lazarescu

Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni Politecnico di Torino Turin, Italy
E-Mail
Interests: cost- and energy-efficient design of wireless sensor nodes; high-level synthesis of wireless sensor applications; distributed data processing on embedded devices, learning, adaptability; efficient and secure communication, privacy
Guest Editor
Dr. Ejaz Ahmed

University of Malaya, Malaysia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: mobile cloud computing; mobile edge computing; Internet of things; cognitive radio networks; smart cities
Guest Editor
Dr. Zeeshan Kaleem

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan
Website | E-Mail
Interests: public safety networks; 5G system; device-to-device (D2D) discovery and communications; full duplex communications; unmanned air vehicle (UAV) detection and tracking

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

To facilitate the permeation of the WSN and IoT solutions in our daily lives, society and industry, we reckon that wireless networking, and especially 5G, can play a very important role. With growing IoT needs, networking should be ubiquitous, energy and spectrum efficient, with good quality of service (QoS) and adequate security, and require minimum human interaction and expertise in order to deploy and use. Adequate solutions to these challenges can provide green support for users in managing their tasks. This kind of development is, not only relevant to researchers, but also to corporations and individuals alike.

Green-Wireless Networks (G-WNs) play a major role in today’s green applications, which aim at avoiding the waste at all levels of the society (energy, materials, food, etc.). From providing rich connectivity to realizing 5G-inspired paradigms, these energy-frugal networks serve a wide range of green applications. This Special Issue will focus mainly on how such networks can be optimized to be energy efficient and cost effective, while maintaining high levels of availability and QoS. Hence, we focus on both design and implementation aspects of reachable green 5G networks, or that can be used for reachable systems (such as the RFID, sensor networks, biometrics, and nanonetworks), while realizing the most diverse green applications, e.g., smart-grids, Internet of Things (IoT), WSN, e-health, intelligent transportations, Cloudlets, etc.

This Special Issue call is open for both theoretical and implementation topics relevant to green networks and green applications in general, in green next generation networks, or in networks that can be utilized in green applications. The following is a non-exclusive list of topics of interest:

  • 5G Green Implementations and testbed issues,
  • Green services and G-WNs in 5G applications,
  • Green communications and 5G architectures,
  • Context awareness and signaling for energy saving strategies,
  • Cooperative relaying for energy saving in 5G,
  • Cross-layer protocols and opportunistic approaches,
  • Wireless relay, including fixed and mobile elements in 5G,
  • Integrated RFIDs and Sensor Networks (RSNs) in green 5G applications,
  • Mobility and 5G in green applications,
  • Cognitive radios and dynamic spectrum management in 5G,
  • Performance evaluation in green networks,
  • Green and ubiquitous computing in 5G,
  • Cooperation in homogeneous and heterogeneous networks,
  • Federation in wireless networks towards green 5G,
  • Smart objects and green localization in G-WNs.
  • 5G enabling technologies for the G-WNs
  • Case studies and real world deployment scenarios in 5G networks
  • Device-to-Device (D2D) communications in green scenarios
  • Cloud computing in G-WNs
  • Edge computing in 5G networks for green applications

Dr. Fadi Al-Turjman
Dr. Mihai T. Lazarescu
Dr. Ejaz Ahmed
Dr. Zeeshan Kaleem
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Green networks
  • Green applications
  • 5G/IoT 
  • D2D communications

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Content-Sensing Based Resource Allocation for Delay-Sensitive VR Video Uploading in 5G H-CRAN
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030697
Received: 3 January 2019 / Revised: 1 February 2019 / Accepted: 6 February 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
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Abstract
Virtual reality (VR) is emerging as one of key applications in future fifth-generation (5G) networks. Uploading VR video in 5G network is expected to boom in near future, as general consumers could generate high-quality VR videos with portable 360-degree cameras and are willing [...] Read more.
Virtual reality (VR) is emerging as one of key applications in future fifth-generation (5G) networks. Uploading VR video in 5G network is expected to boom in near future, as general consumers could generate high-quality VR videos with portable 360-degree cameras and are willing to share with others. Heterogeneous networks integrating with 5G cloud-radio access networks (H-CRAN) provides high transmission rate for VR video uploading. To address the motion characteristic of UE (User Equipments) and small cell feature of 5G H-CRAN, in this paper we proposed a content-sensing based resource allocation scheme for delay-sensitive VR video uploading in 5G H-CRAN, in which the source coding rate of uploading VR video is determined by the centralized RA scheduling. This scheme jointly optimizes g-NB group resource allocation, RHH/g-NB association, sub-channel assignment, power allocation, and tile encoding rate assignment as formulated in a mixed-integer nonlinear problem (MINLP). To solve the problem, a three stage algorithm is proposed. Dynamic g-NB group resource allocation is first performed according to the UE density of each group. Then, joint RRH/g-NB association, sub-channel allocation and power allocation is performed by an iterative process. Finally, encoding tile rate is assigned to optimize the target objective by adopting convex optimization toolbox. The simulation results show that our proposed algorithm ensures the total utility of system under the constraint of maximum transmission delay and power, which also with low complexity and faster convergence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle An Approach to Reinforce Multipath TCP with Path-Aware Information
Sensors 2019, 19(3), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19030476
Received: 19 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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Abstract
Multipath TCP (MPTCP), which enables the use of multiple wireless links (e.g., Wi-Fi and LTE) for data transmissions, is an excellent technology for evolving multi-homing devices in mobile wireless networks. This paper explores concepts and feasibility of realizing MPTCP with path awareness (PA), [...] Read more.
Multipath TCP (MPTCP), which enables the use of multiple wireless links (e.g., Wi-Fi and LTE) for data transmissions, is an excellent technology for evolving multi-homing devices in mobile wireless networks. This paper explores concepts and feasibility of realizing MPTCP with path awareness (PA), in which the path-aware information is leveraged to reinforce the MPTCP transmissions. In particular, when aware of a network situation, a device can facilitate a mechanism that dynamically shifts the MPTCP traffic to a single path and vice versa. As a result, MPTCP with PA could solve the significant problem of negative aggregation benefit when the MPTCP throughput over divergent paths is worse than the best one of single-path TCP. We illustrate the feasibility of the proposed concept through our new implementation of a so-called MPTCP-LA (i.e., MPTCP with Loss Awareness). MPTCP-LA keeps the aggregation benefits non-negative by temporarily switching an MPTCP transmission on a path to a standby condition when the on-device observed loss reaches a threshold. We extensively evaluate MPTCP-LA in comparison to the standard MPTCP in an emulated environment. The results show that MPTCP-LA has better performance regarding enhancing throughput and saving networking resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Analysis and Design of SCMA-Based Hybrid Unicast-Multicast Relay-Assisted Networks
Sensors 2019, 19(2), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19020329
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 7 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
This paper studies a multi-user network model based on sparse code multiple access (SCMA), where both unicast and multicast services are considered. In the direct transmission scheme, the communication between the base station (BS) and the users is completed with one stage, in [...] Read more.
This paper studies a multi-user network model based on sparse code multiple access (SCMA), where both unicast and multicast services are considered. In the direct transmission scheme, the communication between the base station (BS) and the users is completed with one stage, in which the relay is inexistent. In the two-stage cooperative transmission scheme, any number of relays are placed to improve the reliability of wireless communication system. The BS broadcasts the requested message to users and relays in the first stage, and the successful relays forward the message to unsuccessful users in the second stage. To characterize the performance of these two schemes, we derive the exact and approximate expressions of average outage probability. Furthermore, to take full advantage of the cooperative diversity, an optimal power allocation and relay location strategy in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime is studied. The outage probability reaches the minimum value when the first stage occupies half of the total energy consumed. Simulation and analysis results are presented to demonstrate the performance of these two schemes. The results show that the two-stage cooperative scheme effectively reduce the average outage probability in SCMA network, especially in the high SNR region. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Efficient Pico Cell Range Expansion and Density Joint Optimization for Heterogeneous Networks with eICIC
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 762; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030762
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 27 February 2018 / Accepted: 28 February 2018 / Published: 2 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (903 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heterogeneous networks, constituted by conventional macro cells and overlaying pico cells, have been deemed a promising paradigm to support the deluge of data traffic with higher spectral efficiency and Energy Efficiency (EE). In order to deploy pico cells in reality, the density of [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous networks, constituted by conventional macro cells and overlaying pico cells, have been deemed a promising paradigm to support the deluge of data traffic with higher spectral efficiency and Energy Efficiency (EE). In order to deploy pico cells in reality, the density of Pico Base Stations (PBSs) and the pico Cell Range Expansion (CRE) are two important factors for the network spectral efficiency as well as EE improvement. However, associated with the range and density evolution, the inter-tier interference within the heterogeneous architecture will be challenging, and the time domain Enhanced Inter-cell Interference Coordination (eICIC) technique becomes necessary. Aiming to improve the network EE, the above factors are jointly considered in this paper. More specifically, we first derive the closed-form expression of the network EE as a function of the density of PBSs and pico CRE bias based on stochastic geometry theory, followed by a linear search algorithm to optimize the pico CRE bias and PBS density, respectively. Moreover, in order to realize the pico CRE bias and PBS density joint optimization, a heuristic algorithm is proposed to achieve the network EE maximization. Numerical simulations show that our proposed pico CRE bias and PBS density joint optimization algorithm can improve the network EE significantly with low computational complexity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle mIoT Slice for 5G Systems: Design and Performance Evaluation
Sensors 2018, 18(2), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18020635
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 8 February 2018 / Accepted: 13 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Network slicing is a key feature of the upcoming 5G networks allowing the design and deployment of customized communication systems to integrate services provided by vertical industries. In this context, massive Internet of Things (mIoT) is regarded as a compelling use case, both [...] Read more.
Network slicing is a key feature of the upcoming 5G networks allowing the design and deployment of customized communication systems to integrate services provided by vertical industries. In this context, massive Internet of Things (mIoT) is regarded as a compelling use case, both for its relevance from business perspective, and for the technical challenges it poses to network design. With their envisaged massive deployment of devices requiring sporadic connectivity and small data transmission, yet Quality of Service (QoS) constrained, mIoT services will need an ad-hoc end-to-end (E2E) slice, i.e., both access and core network with enhanced Control and User planes (CP/UP). After revising the key requirements of mIoT and identifying major shortcomings of previous generation networks, this paper presents and evaluates an E2E mIoT network slicing solution, featuring a new connectivity model overcoming the load limitations of legacy systems. Unique in its kind, this paper addresses mIoT requirements from an end-to-end perspective highlighting and solving, unlike most prior related work, the connectivity challenges posed to the core network. Results demonstrate that the proposed solution, reducing CP signaling and optimizing UP resource utilization, is a suitable candidate for next generation network standards to efficiently handle massive device deployment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Sum of the Magnitude for Hard Decision Decoding Algorithm Based on Loop Update Detection
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010236
Received: 8 November 2017 / Revised: 10 January 2018 / Accepted: 14 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
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Abstract
In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC) hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will [...] Read more.
In order to improve the performance of non-binary low-density parity check codes (LDPC) hard decision decoding algorithm and to reduce the complexity of decoding, a sum of the magnitude for hard decision decoding algorithm based on loop update detection is proposed. This will also ensure the reliability, stability and high transmission rate of 5G mobile communication. The algorithm is based on the hard decision decoding algorithm (HDA) and uses the soft information from the channel to calculate the reliability, while the sum of the variable nodes’ (VN) magnitude is excluded for computing the reliability of the parity checks. At the same time, the reliability information of the variable node is considered and the loop update detection algorithm is introduced. The bit corresponding to the error code word is flipped multiple times, before this is searched in the order of most likely error probability to finally find the correct code word. Simulation results show that the performance of one of the improved schemes is better than the weighted symbol flipping (WSF) algorithm under different hexadecimal numbers by about 2.2 dB and 2.35 dB at the bit error rate (BER) of 10−5 over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel, respectively. Furthermore, the average number of decoding iterations is significantly reduced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Analysis of Millimeter-Wave Multi-hop Machine-to-Machine Networks Based on Hop Distance Statistics
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010204
Received: 1 December 2017 / Revised: 28 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2018 / Published: 12 January 2018
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (809 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For [...] Read more.
As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Towards Harmonious Coexistence in the Unlicensed Spectrum: Rational Cooperation of Operators
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2432; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102432
Received: 22 August 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 21 October 2017 / Published: 24 October 2017
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Abstract
5G New Radio (NR) operating in the unlicensed spectrum is accelerating the Fourth Industrial Revolution by supporting Internet of Things (IoT) networks or Industrial IoT deployments. Specifically, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) is looking to achieve spectrum integration through coexistence with multi-radio access technology (RAT) systems [...] Read more.
5G New Radio (NR) operating in the unlicensed spectrum is accelerating the Fourth Industrial Revolution by supporting Internet of Things (IoT) networks or Industrial IoT deployments. Specifically, LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) is looking to achieve spectrum integration through coexistence with multi-radio access technology (RAT) systems in the same unlicensed bands with both licensed-assisted and stand-alone access. The listen-before-talk (LBT) mechanism is mainly considered to enable an LTE operator to protect other incumbent unlicensed systems. In this article, we investigate the behaviors of multiple LTE operators along with the deployment of WiFi networks in the unlicensed spectrum from both short- and long-term points of view. In countries without mandatory LBT requirements, we show that an LTE operator is susceptible to collusion with another LTE operator, thus exploiting scarce spectrum resources by deceiving other wireless networks into thinking that channels are always busy; hence, mandatory usage of LTE with LBT is highly recommended at national level to achieve harmonious coexistence in the unlicensed spectrum. We discuss several possible coexistence scenarios to resolve the operator’s dilemmaas well as to improve unlicensed spectrum efficiency among multi-RAT systems, which is viable in the near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Exploiting the Capture Effect to Enhance RACH Performance in Cellular-Based M2M Communications
Sensors 2017, 17(10), 2169; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17102169
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 September 2017 / Published: 21 September 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cellular-based machine-to-machine (M2M) communication is expected to facilitate services for the Internet of Things (IoT). However, because cellular networks are designed for human users, they have some limitations. Random access channel (RACH) congestion caused by massive access from M2M devices is one of [...] Read more.
Cellular-based machine-to-machine (M2M) communication is expected to facilitate services for the Internet of Things (IoT). However, because cellular networks are designed for human users, they have some limitations. Random access channel (RACH) congestion caused by massive access from M2M devices is one of the biggest factors hindering cellular-based M2M services because the RACH congestion causes random access (RA) throughput degradation and connection failures to the devices. In this paper, we show the possibility exploiting the capture effects, which have been known to have a positive impact on the wireless network system, on RA procedure for improving the RA performance of M2M devices. For this purpose, we analyze an RA procedure using a capture model. Through this analysis, we examine the effects of capture on RA performance and propose an Msg3 power-ramping (Msg3 PR) scheme to increase the capture probability (thereby increasing the RA success probability) even when severe RACH congestion problem occurs. The proposed analysis models are validated using simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme, with proper parameters, further improves the RA throughput and reduces the connection failure probability, by slightly increasing the energy consumption. Finally, we demonstrate the effects of coexistence with other RA-related schemes through simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Wireless Networks in 5G-inspired Applications)
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