Next Article in Journal
Dielectrically-Loaded Cylindrical Resonator-Based Wireless Passive High-Temperature Sensor
Next Article in Special Issue
Development and Characterization a Single-Active-Chamber Piezoelectric Membrane Pump with Multiple Passive Check Valves
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of a Tracking System for Patients and Mixed Intravenous Medication Based on RFID Technology
Previous Article in Special Issue
Service Demand Discovery Mechanism for Mobile Social Networks
Open AccessArticle

A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels

1,2,†, 1,*, 1,3,†, 4,† and 1,†
School of Software, Central South University, Changsha 410075, China
Hunan Vocational College of Security Technology, Changsha 410151, China
Computer Science Department, Missouri State University, Springfield, MO 65897, USA
Department of Engineering, Jacksonville University, 2800 University Blvd N, Jacksonville, FL 32211, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editors: Dongkyun Kim, Houbing Song, Juan-Carlos Cano, Wei Wang, Waleed Ejaz and Qinghe Du
Sensors 2016, 16(12), 2032;
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 12 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 30 November 2016
PDF [3048 KB, uploaded 30 November 2016]


Traditional underground coalmine monitoring systems are mainly based on the use of wired transmission. However, when cables are damaged during an accident, it is difficult to obtain relevant data on environmental parameters and the emergency situation underground. To address this problem, the use of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) has been proposed. However, the shape of coalmine tunnels is not conducive to the deployment of WSNs as they are long and narrow. Therefore, issues with the network arise, such as extremely large energy consumption, very weak connectivity, long time delays, and a short lifetime. To solve these problems, in this study, a new routing protocol algorithm for multisink WSNs based on transmission power control is proposed. First, a transmission power control algorithm is used to negotiate the optimal communication radius and transmission power of each sink. Second, the non-uniform clustering idea is adopted to optimize the cluster head selection. Simulation results are subsequently compared to the Centroid of the Nodes in a Partition (CNP) strategy and show that the new algorithm delivers a good performance: power efficiency is increased by approximately 70%, connectivity is increased by approximately 15%, the cluster interference is diminished by approximately 50%, the network lifetime is increased by approximately 6%, and the delay is reduced with an increase in the number of sinks. View Full-Text
Keywords: multisink; power control; coalmine tunnels; routing protocol multisink; power control; coalmine tunnels; routing protocol

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xia, X.; Chen, Z.; Liu, H.; Wang, H.; Zeng, F. A Routing Protocol for Multisink Wireless Sensor Networks in Underground Coalmine Tunnels. Sensors 2016, 16, 2032.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Sensors EISSN 1424-8220 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top