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Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Wearables".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (29 February 2024) | Viewed by 27307

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
LifeSTech Group, Tecnología Fotónica y Bioingeniería Dep, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: ehealth; einclusion; human computer interaction; accessibility
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LifeSTech Group, Tecnología Fotónica y Bioingeniería Dep, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: personalized health; ubiquitous computing; mobile healthcare; integrated care
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
LifeSTech Group, Tecnología Fotónica y Bioingeniería Dep, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: active and healthy ageing; smart workspaces; human machine interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The Internet of Things (IoT), sensors networks and wearables are already everywhere, transforming our lives, even when we are not totally aware that the device that we are using is part of the IoT ecosystem. Home automation, eHealth, disaster management, security systems, smart cars, process automation, and farming are only some of the common domains that have definitively changed with the use and application of these technologies.

These technologies are revolutionizing some aspects of our lives; they have created an unprecedented network, which is connecting devices, individuals, data and services; meanwhile, they have brought previously unseen challenges, including 1) new user experiences and human-machine interactions and collaboration; 2) empowerment of final users and their need of technological literacy; 3) efficient, secure and safe data management; 4) new formats of data visualization.

In this Special Issue, we invite original research papers aiming to promote novel and innovative applications and services that take advantage of IoT technologies to solve or improve activities of daily living in any domain. We are also interested in investigations of the impact of these IoT-based services in different aspects of our daily life, such as wellbeing, social relationships, workability, leisure and sustainability.

Dr. Maria Fernanda Cabrera-Umpiérrez
Dr. Maria Teresa Arredondo Waldmeyer
Dr. Patricia Abril Jiménez
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • smart applications
  • wearables
  • data fusion
  • data analytics and visualization
  • support systems
  • sensors networks
  • machine learning

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

31 pages, 1050 KiB  
Article
Electronic Design for Wearables Devices Addressed from a Gender Perspective: Cross-Influences and a Methodological Proposal
by Elena Romero-Perales, Clara Sainz-de-Baranda Andujar and Celia López-Ongil
Sensors 2023, 23(12), 5483; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23125483 - 10 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1244
Abstract
The design of wearable devices has been approached from many perspectives over the years, mainly from a functionality, electronics, mechanics, usability, wearability, or product design perspective. However, there is a missing point in these approaches: the gender perspective. Gender intersects with every approach [...] Read more.
The design of wearable devices has been approached from many perspectives over the years, mainly from a functionality, electronics, mechanics, usability, wearability, or product design perspective. However, there is a missing point in these approaches: the gender perspective. Gender intersects with every approach and, considering the interrelationships and dependencies, can achieve a better adherence, reach a wider audience, and even change the conception of the wearables design paradigm. The electronics design addressed from a gender perspective must consider both the morphological and anatomical impacts and those emanating from socialization. This paper presents an analysis of the different factors to consider when designing the electronics of a wearable device, including the functionality to implement, sensors, communications, or the location, together with their interdependencies, and proposes a user-centered methodology that contemplates a gender perspective at every stage. Finally, we present a use case that validates the proposed methodology in a real design of a wearable device for the prevention of gender-based violence cases. For the application of the methodology, 59 experts have been interviewed, 300 verbatims have been extracted and analyzed, a dataset from the data of 100 women has been created and the wearable devices have been tested for a week by 15 users. The electronics design needs to be addressed from a multidisciplinary approach, by rethinking the decisions taken for granted and analyzing the implications and interrelationships from a gender perspective. We need to enroll more diverse people at every design stage and include gender as one of the variables to study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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13 pages, 1658 KiB  
Article
Evaluating IoT-Based Services to Support Patient Empowerment in Digital Home Hospitalization Services
by Patricia Abril-Jiménez, Beatriz Merino-Barbancho, Giuseppe Fico, Juan Carlos Martín Guirado, Cecilia Vera-Muñoz, Irene Mallo, Ivana Lombroni, María Fernanda Cabrera Umpierrez and María Teresa Arredondo Waldmeyer
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/s23031744 - 3 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2042
Abstract
Hospitals need to optimize patient care, as, among other factors, life expectancy has increased due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and medicines. Hospitalization-at-home (HaH) could increase admission efficiency, moderate costs, and reduce the demand for beds. This study aimed to provide data on [...] Read more.
Hospitals need to optimize patient care, as, among other factors, life expectancy has increased due to improvements in sanitation, nutrition, and medicines. Hospitalization-at-home (HaH) could increase admission efficiency, moderate costs, and reduce the demand for beds. This study aimed to provide data on the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of the integration of IoT-based technology to support the remote monitoring and follow-up of patients admitted to HaH units, as well as the acceptability of IoT-based solutions in healthcare processes. The need for a reduction in the number of admission days, the percentage of admissions after discharge, and the actions of the emergency services during admission were the most relevant findings of this study. Furthermore, in terms of patient safety and trust perception, 98% of patients preferred this type of digitally-supported hospitalization model and up to 95% were very satisfied. On the professional side, the results showed a reduction in work overload and an increase in trust when the system was adopted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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38 pages, 17483 KiB  
Article
Morphological Configuration of Sensory Biomedical Receptors Based on Structures Integrated by Electric Circuits and Utilizing Magnetic-Responsive Hybrid Fluid (HF)
by Kunio Shimada
Sensors 2022, 22(24), 9952; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22249952 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
Biomedical receptors such as cutaneous receptors or intelligent cells with tactile, auditory, gustatory, and olfactory sensations function in the five senses of the human body. Investigations focusing on the configuration of such receptors are useful in the fields of robotics and sensors in [...] Read more.
Biomedical receptors such as cutaneous receptors or intelligent cells with tactile, auditory, gustatory, and olfactory sensations function in the five senses of the human body. Investigations focusing on the configuration of such receptors are useful in the fields of robotics and sensors in the food industry, among others, which involve artificial organs or sensory machines. In the present study, we aimed to produce the receptors for four senses (excepting vision) by morphologically mimicking virtual human ones. The mimicked receptors were categorized into eight types of configured structure. Our proposed magnetic-responsive hybrid fluid (HF) in elastic and soft rubber and proposed electrolytic polymerization technique gave the solidified HF rubber electric characteristics of piezoelectricity and piezo-capacity, among others. On the basis of these electric characteristics, the mimicked receptors were configured in various types of electric circuits. Through experimental estimation of mechanical force, vibration, thermal, auditory, gustatory, and olfactory responses of each receptor, the optimum function of each was specified by comparison with the actual sensations of the receptors. The effect of hairs fabricated in the receptors was also clarified to viably reproduce the distinctive functions of these sensations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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18 pages, 2391 KiB  
Article
Perception Accuracy of a Multi-Channel Tactile Feedback System for Assistive Technology
by György Wersényi
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8962; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228962 - 19 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Assistive technology uses multi-modal feedback devices, focusing on the visual, auditory, and haptic modalities. Tactile devices provide additional information via touch sense. Perception accuracy of vibrations depends on the spectral and temporal attributes of the signal, as well as on the body parts [...] Read more.
Assistive technology uses multi-modal feedback devices, focusing on the visual, auditory, and haptic modalities. Tactile devices provide additional information via touch sense. Perception accuracy of vibrations depends on the spectral and temporal attributes of the signal, as well as on the body parts they are attached to. The widespread use of AR/VR devices, wearables, and gaming interfaces requires information about the usability of feedback devices. This paper presents results of an experiment using an 8-channel tactile feedback system with vibrators placed on the wrists, arms, ankles, and forehead. Different vibration patterns were designed and presented using sinusoidal frequency bursts on 2, 4, and 8 channels. In total, 27 subjects reported their sensation formally and informally on questionnaires. Results indicate that 2 and 4 channels could be used simultaneously with high accuracy, and the transducers’ optimal placement (best sensitivity) is on the wrists, followed by the ankles. Arm and head positions were inferior and generally inadequate for signal presentation. For optimal performance, signal length should exceed 500 ms. Furthermore, the amplitude level and temporal pattern of the presented signals have to be used for carrying information rather than the frequency of the vibration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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20 pages, 5191 KiB  
Article
IoT Enabled Intelligent Stick for Visually Impaired People for Obstacle Recognition
by Muhammad Siddique Farooq, Imran Shafi, Harris Khan, Isabel De La Torre Díez, Jose Breñosa, Julio César Martínez Espinosa and Imran Ashraf
Sensors 2022, 22(22), 8914; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22228914 - 18 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 12851
Abstract
This paper presents the design, development, and testing of an IoT-enabled smart stick for visually impaired people to navigate the outside environment with the ability to detect and warn about obstacles. The proposed design employs ultrasonic sensors for obstacle detection, a water sensor [...] Read more.
This paper presents the design, development, and testing of an IoT-enabled smart stick for visually impaired people to navigate the outside environment with the ability to detect and warn about obstacles. The proposed design employs ultrasonic sensors for obstacle detection, a water sensor for sensing the puddles and wet surfaces in the user’s path, and a high-definition video camera integrated with object recognition. Furthermore, the user is signaled about various hindrances and objects using voice feedback through earphones after accurately detecting and identifying objects. The proposed smart stick has two modes; one uses ultrasonic sensors for detection and feedback through vibration motors to inform about the direction of the obstacle, and the second mode is the detection and recognition of obstacles and providing voice feedback. The proposed system allows for switching between the two modes depending on the environment and personal preference. Moreover, the latitude/longitude values of the user are captured and uploaded to the IoT platform for effective tracking via global positioning system (GPS)/global system for mobile communication (GSM) modules, which enable the live location of the user/stick to be monitored on the IoT dashboard. A panic button is also provided for emergency assistance by generating a request signal in the form of an SMS containing a Google maps link generated with latitude and longitude coordinates and sent through an IoT-enabled environment. The smart stick has been designed to be lightweight, waterproof, size adjustable, and has long battery life. The overall design ensures energy efficiency, portability, stability, ease of access, and robust features. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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18 pages, 6626 KiB  
Article
A Low-Cost Foot-Placed UWB and IMU Fusion-Based Indoor Pedestrian Tracking System for IoT Applications
by Khawar Naheem and Mun Sang Kim
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8160; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218160 - 25 Oct 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3787
Abstract
Among existing wireless and wearable indoor pedestrian tracking solutions, the ultra-wideband (UWB) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors are the popular options due to their accurate and globally referenced positioning, and low-cost and compact size, respectively. However, the UWB position accuracy is compromised [...] Read more.
Among existing wireless and wearable indoor pedestrian tracking solutions, the ultra-wideband (UWB) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors are the popular options due to their accurate and globally referenced positioning, and low-cost and compact size, respectively. However, the UWB position accuracy is compromised by the indoor non-line of sight (NLOS) and the IMU estimation suffers from orientation drift as well as requiring position initialization. To overcome these limitations, this paper proposes a low-cost foot-placed UWB and IMU fusion-based indoor pedestrian tracking system. Our data fusion model is an improved loosely coupled Kalman filter with the inclusion of valid UWB observation detection. In this manner, the proposed system not only adjusts the consumer-grade IMU’s accumulated drift but also filters out any NLOS instances in the UWB observation. We validated the performance of the proposed system with two experimental scenarios in a complex indoor environment. The root mean square (RMS) positioning accuracy of our data fusion model is enhanced by 60%, 53%, and 27% compared to that of the IMU-based pedestrian dead reckoning, raw UWB position, and conventional fusion model, respectively, in the single-lap NLOS scenario, and by 70%, 34%, and 12%, respectively, in the multi-lap LOS+NLOS scenario. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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19 pages, 671 KiB  
Article
Activity-Free User Identification Using Wearables Based on Vision Techniques
by Alejandro Sanchez Guinea, Simon Heinrich and Max Mühlhäuser
Sensors 2022, 22(19), 7368; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22197368 - 28 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1334
Abstract
In order to achieve the promise of smart spaces where the environment acts to fulfill the needs of users in an unobtrusive and personalized manner, it is necessary to provide means for a seamless and continuous identification of users to know who indeed [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the promise of smart spaces where the environment acts to fulfill the needs of users in an unobtrusive and personalized manner, it is necessary to provide means for a seamless and continuous identification of users to know who indeed is interacting with the system and to whom the smart services are to be provided. In this paper, we propose a new approach capable of performing activity-free identification of users based on hand and arm motion patterns obtained from an wrist-worn inertial measurement unit (IMU). Our approach is not constrained to particular types of movements, gestures, or activities, thus, allowing users to perform freely and unconstrained their daily routine while the user identification takes place. We evaluate our approach based on IMU data collected from 23 people performing their daily routines unconstrained. Our results indicate that our approach is able to perform activity-free user identification with an accuracy of 0.9485 for 23 users without requiring any direct input or specific action from users. Furthermore, our evaluation provides evidence regarding the robustness of our approach in various different configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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17 pages, 8720 KiB  
Article
Artificial Tongue Embedded with Conceptual Receptor for Rubber Gustatory Sensor by Electrolytic Polymerization Technique with Utilizing Hybrid Fluid (HF)
by Kunio Shimada
Sensors 2022, 22(18), 6979; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22186979 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1605
Abstract
The development of gustatory sensors is essential for the development of smart materials for use in robotics, and in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. We therefore designed a prototype of a rubber tongue embedded with a gustatory receptor mimicking a human tongue [...] Read more.
The development of gustatory sensors is essential for the development of smart materials for use in robotics, and in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries. We therefore designed a prototype of a rubber tongue embedded with a gustatory receptor mimicking a human tongue using our previously proposed hybrid fluid rubber (HF rubber) and an electrolytic polymerization technique. The fabricated gustatory receptor was composed of Pacinian corpuscles, which are well known and have already been elucidated as effective haptic and auditory receptors in previous studies. Moreover, the receptor has self-powered voltage generated as built-in electricity as a result of the ionized particles and molecules in the HF rubber. The utilization of a layered structure for the Pacinian corpuscles induced a typical response not only to normal and shear forces but to thermal variations. Typical gustatory characteristics, including the initial response voltage and the cyclic voltammogram form, were clearly varied by five tastes: saltiness, sourness, sweetness, bitterness, and umami. These results were due to ORP, pH, and conductivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Sensors and IoT Devices Applied in Daily Life)
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