sensors-logo

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018) | Viewed by 55326

Special Issue Editors


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy
Interests: electrochemical sensors; screen-printed electrodes; paper-based devices; biosensors based on enzyme inhibition; nanomaterial-based (bio)sensors; carbon black as electrode modifiers; (bio)sensors for environmental and security applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, Università degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata, 00133 Rome, Italy
Interests: paper-based (bio)sensors; screen-printed electrodes; nanomaterials; wearable sensors
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Crystallography (IC-CNR), Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy
Interests: Electrochemical and optical biosensors for agrifood and environmental analysis; selection and characterisation of natural and artificial biocomponents for biosensor applications; nanomaterials for biocomponent functionalisation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As is well known, according to the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), a biosensor may be defined as a device that incorporate a biocomponent (e.g., antibody, enzyme, nucleic acid, tissue, microorganism) in close contact with a custom-made physico-chemical transducer (e.g., electrochemical, optical, acoustical). Despite the biosensors based on enzymes combined with electrochemical transducer are the first reported in literature (S.J. Updike, G.P. Hicks, The enzyme electrode, Nature 214 (1967) 986–988), they still represent the ones with a higher sale volume in the sensor market. For instance, the market based on glucose biosensor for biomedical applications has grown exponentially in the last few decades, and it is expected to reach USD 31 billion by 2022, according to the report “Glucose Biosensor Market Size and Forecast By End-use, Region And Trend Analysis From 2015–2022” by Grand View Research Inc. Without a doubt, the latest trends on nanotechnology provided a significant enhancement of the biosensor performances for their tailored applications, not only in biomedical field, but also in the agrifood, environmental, and security sectors.

In this context, this Special Issue invites authors to submit new research results in the area of enzymatic electrochemical biosensors. We seek novel enzymatic biosensors able to detect the analytes as substrates/inhibitors exploiting new enzymes or new inhibitors. In addition, novel research activities based on screen-printing, ink-jet, 3D-printing, nanomaterials, and microfluidic could be addressed, highlighting the impact of cutting-edge technologies in the development of enzymatic electrochemical biosensors. Furthermore, new works dealing with different applications in environmental, biomedical, security, and agrifood fields are welcome.


Dr. Fabiana Arduini
Prof. Dr. Danila Moscone
Dr. Viviana Scognamiglio
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

16 pages, 4617 KiB  
Article
An Electrochemical Cholesterol Biosensor Based on A CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe Quantum Dots—Poly (Propylene Imine) Dendrimer Nanocomposite Immobilisation Layer
by Kefilwe Vanessa Mokwebo, Oluwatobi Samuel Oluwafemi and Omotayo Ademola Arotiba
Sensors 2018, 18(10), 3368; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18103368 - 09 Oct 2018
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 4460
Abstract
We report the preparation of poly (propylene imine) dendrimer (PPI) and CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) as a suitable platform for the development of an enzyme-based electrochemical cholesterol biosensor with enhanced analytical performance. The mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe QDs was synthesized in an aqueous [...] Read more.
We report the preparation of poly (propylene imine) dendrimer (PPI) and CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) as a suitable platform for the development of an enzyme-based electrochemical cholesterol biosensor with enhanced analytical performance. The mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe QDs was synthesized in an aqueous phase and characterized using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray power diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. The absorption and emission maxima of the QDs red shifted as the reaction time and shell growth increased, indicating the formation of CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe QDs. PPI was electrodeposited on a glassy carbon electrode followed by the deposition (by deep coating) attachment of the QDs onto the PPI dendrimer modified electrode using 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC), and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) as a coupling agent. The biosensor was prepared by incubating the PPI/QDs modified electrode into a solution of cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) for 6 h. The modified electrodes were characterized by voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy. Since efficient electron transfer process between the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) and the PPI/QDs-modified electrode was achieved, the cholesterol biosensor (GCE/PPI/QDs/ChOx) was able to detect cholesterol in the range 0.1–10 mM with a detection limit (LOD) of 0.075 mM and sensitivity of 111.16 μA mM−1 cm−2. The biosensor was stable for over a month and had greater selectivity towards the cholesterol molecule. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 2171 KiB  
Article
Fabrication of a Urea Biosensor for Real-Time Dynamic Fluid Measurement
by Kyunghee Kim, Jeongeun Lee, Bo Mi Moon, Ye Been Seo, Chan Hum Park, Min Park and Gun Yong Sung
Sensors 2018, 18(8), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18082607 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 7160
Abstract
In this study, a portable urea sensor that monitors the urea concentration in flow conditions was fabricated. We propose an electrochemical sensor that continually measures the urea concentration of samples flowing through it at a constant flow rate in real time. For the [...] Read more.
In this study, a portable urea sensor that monitors the urea concentration in flow conditions was fabricated. We propose an electrochemical sensor that continually measures the urea concentration of samples flowing through it at a constant flow rate in real time. For the electrochemical sensing, a porous silk fibroin membrane with immobilized urease was mounted in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sensor housing. The fabricated urea sensor elicited linear current–concentration characteristics in the clinically significant concentration range (0.1–20 mM) based on peritoneal dialysis. The sensor maintained the linear current–concentration characteristics during operation in flow conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 18033 KiB  
Article
Molecular Assembly of a Durable HRP-AuNPs/PEDOT:BSA/Pt Biosensor with Detailed Characterizations
by Fangcheng Xu, Shuaibin Ren, Jiansin Li, Xiang Bi and Yesong Gu
Sensors 2018, 18(6), 1823; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18061823 - 05 Jun 2018
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3357
Abstract
In this study, we provided the detailed characterizations of our recent HRP-AuNPs/PEDOT:BSA/Pt biosensor, constructed through a simple fabrication procedure with improved stability and good sensitivity. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirmed the synthesis of conductive PEDOT [...] Read more.
In this study, we provided the detailed characterizations of our recent HRP-AuNPs/PEDOT:BSA/Pt biosensor, constructed through a simple fabrication procedure with improved stability and good sensitivity. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy not only confirmed the synthesis of conductive PEDOT where BSA was the template for the polymerization, but also provided further insights into the stable immobilization of AuNP on the PEDOT:BSA film. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the attachment of AuNPs were stable under a high salt environment. The current technology demonstrates a feasible procedure to form a functional AuNPs/PEDOT:BSA film that has potential applications in the fabrication of various biosensors and electric devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

15 pages, 3742 KiB  
Article
An Amperometric Biosensor for the Determination of Bacterial Sepsis Biomarker, Secretory Phospholipase Group 2-IIA Using a Tri-Enzyme System
by Nik Nurhanan Nik Mansor, Tan Toh Leong, Eka Safitri, Dedi Futra, Nurul Saadah Ahmad, Dian Nasriana Nasuruddin, Azlin Itnin, Ida Zarina Zaini, Khaizurin Tajul Arifin, Lee Yook Heng and Nurul Izzaty Hassan
Sensors 2018, 18(3), 686; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18030686 - 26 Feb 2018
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 6788
Abstract
A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA). These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimide groups for the [...] Read more.
A tri-enzyme system consisting of choline kinase/choline oxidase/horseradish peroxidase was used in the rapid and specific determination of the biomarker for bacterial sepsis infection, secretory phospholipase Group 2-IIA (sPLA2-IIA). These enzymes were individually immobilized onto the acrylic microspheres via succinimide groups for the preparation of an electrochemical biosensor. The reaction of sPLA2-IIA with its substrate initiated a cascading enzymatic reaction in the tri-enzyme system that led to the final production of hydrogen peroxide, which presence was indicated by the redox characteristics of potassium ferricyanide, K3Fe(CN)6. An amperometric biosensor based on enzyme conjugated acrylic microspheres and gold nanoparticles composite coated onto a carbon-paste screen printed electrode (SPE) was fabricated and the current measurement was performed at a low potential of 0.20 V. This enzymatic biosensor gave a linear range 0.01–100 ng/mL (R2 = 0.98304) with a detection limit recorded at 5 × 10−3 ng/mL towards sPLA2-IIA. Moreover, the biosensor showed good reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) of 3.04% (n = 5). The biosensor response was reliable up to 25 days of storage at 4 °C. Analysis of human serum samples for sPLA2-IIA indicated that the biosensor has potential for rapid bacterial sepsis diagnosis in hospital emergency department. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 6838 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical Sunset Yellow Biosensor Based on Photocured Polyacrylamide Membrane for Food Dye Monitoring
by Normazida Rozi, Amalina Ahmad, Lee Yook Heng, Loh Kee Shyuan and Sharina Abu Hanifah
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010101 - 01 Jan 2018
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 6635
Abstract
An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor was investigated for the analysis of Sunset Yellow synthetic food dye. A glassy carbon electrode was coated with a poly(acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) membrane to immobilize laccase using a single-step photopolymerization procedure. Poly(acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) membrane was demonstrated [...] Read more.
An enzyme-based electrochemical biosensor was investigated for the analysis of Sunset Yellow synthetic food dye. A glassy carbon electrode was coated with a poly(acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) membrane to immobilize laccase using a single-step photopolymerization procedure. Poly(acrylamide-co-ethyl methacrylate) membrane was demonstrated to have acceptable water absorption and suitable for biosensor application. Sunset Yellow biosensor exhibited a linear response range from 0.08 to 10.00 µM with a detection limit of 0.02 µM. This biosensor was successfully used to determine Sunset Yellow in soft drinks with recoveries of 99.0–101.6%. The method was validated using high-performance liquid chromatography, indicating the biosensor can be as a promising alternative method for Sunset Yellow detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

1692 KiB  
Article
A New Laccase Based Biosensor for Tartrazine
by Siti Zulaikha Mazlan, Yook Heng Lee and Sharina Abu Hanifah
Sensors 2017, 17(12), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17122859 - 09 Dec 2017
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5450
Abstract
Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on [...] Read more.
Laccase enzyme, a commonly used enzyme for the construction of biosensors for phenolic compounds was used for the first time to develop a new biosensor for the determination of the azo-dye tartrazine. The electrochemical biosensor was based on the immobilization of laccase on functionalized methacrylate-acrylate microspheres. The biosensor membrane is a composite of the laccase conjugated microspheres and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) coated on a carbon-paste screen-printed electrode. The reaction involving tartrazine can be catalyzed by laccase enzyme, where the current change was measured by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) at 1.1 V. The anodic peak current was linear within the tartrazine concentration range of 0.2 to 14 μM (R2 = 0.979) and the detection limit was 0.04 μM. Common food ingredients or additives such as glucose, sucrose, ascorbic acid, phenol and sunset yellow did not interfere with the biosensor response. Furthermore, the biosensor response was stable up to 30 days of storage period at 4 °C. Foods and beverage were used as real samples for the biosensor validation. The biosensor response to tartrazine showed no significant difference with a standard HPLC method for tartrazine analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

6860 KiB  
Article
Development of a Sensitive Electrochemical Enzymatic Reaction-Based Cholesterol Biosensor Using Nano-Sized Carbon Interdigitated Electrodes Decorated with Gold Nanoparticles
by Deepti Sharma, Jongmin Lee, Junyoung Seo and Heungjoo Shin
Sensors 2017, 17(9), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17092128 - 15 Sep 2017
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 10390
Abstract
We developed a versatile and highly sensitive biosensor platform. The platform is based on electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling induced by selective enzyme immobilization on nano-sized carbon interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Without resorting to sophisticated nanofabrication technologies, we used batch wafer-level [...] Read more.
We developed a versatile and highly sensitive biosensor platform. The platform is based on electrochemical-enzymatic redox cycling induced by selective enzyme immobilization on nano-sized carbon interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Without resorting to sophisticated nanofabrication technologies, we used batch wafer-level carbon microelectromechanical systems (C-MEMS) processes to fabricate 3D carbon IDEs reproducibly, simply, and cost effectively. In addition, AuNPs were selectively electrodeposited on specific carbon nanoelectrodes; the high surface-to-volume ratio and fast electron transfer ability of AuNPs enhanced the electrochemical signal across these carbon IDEs. Gold nanoparticle characteristics such as size and morphology were reproducibly controlled by modulating the step-potential and time period in the electrodeposition processes. To detect cholesterol selectively using AuNP/carbon IDEs, cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was selectively immobilized via the electrochemical reduction of the diazonium cation. The sensitivity of the AuNP/carbon IDE-based biosensor was ensured by efficient amplification of the redox mediators, ferricyanide and ferrocyanide, between selectively immobilized enzyme sites and both of the combs of AuNP/carbon IDEs. The presented AuNP/carbon IDE-based cholesterol biosensor exhibited a wide sensing range (0.005–10 mM) and high sensitivity (~993.91 µA mM−1 cm−2; limit of detection (LOD) ~1.28 µM). In addition, the proposed cholesterol biosensor was found to be highly selective for the cholesterol detection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

25 pages, 2420 KiB  
Review
Recent Advances in Electrochemical Biosensors Based on Enzyme Inhibition for Clinical and Pharmaceutical Applications
by Loubna El Harrad, Ilhame Bourais, Hasna Mohammadi and Aziz Amine
Sensors 2018, 18(1), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/s18010164 - 09 Jan 2018
Cited by 102 | Viewed by 9917
Abstract
A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors [...] Read more.
A large number of enzyme inhibitors are used as drugs to treat several diseases such as gout, diabetes, AIDS, depression, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Electrochemical biosensors based on enzyme inhibition are useful devices for an easy, fast and environment friendly monitoring of inhibitors like drugs. In the last decades, electrochemical biosensors have shown great potentials in the detection of different drugs like neostigmine, ketoconazole, donepezil, allopurinol and many others. They attracted increasing attention due to the advantage of being high sensitive and accurate analytical tools, able to reach low detection limits and the possibility to be performed on real samples. This review will spotlight the research conducted in the past 10 years (2007–2017) on inhibition based enzymatic electrochemical biosensors for the analysis of different drugs. New assays based on novel bio-devices will be debated. Moreover, the exploration of the recent graphical approach in diagnosis of reversible and irreversible inhibition mechanism will be discussed. The accurate and the fast diagnosis of inhibition type will help researchers in further drug design improvements and the identification of new molecules that will serve as new enzyme targets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Development of Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors and Applications)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop