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Special Issue "Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Dipen N. Sinha
Website
Guest Editor
Materials Synthesis and Integrated Devices group (MPA-11), Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS D429, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA
Interests: ultrasonic based sensors; nonlinear acoustics; acoustically engineered materials; ultrasonic concentration and manipulation of particles; swept frequency acoustic interferometry; biomedical sensors and fluid characterization techniques
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Cristian Pantea
Website
Guest Editor
Materials Physics and Applications (MPA-11), Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544, USA
Interests: ultrasonic-based sensors and methods; ultrasonic pulse-echo; ultrasonic interferometry; nonlinear acoustic methods; swept-frequency acoustic interferometry (SFAI); resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS); high pressure–high temperature ultrasonic
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Ultrasonic sensors are widely used in a multitude of applications in diverse industrial and nonindustrial settings. This Special Issue aims to highlight advances in the modeling and development of novel sensors that go beyond ultrasonic with applications in a wide range of fields. A particular emphasis will be on combining sensing approaches and modalities that include multiple wave-based technologies into a single sensor. Topics include but are not limited to:

  • Novel materials that sense different types of excitation with the same material;
  • Sensors that combine response from any kind of waves (acoustic to electromagnetic);
  • Electroacoustic, magnetoacoustic, photoacoustic effects;
  • Nondestructive testing/material characterization;
  • Challenging environments: High/low temperature, pressure, radiation, corrosiveness;
  • Remote sensing;
  • Ultrasonic imaging and visualization;
  • Industrial applications (oil and gas, geothermal, automotive, etc.);
  • Physical acoustics (solids, liquids, and gases);
  • Medical and biomedical ultrasonic sensors.

Both review articles and original research papers in the field of ultrasonic sensors are solicited.

Dr. Dipen N. Sinha
Dr. Cristian Pantea
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Acoustic sensing
  • Acoustic signal processing
  • Acoustical instruments and techniques
  • Acoustic transduction
  • Structural acoustics
  • Bioacoustics
  • Doppler effect
  • Linear acoustics
  • Nonlinear acoustics
  • Underwater acoustics
  • Structural acoustics

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Ultrasonic Sensor Fusion Inverse Algorithm for Visually Impaired Aiding Applications
Sensors 2020, 20(13), 3682; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20133682 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
Depth mapping can be carried out by ultrasound measuring devices using the time of flight method. Ultrasound measurements are favorable in such environments, where the light or radio frequency measurements can not be applied due to the noise level, calculation complexity, reaction time, [...] Read more.
Depth mapping can be carried out by ultrasound measuring devices using the time of flight method. Ultrasound measurements are favorable in such environments, where the light or radio frequency measurements can not be applied due to the noise level, calculation complexity, reaction time, size and price of the device, accuracy or electromagnetic compatibility. It is also usual to apply and fusion ultrasound sensors with other types of sensors to increase the precision and reliability. In the case of visually impaired people, an echolocation based aid for determining the distance and the direction of obstacles in the surroundings can improve the life quality by giving the possibility to move alone and individually in unlearnt or rapidly changing environments. In the following considerations, a model system is presented which can provide rather reliable position and distance to multiple objects. The mathematical model based on the time of flight method with a correction: it uses the measured analog sensor signals, which represent the probability of the presence of an obstacle. The device consists of multiple receivers, but only one source. The sensor fusion algorithm for this setup and the results of indoor experiments are presented. The mathematical model allows the usage, processing, and fusion of the signals of up to an infinite number of sensors. In addition, the positions of the sensors can be arbitrary, and the mathematical model does not restrict them to be placed in regular formations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
An Ultrasonic Rheometer to Measure Gas Absorption in Ionic Liquids: Design, Calibration and Testing
Sensors 2020, 20(12), 3544; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20123544 - 23 Jun 2020
Abstract
The first goal of this study is to identify the ideal piezoelectric material for the manufacturing of rheological reflectance ultrasonic sensors. The second goal is to integrate the ultrasonic rheometer within a gas absorption reactor and to measure viscosity changes in an ionic [...] Read more.
The first goal of this study is to identify the ideal piezoelectric material for the manufacturing of rheological reflectance ultrasonic sensors. The second goal is to integrate the ultrasonic rheometer within a gas absorption reactor and to measure viscosity changes in an ionic liquid (IL) caused by gas absorption. To achieve the objectives, bismuth titanate, lead titanate, lead metaniobate and lead zirconate titanate materials in layer, tungsten bronze and perovskite structures were assembled on aluminum delay lines and tested under thermal cycling between room temperature and 150 °C. The results showed that lead metaniobate in tungsten bronze structure is the most suitable material for long time duration thermal cycling. Therefore, the ultrasonic rheometer was assembled using this material and installed in a pressurized reactor to test a reference IL at the operating conditions of 50 °C and at a pressure of 80 bar. The reference IL was saturated with nitrogen as well as hydrogen gas. Viscosity signals remained constant under the hydrogen atmosphere, while in nitrogen atmosphere the absorption of the gas lead to a rise in the value of viscosity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of an Accurate Resonant Frequency Controlled Wire Ultrasound Surgical Instrument
Sensors 2020, 20(11), 3059; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20113059 - 28 May 2020
Abstract
Our developed wire ultrasound surgical instrument comprises a bolt-clamped Langevin ultrasonic transducer (BLUT) fabricated by PMN-PZT single crystal material due to high mechanical quality factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient, a waveguide in the handheld instrument, and a generator instrument. To ensure high performance [...] Read more.
Our developed wire ultrasound surgical instrument comprises a bolt-clamped Langevin ultrasonic transducer (BLUT) fabricated by PMN-PZT single crystal material due to high mechanical quality factor and electromechanical coupling coefficient, a waveguide in the handheld instrument, and a generator instrument. To ensure high performance of wire ultrasound surgical instruments, the BLUT should vibrate at an accurate frequency because the BLUT’s frequency influences hemostasis and the effects of incisions on blood vessels and tissues. Therefore, we implemented a BLUT with a waveguide in the handheld instrument using a developed assembly jig process with impedance and network analyzers that can accurately control the compression force using a digital torque wrench. A generator instrument having a main control circuit with a low error rate, that is, an output frequency error rate within ±0.5% and an output voltage error rate within ±1.6%, was developed to generate the accurate frequency of the BLUT in the handheld instrument. In addition, a matching circuit between the BLUT and generator instrument with a network analyzer was developed to transfer displacement vibration efficiently from the handheld instrument to the end of the waveguide. Using the matching circuit, the measured S-parameter value of the generator instrument using a network analyzer was −24.3 dB at the resonant frequency. Thus, our proposed scheme can improve the vibration amplitude and accuracy of frequency control of the wire ultrasound surgical instrument due to developed PMN-PZT material and assembly jig process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Flexible Ultrasonic Transducer Array with Bulk PZT for Adjuvant Treatment of Bone Injury
Sensors 2020, 20(1), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20010086 - 22 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Flexible electronic devices are developing rapidly, especially in medical applications. This paper reports an arrayed flexible piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (FPMUT) with a sandwich structure for adjuvant treatment of bone injury. To make the device conformable and stretchable for attaching to the skin [...] Read more.
Flexible electronic devices are developing rapidly, especially in medical applications. This paper reports an arrayed flexible piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer (FPMUT) with a sandwich structure for adjuvant treatment of bone injury. To make the device conformable and stretchable for attaching to the skin surface, the flexible substrate of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was combined with the flexible metal line interconnection between the bulk lead zirconate titanate (PZT) arrays. Simulations and experiments were carried out to verify the resonant frequency and tensile property of the reported FPMUT device. The device had a resonant frequency of 321.15 KHz and a maximum sound pressure level (SPL) of 180.19 dB at the distance of 5 cm in water. In addition, detailed experiments were carried out to test its acoustic performance with different pork tissues, and the results indicated good ultrasound penetration. These findings confirm that the FPMUT shows unique advantages for adjuvant treatment of bone injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Sub-Bottom Profiler and Signal Processor
Sensors 2019, 19(22), 5052; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19225052 - 19 Nov 2019
Abstract
In this paper, we introduce a novel sub-bottom profiler, making good use of the Mills cross configuration of multibeam sonar and synthetic aperture techniques of the synthetic aperture sonar system. The receiver array is mounted along the ship keel, while the transmitter array [...] Read more.
In this paper, we introduce a novel sub-bottom profiler, making good use of the Mills cross configuration of multibeam sonar and synthetic aperture techniques of the synthetic aperture sonar system. The receiver array is mounted along the ship keel, while the transmitter array is mounted perpendicular to the receiver array. With the synthetic aperture technique, the along-track resolution can be greatly improved. The system often suffers from motion error, which severely degrades the imaging performance. To solve this problem, the imaging algorithm with motion compensation (MC) is proposed. With the presented method, the motion error is first estimated based on overlapped elements between successive pulses. Then, the echo data is processed by using the range migration algorithm based on the phase center approximation (PCA) method, which simultaneously performs the MC with the estimated motion error. In order to validate the proposed sub-bottom profiler and data processing method, some simulations and lake trial results are discussed. The processing results of the real data further indicate that the presented configuration has great potential to find buried objects in seabed sediments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Monitoring of Adult Zebrafish Heart Regeneration Using High-Frequency Ultrasound Spectral Doppler and Nakagami Imaging
Sensors 2019, 19(19), 4094; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19194094 - 22 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper reports the feasibility of Nakagami imaging in monitoring the regeneration process of zebrafish hearts in a noninvasive manner. In addition, spectral Doppler waveforms that are typically used to access the diastolic function were measured to validate the performance of Nakagami imaging. [...] Read more.
This paper reports the feasibility of Nakagami imaging in monitoring the regeneration process of zebrafish hearts in a noninvasive manner. In addition, spectral Doppler waveforms that are typically used to access the diastolic function were measured to validate the performance of Nakagami imaging. A 30-MHz high-frequency ultrasound array transducer was used to acquire backscattered echo signal for spectral Doppler and Nakagami imaging. The performances of both methods were validated with flow and tissue-mimicking phantom experiments. For in vivo experiments, both spectral Doppler and Nakagami imaging were simultaneously obtained from adult zebrafish with amputated hearts. Longitudinal measurements were performed for five zebrafish. From the experiments, the E/A ratio measured using spectral Doppler imaging increased at 3 days post-amputation (3 dpa) and then decreased to the value before amputation, which were consistent with previous studies. Similar results were obtained from the Nakagami imaging where the Nakagami parameter value increased at 3 dpa and decreased to its original value. These results suggested that the Nakagami and spectral Doppler imaging would be useful techniques in monitoring the regeneration of heart or tissues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Preliminary Research on the Nonlinear Ultrasonic Detection of the Porosity of Porous Material Based on Dynamic Wavelet Fingerprint Technology
Sensors 2019, 19(15), 3328; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19153328 - 29 Jul 2019
Abstract
Porosity is an important characteristic of porous material, which affects mechanical and material properties. In order to solve the problem that the large distribution range of pore size of porous materials leads to the large detection errors of porosity, the non-linear ultrasonic testing [...] Read more.
Porosity is an important characteristic of porous material, which affects mechanical and material properties. In order to solve the problem that the large distribution range of pore size of porous materials leads to the large detection errors of porosity, the non-linear ultrasonic testing technique is applied. A graphite composite was used as the experimental object in the study. As the accuracy of porosity is directly related with feature extraction, the dynamic wavelet fingerprint (DWFP) technology was utilized to extract the feature parameter of the ultrasonic signals. The effects of the wavelet function, scale factor, and white slice ratio on the extraction of the nonlinear feature are discussed. The SEM photos were conducted using gray value to identify the aperture. The relationship between pore diameter and detection accuracy was studied. Its results show that the DWFP technology could identify the second harmonic component well, and the extracted nonlinear feature could be used for the quantitative trait of porosity. The larger the proportion of the small diameter holes and the smaller the aperture distribution range was, the smaller the error was. This preliminary research aimed to improve the nondestructive testing accuracy of porosity and it is beneficial to the application of porous material in the manufacturing field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrasonic Sensors 2019–2020)
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