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Special Issue "Enabling the Move from Wireless Sensor Networks to Internet of Things and Cyber-Physical Systems"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Sensor Networks".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2016).

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Dongkyun Kim

Wireless & Mobile Internet Lab., School of Computer Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Ad Hoc Networks, Underwater Sensor Networks, Future Internet, Mobile Communications, Vehicular Ad hoc Networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Houbing Song

Department of Electrical, Computer, Software, and Systems Engineering, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL 32114, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cyber-physical systems; signal processing for communications and networking; cloud computing/edge computing and verification
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Juan-Carlos Cano

Department of Computer Engineering, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wireless networks, Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), Computer Networks design, modeling, and implementation, power aware routing protocols, quality of service for mobile ad hoc networks, pervasive computing, and Protocols for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Guest Editor
Dr. Wei Wang

Department of Computer Science, College of Sciences, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182-7720, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: wireless multimedia communications; body sensor networks; cyber physical system healthcare; breast cancer imaging
Guest Editor
Dr. Waleed Ejaz

Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada
Website | E-Mail
Interests: energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks; cloud radio access networks; M2M communications in 5G networks; cognitive radio networks
Guest Editor
Dr. Qinghe Du

Department of Information and Communications Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: cross-layer design for statistical delay QoS guarantees; effective capacity and effective bandwidth theory over wireless networks; networking and transmission technologies towards 5G systems; communications in cyber-physics systems and internet of tings; vehicular communications networks; energy-harvesting assisted transmissions over wireless networks; physical-layer security and cross-layer security design; resource allocation, routing, and peer-to-peer transmission design for device-to-device networks; massive access control for machine-to-machine networks

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are entering the era of the Internet of Things (IoT). Trillions of network-connected objects are expected to emerge in the global network around 2020. IoT is a networking infrastructure for Cyber Physical Systems (CPS), which are smart networked systems with embedded sensors, processors, and actuators that are designed to sense and interact with the physical world (including the human users), and support real-time, guaranteed performance in safety-critical applications. In CPS, the joint behavior of the “cyber” and “physical” elements of the system is critical—computing, control, sensing and networking can be deeply integrated into every component, and the actions of components and systems must be safe and interoperable. However, when we evolve towards the IoT and CPS from the traditional wireless sensor networks (WSN), we need novel approaches for network design and modeling, new technologies to manage and control object mobility, and new and more flexible networks with the speed, capacity and environmental characteristics needed to accommodate communications among objects in the emerging world. In addition, we need to develop the core system science needed to design and build complex CPS that people can use and with which they can interact, including some that must exhibit high-confidence or provably safe behaviors.

The objective of this Special Issue is to provide high quality research and development activities being performed by the researchers from both academia and industry. Research articles with novel application scenarios, new algorithms, and original results will be solicited. Additionally, state of the art Review articles are welcomed defining the current research trends in both sensor networking and Internet of Things technologies.

The eighth International Conference on Ubiquitous and Future Networks (ICUFN 2016) http://www.icufn.org/main/ is organized by KICS (The Korean Institute of Communications and Information Sciences) with the technical co-sponsorship of IEEE Communications Society and IEICE-CS. And the eleventh International Conference on Wireless Algorithms, Systems, and Applications (WASA 2016, http://wasa-conference.org/WASA2016/) will be held on August 8-10, 2016, in Bozeman, Montana, USA. The authors of selected papers of ICUFN 2016 and WASA 2016 within the scope of this Special Issue will be invited to submit extended versions of their papers. These extended papers must contain considerable amounts (a minimum of 30%) of new material and will be subjected to a new round of reviews before been published in this special issue. This Special Issue also welcomes submissions from the open call with subjects aligned with the scope of the Special Issue.

Potential Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • Cross Layer Protocols for sensor networks
  • Routing protocols for sensor networks
  • Transport layer protocols for sensor networks
  • MAC layer protocols for sensor networks
  • New emerging architectures for IoT and sensor networks
  • New applications and test bed for IoT and sensor networks
  • Energy-efficient protocols for WSN and IoT
  • Energy harvesting/scavenging for WSN and IoT
  • Security and privacy architectures for WSN and IoT
  • Interrelationship between WSN and IoT: similarities and differences
  • WSN aspects that are critical for future IoT
  • WSN issues and technologies for IoT applications
  • IoT management and monitoring
  • IoT platforms for education and applications

Dr. Dongkyun Kim
Dr. Houbing Song
Dr. Juan Carlos Cano
Dr. Wei Wang
Dr. Waleed Ejaz
Dr. Qinghe Du
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (25 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
An Authentication Protocol for Future Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(5), 979; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17050979
Received: 17 March 2017 / Revised: 15 April 2017 / Accepted: 24 April 2017 / Published: 28 April 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (1007 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access [...] Read more.
Authentication is one of the essential security services in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) for ensuring secure data sessions. Sensor node authentication ensures the confidentiality and validity of data collected by the sensor node, whereas user authentication guarantees that only legitimate users can access the sensor data. In a mobile WSN, sensor and user nodes move across the network and exchange data with multiple nodes, thus experiencing the authentication process multiple times. The integration of WSNs with Internet of Things (IoT) brings forth a new kind of WSN architecture along with stricter security requirements; for instance, a sensor node or a user node may need to establish multiple concurrent secure data sessions. With concurrent data sessions, the frequency of the re-authentication process increases in proportion to the number of concurrent connections. Moreover, to establish multiple data sessions, it is essential that a protocol participant have the capability of running multiple instances of the protocol run, which makes the security issue even more challenging. The currently available authentication protocols were designed for the autonomous WSN and do not account for the above requirements. Hence, ensuring a lightweight and efficient authentication protocol has become more crucial. In this paper, we present a novel, lightweight and efficient key exchange and authentication protocol suite called the Secure Mobile Sensor Network (SMSN) Authentication Protocol. In the SMSN a mobile node goes through an initial authentication procedure and receives a re-authentication ticket from the base station. Later a mobile node can use this re-authentication ticket when establishing multiple data exchange sessions and/or when moving across the network. This scheme reduces the communication and computational complexity of the authentication process. We proved the strength of our protocol with rigorous security analysis (including formal analysis using the BAN-logic) and simulated the SMSN and previously proposed schemes in an automated protocol verifier tool. Finally, we compared the computational complexity and communication cost against well-known authentication protocols. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Trust Model of Wireless Sensor Networks and Its Application in Data Fusion
Sensors 2017, 17(4), 703; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17040703
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 24 March 2017 / Accepted: 27 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2970 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to ensure the reliability and credibility of the data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper proposes a trust evaluation model and data fusion mechanism based on trust. First of all, it gives the model structure. Then, the calculation rules of [...] Read more.
In order to ensure the reliability and credibility of the data in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), this paper proposes a trust evaluation model and data fusion mechanism based on trust. First of all, it gives the model structure. Then, the calculation rules of trust are given. In the trust evaluation model, comprehensive trust consists of three parts: behavior trust, data trust, and historical trust. Data trust can be calculated by processing the sensor data. Based on the behavior of nodes in sensing and forwarding, the behavior trust is obtained. The initial value of historical trust is set to the maximum and updated with comprehensive trust. Comprehensive trust can be obtained by weighted calculation, and then the model is used to construct the trust list and guide the process of data fusion. Using the trust model, simulation results indicate that energy consumption can be reduced by an average of 15%. The detection rate of abnormal nodes is at least 10% higher than that of the lightweight and dependable trust system (LDTS) model. Therefore, this model has good performance in ensuring the reliability and credibility of the data. Moreover, the energy consumption of transmitting was greatly reduced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Approximate Sensory Data Collection: A Survey
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 564; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030564
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 14 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 10 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (902 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the Internet of Things (IoTs), wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and related techniques, the amount of sensory data manifests an explosive growth. In some applications of IoTs and WSNs, the size of sensory data has already exceeded several petabytes annually, which brings too many troubles and challenges for the data collection, which is a primary operation in IoTs and WSNs. Since the exact data collection is not affordable for many WSN and IoT systems due to the limitations on bandwidth and energy, many approximate data collection algorithms have been proposed in the last decade. This survey reviews the state of the art of approximatedatacollectionalgorithms. Weclassifythemintothreecategories: themodel-basedones, the compressive sensing based ones, and the query-driven ones. For each category of algorithms, the advantages and disadvantages are elaborated, some challenges and unsolved problems are pointed out, and the research prospects are forecasted. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Toward Exposing Timing-Based Probing Attacks in Web Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 464; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030464
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 16 February 2017 / Published: 25 February 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (2454 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. [...] Read more.
Web applications have become the foundation of many types of systems, ranging from cloud services to Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Due to the large amount of sensitive data processed by web applications, user privacy emerges as a major concern in web security. Existing protection mechanisms in modern browsers, e.g., the same origin policy, prevent the users’ browsing information on one website from being directly accessed by another website. However, web applications executed in the same browser share the same runtime environment. Such shared states provide side channels for malicious websites to indirectly figure out the information of other origins. Timing is a classic side channel and the root cause of many recent attacks, which rely on the variations in the time taken by the systems to process different inputs. In this paper, we propose an approach to expose the timing-based probing attacks in web applications. It monitors the browser behaviors and identifies anomalous timing behaviors to detect browser probing attacks. We have prototyped our system in the Google Chrome browser and evaluated the effectiveness of our approach by using known probing techniques. We have applied our approach on a large number of top Alexa sites and reported the suspicious behavior patterns with corresponding analysis results. Our theoretical analysis illustrates that the effectiveness of the timing-based probing attacks is dramatically limited by our approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mobility-Aware Adaptive Duty Cycling Mechanism for Tracking Objects during Tunnel Excavation
Sensors 2017, 17(3), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17030435
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 16 February 2017 / Accepted: 17 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5028 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Tunnel construction workers face many dangers while working under dark conditions, with difficult access and egress, and many potential hazards. To enhance safety at tunnel construction sites, low latency tracking of mobile objects (e.g., heavy-duty equipment) and construction workers is critical for managing [...] Read more.
Tunnel construction workers face many dangers while working under dark conditions, with difficult access and egress, and many potential hazards. To enhance safety at tunnel construction sites, low latency tracking of mobile objects (e.g., heavy-duty equipment) and construction workers is critical for managing the dangerous construction environment. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are the basis for a widely used technology for monitoring the environment because of their energy-efficiency and scalability. However, their use involves an inherent point-to-point delay caused by duty cycling mechanisms that can result in a significant rise in the delivery latency for tracking mobile objects. To overcome this issue, we proposed a mobility-aware adaptive duty cycling mechanism for the WSNs based on object mobility. For the evaluation, we tested this mechanism for mobile object tracking at a tunnel excavation site. The evaluation results showed that the proposed mechanism could track mobile objects with low latency while they were moving, and could reduce energy consumption by increasing sleep time while the objects were immobile. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficient Data Collection in Widely Distributed Wireless Sensor Networks with Time Window and Precedence Constraints
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020421
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 7 February 2017 / Published: 22 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2172 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In addition to the traditional densely deployed cases, widely distributed wireless sensor networks (WDWSNs) have begun to emerge. In these networks, sensors are far away from each other and have no network connections. In this paper, a special application of data collection for [...] Read more.
In addition to the traditional densely deployed cases, widely distributed wireless sensor networks (WDWSNs) have begun to emerge. In these networks, sensors are far away from each other and have no network connections. In this paper, a special application of data collection for WDWSNs is considered where each sensor (Unmanned Ground Vehicle, UGV) moves in a hazardous and complex terrain with many obstacles. They have their own work cycles and can be accessed only at a few locations. A mobile sink cruises on the ground to collect data gathered from these UGVs. Considerable delay is inevitable if the UGV and the mobile sink miss the meeting window or wait idly at the meeting spot. The unique challenge here is that, for each cycle of an UGV, there is only a limited time window for it to appear in front of the mobile sink. Therefore, we propose scheduling the path of a single mobile sink, targeted at visiting a maximum number of UGVs in a timely manner with the shortest path, according to the timing constraints bound by the cycles of UGVs. We then propose a bipartite matching based algorithm to reduce the number of mobile sinks. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve performance close to the theoretical maximum determined by the duty cycle instance. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
RiPPAS: A Ring-Based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme in Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2017, 17(2), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17020300
Received: 28 October 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (618 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, data privacy in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been paid increased attention. The characteristics of WSNs determine that users’ queries are mainly aggregation queries. In this paper, the problem of processing aggregation queries in WSNs with data privacy preservation is investigated. A [...] Read more.
Recently, data privacy in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been paid increased attention. The characteristics of WSNs determine that users’ queries are mainly aggregation queries. In this paper, the problem of processing aggregation queries in WSNs with data privacy preservation is investigated. A Ring-based Privacy-Preserving Aggregation Scheme (RiPPAS) is proposed. RiPPAS adopts ring structure to perform aggregation. It uses pseudonym mechanism for anonymous communication and uses homomorphic encryption technique to add noise to the data easily to be disclosed. RiPPAS can handle both s u m ( ) queries and m i n ( ) / m a x ( ) queries, while the existing privacy-preserving aggregation methods can only deal with s u m ( ) queries. For processing s u m ( ) queries, compared with the existing methods, RiPPAS has advantages in the aspects of privacy preservation and communication efficiency, which can be proved by theoretical analysis and simulation results. For processing m i n ( ) / m a x ( ) queries, RiPPAS provides effective privacy preservation and has low communication overhead. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Mechanism for Reliable Mobility Management for Internet of Things Using CoAP
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010136
Received: 8 November 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 January 2017 / Published: 12 January 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2556 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Under unreliable constrained wireless networks for Internet of Things (IoT) environments, the loss of the signaling message may frequently occur. Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (MIPv6) and its variants do not consider this situation. Consequently, as a constrained device moves around different wireless [...] Read more.
Under unreliable constrained wireless networks for Internet of Things (IoT) environments, the loss of the signaling message may frequently occur. Mobile Internet Protocol version 6 (MIPv6) and its variants do not consider this situation. Consequently, as a constrained device moves around different wireless networks, its Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity may be frequently disrupted and power can be drained rapidly. This can result in the loss of important sensing data or a large delay for time-critical IoT services such as healthcare monitoring and disaster management. This paper presents a reliable mobility management mechanism in Internet of Things environments with lossy low-power constrained device and network characteristics. The idea is to use the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) retransmission mechanism to achieve both reliability and simplicity for reliable IoT mobility management. Detailed architecture, algorithms, and message extensions for reliable mobility management are presented. Finally, performance is evaluated using both mathematical analysis and simulation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
SDTCP: Towards Datacenter TCP Congestion Control with SDN for IoT Applications
Sensors 2017, 17(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/s17010109
Received: 15 December 2016 / Revised: 2 January 2017 / Accepted: 4 January 2017 / Published: 8 January 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (6489 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today’s IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has gained popularity in recent years. Today’s IoT applications are now increasingly deployed in cloud platforms to perform Big Data analytics. In cloud data center networks (DCN), TCP incast usually happens when multiple senders simultaneously communicate with a single receiver. However, when TCP incast happens, DCN may suffer from both throughput collapse for TCP burst flows and temporary starvation for TCP background flows. In this paper, we propose a software defined network (SDN)-based TCP congestion control mechanism, referred to as SDTCP, to leverage the features, e.g., centralized control methods and the global view of the network, in order to solve the TCP incast problems. When we detect network congestion on an OpenFlow switch, our controller can select the background flows and reduce their bandwidth by adjusting the advertised window of TCP ACK packets of the corresponding background flows so as to reserve more bandwidth for burst flows. SDTCP is transparent to the end systems and can accurately decelerate the rate of background flows by leveraging the global view of the network gained via SDN. The experiments demonstrate that our SDTCP can provide high tolerance for burst flows and achieve better flow completion time for short flows. Therefore, SDTCP is an effective and scalable solution for the TCP incast problem. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Smart Pipe System for a Shipyard 4.0
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2186; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122186
Received: 31 October 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 15 December 2016 / Published: 20 December 2016
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (12407 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As a result of the progressive implantation of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, many industries are experimenting a revolution that shipyards cannot ignore. Therefore, the application of the principles of Industry 4.0 to shipyards are leading to the creation of Shipyards 4.0. Due to [...] Read more.
As a result of the progressive implantation of the Industry 4.0 paradigm, many industries are experimenting a revolution that shipyards cannot ignore. Therefore, the application of the principles of Industry 4.0 to shipyards are leading to the creation of Shipyards 4.0. Due to this, Navantia, one of the 10 largest shipbuilders in the world, is updating its whole inner workings to keep up with the near-future challenges that a Shipyard 4.0 will have to face. Such challenges can be divided into three groups: the vertical integration of production systems, the horizontal integration of a new generation of value creation networks, and the re-engineering of the entire production chain, making changes that affect the entire life cycle of each piece of a ship. Pipes, which exist in a huge number and varied typology on a ship, are one of the key pieces, and its monitoring constitutes a prospective cyber-physical system. Their improved identification, traceability, and indoor location, from production and through their life, can enhance shipyard productivity and safety. In order to perform such tasks, this article first conducts a thorough analysis of the shipyard environment. From this analysis, the essential hardware and software technical requirements are determined. Next, the concept of smart pipe is presented and defined as an object able to transmit signals periodically that allows for providing enhanced services in a shipyard. In order to build a smart pipe system, different technologies are selected and evaluated, concluding that passive and active RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) are currently the most appropriate technologies to create it. Furthermore, some promising indoor positioning results obtained in a pipe workshop are presented, showing that multi-antenna algorithms and Kalman filtering can help to stabilize Received Signal Strength (RSS) and improve the overall accuracy of the system. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Secure Distributed Detection under Energy Constraint in IoT-Oriented Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122152
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 1 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 16 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in [...] Read more.
We study the secure distributed detection problems under energy constraint for IoT-oriented sensor networks. The conventional channel-aware encryption (CAE) is an efficient physical-layer secure distributed detection scheme in light of its energy efficiency, good scalability and robustness over diverse eavesdropping scenarios. However, in the CAE scheme, it remains an open problem of how to optimize the key thresholds for the estimated channel gain, which are used to determine the sensor’s reporting action. Moreover, the CAE scheme does not jointly consider the accuracy of local detection results in determining whether to stay dormant for a sensor. To solve these problems, we first analyze the error probability and derive the optimal thresholds in the CAE scheme under a specified energy constraint. These results build a convenient mathematic framework for our further innovative design. Under this framework, we propose a hybrid secure distributed detection scheme. Our proposal can satisfy the energy constraint by keeping some sensors inactive according to the local detection confidence level, which is characterized by likelihood ratio. In the meanwhile, the security is guaranteed through randomly flipping the local decisions forwarded to the fusion center based on the channel amplitude. We further optimize the key parameters of our hybrid scheme, including two local decision thresholds and one channel comparison threshold. Performance evaluation results demonstrate that our hybrid scheme outperforms the CAE under stringent energy constraints, especially in the high signal-to-noise ratio scenario, while the security is still assured. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Development and Characterization a Single-Active-Chamber Piezoelectric Membrane Pump with Multiple Passive Check Valves
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2108; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122108
Received: 26 September 2016 / Revised: 23 November 2016 / Accepted: 5 December 2016 / Published: 12 December 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (2343 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to prevent the backward flow of piezoelectric pumps, this paper presents a single-active-chamber piezoelectric membrane pump with multiple passive check valves. Under the condition of a fixed total number of passive check valves, by means of changing the inlet valves and [...] Read more.
In order to prevent the backward flow of piezoelectric pumps, this paper presents a single-active-chamber piezoelectric membrane pump with multiple passive check valves. Under the condition of a fixed total number of passive check valves, by means of changing the inlet valves and outlet valves’ configuration, the pumping characteristics in terms of flow rate and backpressure are experimentally investigated. Like the maximum flow rate and backpressure, the testing results show that the optimal frequencies are significantly affected by changes in the number inlet valves and outlet valves. The variation ratios of the maximum flow rate and the maximum backpressure are up to 66% and less than 20%, respectively. Furthermore, the piezoelectric pump generally demonstrates very similar flow rate and backpressure characteristics when the number of inlet valves in one kind of configuration is the same as that of outlet valves in another configuration. The comparison indicates that the backflow from the pumping chamber to inlet is basically the same as the backflow from the outlet to the pumping chamber. No matter whether the number of inlet valves or the number of outlet valves is increased, the backflow can be effectively reduced. In addition, the backpressure fluctuation can be significantly suppressed with an increase of either inlet valves or outlet valves. It also means that the pump can prevent the backflow more effectively at the cost of power consumption. The pump is very suitable for conditions where more accurate flow rates are needed and wear and fatigue of check valves often occur. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2032; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16122032
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (3048 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use [...] Read more.
Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP) strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Service Demand Discovery Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1982; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111982
Received: 12 October 2016 / Revised: 16 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2031 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the last few years, the service demand for wireless data over mobile networks has continually been soaring at a rapid pace. Thereinto, in Mobile Social Networks (MSNs), users can discover adjacent users for establishing temporary local connection and thus sharing already downloaded [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the service demand for wireless data over mobile networks has continually been soaring at a rapid pace. Thereinto, in Mobile Social Networks (MSNs), users can discover adjacent users for establishing temporary local connection and thus sharing already downloaded contents with each other to offload the service demand. Due to the partitioned topology, intermittent connection and social feature in such a network, the service demand discovery is challenging. In particular, the service demand discovery is exploited to identify the best relay user through the service registration, service selection and service activation. In order to maximize the utilization of limited network resources, a hybrid service demand discovery architecture, such as a Virtual Dictionary User (VDU) is proposed in this paper. Based on the historical data of movement, users can discover their relationships with others. Subsequently, according to the users activity, VDU is selected to facilitate the service registration procedure. Further, the service information outside of a home community can be obtained through the Global Active User (GAU) to support the service selection. To provide the Quality of Service (QoS), the Service Providing User (SPU) is chosen among multiple candidates. Numerical results show that, when compared with other classical service algorithms, the proposed scheme can improve the successful service demand discovery ratio by 25% under reduced overheads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Testbed to Evaluate the FIWARE-Based IoT Platform in the Domain of Precision Agriculture
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1979; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111979
Received: 28 September 2016 / Revised: 11 November 2016 / Accepted: 18 November 2016 / Published: 23 November 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1290 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent one of the most promising technologies for precision farming. Over the next few years, a significant increase in the use of such systems on commercial farms is expected. WSNs present a number of problems, regarding scalability, interoperability, communications, [...] Read more.
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) represent one of the most promising technologies for precision farming. Over the next few years, a significant increase in the use of such systems on commercial farms is expected. WSNs present a number of problems, regarding scalability, interoperability, communications, connectivity with databases and data processing. Different Internet of Things middleware is appearing to overcome these challenges. This paper checks whether one of these middleware, FIWARE, is suitable for the development of agricultural applications. To the authors’ knowledge, there are no works that show how to use FIWARE in precision agriculture and study its appropriateness, its scalability and its efficiency for this kind of applications. To do this, a testbed has been designed and implemented to simulate different deployments and load conditions. The testbed is a typical FIWARE application, complete, yet simple and comprehensible enough to show the main features and components of FIWARE, as well as the complexity of using this technology. Although the testbed has been deployed in a laboratory environment, its design is based on the analysis of an Internet of Things use case scenario in the domain of precision agriculture. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Reference Model for Monitoring IoT WSN-Based Applications
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111816
Received: 25 July 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 27 October 2016 / Published: 30 October 2016
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (1788 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is, at this moment, one of the most promising technologies that has arisen for decades. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the main pillars for many IoT applications, insofar as they require to obtain context-awareness information. The [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is, at this moment, one of the most promising technologies that has arisen for decades. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are one of the main pillars for many IoT applications, insofar as they require to obtain context-awareness information. The bibliography shows many difficulties in their real implementation that have prevented its massive deployment. Additionally, in IoT environments where data producers and data consumers are not directly related, compatibility and certification issues become fundamental. Both problems would profit from accurate knowledge of the internal behavior of WSNs that must be obtained by the utilization of appropriate tools. There are many ad-hoc proposals with no common structure or methodology, and intended to monitor a particular WSN. To overcome this problem, this paper proposes a structured three-layer reference model for WSN Monitoring Platforms (WSN-MP), which offers a standard environment for the design of new monitoring platforms to debug, verify and certify a WSN’s behavior and performance, and applicable to every WSN. This model also allows the comparative analysis of the current proposals for monitoring the operation of WSNs. Following this methodology, it is possible to achieve a standardization of WSN-MP, promoting new research areas in order to solve the problems of each layer. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sensor Location Problem Optimization for Traffic Network with Different Spatial Distributions of Traffic Information
Sensors 2016, 16(11), 1790; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16111790
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 13 October 2016 / Accepted: 23 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3514 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management [...] Read more.
To obtain adequate traffic information, the density of traffic sensors should be sufficiently high to cover the entire transportation network. However, deploying sensors densely over the entire network may not be realistic for practical applications due to the budgetary constraints of traffic management agencies. This paper describes several possible spatial distributions of traffic information credibility and proposes corresponding different sensor information credibility functions to describe these spatial distribution properties. A maximum benefit model and its simplified model are proposed to solve the traffic sensor location problem. The relationships between the benefit and the number of sensors are formulated with different sensor information credibility functions. Next, expanding models and algorithms in analytic results are performed. For each case, the maximum benefit, the optimal number and spacing of sensors are obtained and the analytic formulations of the optimal sensor locations are derived as well. Finally, a numerical example is proposed to verify the validity and availability of the proposed models for solving a network sensor location problem. The results show that the optimal number of sensors of segments with different model parameters in an entire freeway network can be calculated. Besides, it can also be concluded that the optimal sensor spacing is independent of end restrictions but dependent on the values of model parameters that represent the physical conditions of sensors and roads. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Power-Saving Method for Wi-Fi Direct Based IoT Networks Considering Variable-Bit-Rate Video Traffic
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1680; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101680
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 21 September 2016 / Accepted: 6 October 2016 / Published: 12 October 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (821 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized [...] Read more.
With the arrival of the era of Internet of Things (IoT), Wi-Fi Direct is becoming an emerging wireless technology that allows one to communicate through a direct connection between the mobile devices anytime, anywhere. In Wi-Fi Direct-based IoT networks, all devices are categorized by group of owner (GO) and client. Since portability is emphasized in Wi-Fi Direct devices, it is essential to control the energy consumption of a device very efficiently. In order to avoid unnecessary power consumed by GO, Wi-Fi Direct standard defines two power-saving methods: Opportunistic and Notice of Absence (NoA) power-saving methods. In this paper, we suggest an algorithm to enhance the energy efficiency of Wi-Fi Direct power-saving, considering the characteristics of multimedia video traffic. Proposed algorithm utilizes the statistical distribution for the size of video frames and adjusts the lengths of awake intervals in a beacon interval dynamically. In addition, considering the inter-dependency among video frames, the proposed algorithm ensures that a video frame having high priority is transmitted with higher probability than other frames having low priority. Simulation results show that the proposed method outperforms the traditional NoA method in terms of average delay and energy efficiency. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
A Study of LoRa: Long Range & Low Power Networks for the Internet of Things
Sensors 2016, 16(9), 1466; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16091466
Received: 20 May 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 1 September 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 178 | PDF Full-text (2368 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay [...] Read more.
LoRa is a long-range, low-power, low-bitrate, wireless telecommunications system, promoted as an infrastructure solution for the Internet of Things: end-devices use LoRa across a single wireless hop to communicate to gateway(s), connected to the Internet and which act as transparent bridges and relay messages between these end-devices and a central network server. This paper provides an overview of LoRa and an in-depth analysis of its functional components. The physical and data link layer performance is evaluated by field tests and simulations. Based on the analysis and evaluations, some possible solutions for performance enhancements are proposed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
CS2-Collector: A New Approach for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Two-Dimensional Compressive Sensing
Sensors 2016, 16(8), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16081318
Received: 28 June 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 15 August 2016 / Published: 19 August 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we consider the problem of reconstructing the temporal and spatial profile of some physical phenomena monitored by large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an energy efficient manner. Compressive sensing is one of the popular choices to reduce the energy consumption [...] Read more.
In this paper, we consider the problem of reconstructing the temporal and spatial profile of some physical phenomena monitored by large-scale Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in an energy efficient manner. Compressive sensing is one of the popular choices to reduce the energy consumption of the data collection in WSNs. The existing solutions only consider sparsity of sensors’ data from either temporal or spatial dimensions. In this paper, we propose a novel data collection strategy, CS2-collector, for WSNs based on the theory of Two Dimensional Compressive Sensing (2DCS). It exploits both temporal and spatial sparsity, i.e., 2D-sparsity of WSNs and achieves significant gain on the tradeoff between the compression ratio and reconstruction accuracy as the numerical simulations and evaluations on different types of sensors’ data. More intuitively, with the same given energy budget, CS2-collector provides significantly more accurate reconstruction of the profile of the physical phenomena that are temporal-spatially sparse. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exploiting Outage and Error Probability of Cooperative Incremental Relaying in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16071076
Received: 18 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 12 July 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (564 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three [...] Read more.
This paper embeds a bi-fold contribution for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs); performance analysis of incremental relaying in terms of outage and error probability, and based on the analysis proposition of two new cooperative routing protocols. Subject to the first contribution, a three step procedure is carried out; a system model is presented, the number of available relays are determined, and based on cooperative incremental retransmission methodology, closed-form expressions for outage and error probability are derived. Subject to the second contribution, Adaptive Cooperation in Energy (ACE) efficient depth based routing and Enhanced-ACE (E-ACE) are presented. In the proposed model, feedback mechanism indicates success or failure of data transmission. If direct transmission is successful, there is no need for relaying by cooperative relay nodes. In case of failure, all the available relays retransmit the data one by one till the desired signal quality is achieved at destination. Simulation results show that the ACE and E-ACE significantly improves network performance, i.e., throughput, when compared with other incremental relaying protocols like Cooperative Automatic Repeat reQuest (CARQ). E-ACE and ACE achieve 69% and 63% more throughput respectively as compared to CARQ in hard underwater environment. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Design of Miniaturized Dual-Band Microstrip Antenna for WLAN Application
Sensors 2016, 16(7), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16070983
Received: 9 April 2016 / Revised: 14 June 2016 / Accepted: 22 June 2016 / Published: 27 June 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (1085 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless local area network (WLAN) is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands in the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band can be used in the WLAN environment. Because of the development of [...] Read more.
Wireless local area network (WLAN) is a technology that combines computer network with wireless communication technology. The 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz frequency bands in the Industrial Scientific Medical (ISM) band can be used in the WLAN environment. Because of the development of wireless communication technology and the use of the frequency bands without the need for authorization, the application of WLAN is becoming more and more extensive. As the key part of the WLAN system, the antenna must also be adapted to the development of WLAN communication technology. This paper designs two new dual-frequency microstrip antennas with the use of electromagnetic simulation software—High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS). The two antennas adopt ordinary FR4 material as a dielectric substrate, with the advantages of low cost and small size. The first antenna adopts microstrip line feeding, and the antenna radiation patch is composed of a folded T-shaped radiating dipole which reduces the antenna size, and two symmetrical rectangular patches located on both sides of the T-shaped radiating patch. The second antenna is a microstrip patch antenna fed by coaxial line, and the size of the antenna is diminished by opening a stepped groove on the two edges of the patch and a folded slot inside the patch. Simulation experiments prove that the two designed antennas have a higher gain and a favourable transmission characteristic in the working frequency range, which is in accordance with the requirements of WLAN communication. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Towards Stochastic Optimization-Based Electric Vehicle Penetration in a Novel Archipelago Microgrid
Sensors 2016, 16(6), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16060907
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (545 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the advantage of avoiding upstream disturbance and voltage fluctuation from a power transmission system, Islanded Micro-Grids (IMG) have attracted much attention. In this paper, we first propose a novel self-sufficient Cyber-Physical System (CPS) supported by Internet of Things (IoT) techniques, namely [...] Read more.
Due to the advantage of avoiding upstream disturbance and voltage fluctuation from a power transmission system, Islanded Micro-Grids (IMG) have attracted much attention. In this paper, we first propose a novel self-sufficient Cyber-Physical System (CPS) supported by Internet of Things (IoT) techniques, namely “archipelago micro-grid (MG)”, which integrates the power grid and sensor networks to make the grid operation effective and is comprised of multiple MGs while disconnected with the utility grid. The Electric Vehicles (EVs) are used to replace a portion of Conventional Vehicles (CVs) to reduce CO 2 emission and operation cost. Nonetheless, the intermittent nature and uncertainty of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) remain a challenging issue in managing energy resources in the system. To address these issues, we formalize the optimal EV penetration problem as a two-stage Stochastic Optimal Penetration (SOP) model, which aims to minimize the emission and operation cost in the system. Uncertainties coming from RESs (e.g., wind, solar, and load demand) are considered in the stochastic model and random parameters to represent those uncertainties are captured by the Monte Carlo-based method. To enable the reasonable deployment of EVs in each MGs, we develop two scheduling schemes, namely Unlimited Coordinated Scheme (UCS) and Limited Coordinated Scheme (LCS), respectively. An extensive simulation study based on a modified 9 bus system with three MGs has been carried out to show the effectiveness of our proposed schemes. The evaluation data indicates that our proposed strategy can reduce both the environmental pollution created by CO 2 emissions and operation costs in UCS and LCS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Integrated Simulation Module for Cyber-Physical Automation Systems
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 645; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050645
Received: 24 March 2016 / Revised: 29 April 2016 / Accepted: 30 April 2016 / Published: 5 May 2016
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (3094 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators [...] Read more.
The integration of Wireless Sensors Networks (WSNs) into Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs) is an important research problem to solve in order to increase the performances, safety, reliability and usability of wireless automation systems. Due to the complexity of real CPSs, emulators and simulators are often used to replace the real control devices and physical connections during the development stage. The most widespread simulators are free, open source, expandable, flexible and fully integrated into mathematical modeling tools; however, the connection at a physical level and the direct interaction with the real process via the WSN are only marginally tackled; moreover, the simulated wireless sensor motes are not able to generate the analogue output typically required for control purposes. A new simulation module for the control of a wireless cyber-physical system is proposed in this paper. The module integrates the COntiki OS JAva Simulator (COOJA), a cross-level wireless sensor network simulator, and the LabVIEW system design software from National Instruments. The proposed software module has been called “GILOO” (Graphical Integration of Labview and cOOja). It allows one to develop and to debug control strategies over the WSN both using virtual or real hardware modules, such as the National Instruments Real-Time Module platform, the CompactRio, the Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA), etc. To test the proposed solution, we decided to integrate it with one of the most popular simulators, i.e., the Contiki OS, and wireless motes, i.e., the Sky mote. As a further contribution, the Contiki Sky DAC driver and a new “Advanced Sky GUI” have been proposed and tested in the COOJA Simulator in order to provide the possibility to develop control over the WSN. To test the performances of the proposed GILOO software module, several experimental tests have been made, and interesting preliminary results are reported. The GILOO module has been applied to a smart home mock-up where a networked control has been developed for the LED lighting system. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety
Sensors 2016, 16(10), 1644; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16101644
Received: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 5 October 2016
Cited by 48 | PDF Full-text (4836 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey [...] Read more.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is undeniably transforming the way that organizations communicate and organize everyday businesses and industrial procedures. Its adoption has proven well suited for sectors that manage a large number of assets and coordinate complex and distributed processes. This survey analyzes the great potential for applying IoT technologies (i.e., data-driven applications or embedded automation and intelligent adaptive systems) to revolutionize modern warfare and provide benefits similar to those in industry. It identifies scenarios where Defense and Public Safety (PS) could leverage better commercial IoT capabilities to deliver greater survivability to the warfighter or first responders, while reducing costs and increasing operation efficiency and effectiveness. This article reviews the main tactical requirements and the architecture, examining gaps and shortcomings in existing IoT systems across the military field and mission-critical scenarios. The review characterizes the open challenges for a broad deployment and presents a research roadmap for enabling an affordable IoT for defense and PS. Full article
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