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Sensing Properties and Emotions: Engineering for the Intelligent and Sustainable Optimization of the Quality of Industrial Products

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Intelligent Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 December 2022) | Viewed by 21564
Please contact the Guest Editor or the Section Managing Editor at ([email protected]) for any queries.

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Design Engineering, Higher Polytechnic School, University of Seville, Virgen de Africa, 7, 41011 Sevilla, Spain
Interests: wireless sensor networks; engineering projects; machine learning; sustainability; products design; emotion detection; Kansei engineering; sensorization

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Guest Editor
Center for Automation and Robotics, Politechnic University of Madrid (UPM) and Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Ctra. Campo Real km 0,200 La Poveda, 28500 Madrid, Spain
Interests: cyber physical systems; internet of things; intelligent sensing and control; modeling supervision; intelligent systems; complex processes; Industry 4.0; Industry 5.0; power converter
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

New technological developments, hyperconnectivity, and the globalization of the economy present significant opportunities and challenges to today's economy. Industry must address these opportunities and challenges to evolve and position itself as a strong, competitive, and international benchmark sector.

Sensorization provides the opportunity to know all kinds of properties of the products that could be correlated with the opinions/emotions of users, which could also be sensorized.

The use of machine learning techniques makes it possible to link the perceived quality of products with the factors on which it depends. Consequently, products can be designed for numerous applications, such as to present the intended sentiment, create user profiles, and recommend products that optimize user satisfaction.

Therefore, this Special Issue is focused on optimizing environmental sustainability and perceived quality in product engineering projects using current machine learning techniques.

Articles that explore the relationship between the properties of a product or service with the perceived quality/perception/emotions of users are welcome.

Works that include databases of physicochemical variables (inputs, design parameters) and sensory variables (outputs, perceived sensations) in different sectors (transport, food, health, habitat, tourism, etc.) are especially valued.

Dr. Amalia Luque-Sendra
Dr. Rodolfo Haber
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • engineering projects
  • machine learning
  • sustainability
  • product design
  • emotion detection
  • Kansei engineering
  • sensorization

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 1366 KiB  
Article
Light-FER: A Lightweight Facial Emotion Recognition System on Edge Devices
by Alexander M. Pascual, Erick C. Valverde, Jeong-in Kim, Jin-Woo Jeong, Yuchul Jung, Sang-Ho Kim and Wansu Lim
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9524; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239524 - 6 Dec 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2653
Abstract
Facial emotion recognition (FER) systems are imperative in recent advanced artificial intelligence (AI) applications to realize better human–computer interactions. Most deep learning-based FER systems have issues with low accuracy and high resource requirements, especially when deployed on edge devices with limited computing resources [...] Read more.
Facial emotion recognition (FER) systems are imperative in recent advanced artificial intelligence (AI) applications to realize better human–computer interactions. Most deep learning-based FER systems have issues with low accuracy and high resource requirements, especially when deployed on edge devices with limited computing resources and memory. To tackle these problems, a lightweight FER system, called Light-FER, is proposed in this paper, which is obtained from the Xception model through model compression. First, pruning is performed during the network training to remove the less important connections within the architecture of Xception. Second, the model is quantized to half-precision format, which could significantly reduce its memory consumption. Third, different deep learning compilers performing several advanced optimization techniques are benchmarked to further accelerate the inference speed of the FER system. Lastly, to experimentally demonstrate the objectives of the proposed system on edge devices, Light-FER is deployed on NVIDIA Jetson Nano. Full article
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22 pages, 5526 KiB  
Article
Perception of Recycled Plastics for Improved Consumer Acceptance through Self-Reported and Physiological Measures
by Ainoa Abella, Pere Llorach-Massana, Alexandre Pereda-Baños, Lluís Marco-Almagro, Miguel Barreda-Ángeles and Laura Clèries
Sensors 2022, 22(23), 9226; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22239226 - 27 Nov 2022
Viewed by 2062
Abstract
This article aims to provide in-depth insight into how consumers perceive recycled materials in comparison with natural raw materials at both the perceptual and attitudinal levels. To this end, we combined classic self-reported measures of sensory aspects, preferences, environmental attitudes, and consumption habits [...] Read more.
This article aims to provide in-depth insight into how consumers perceive recycled materials in comparison with natural raw materials at both the perceptual and attitudinal levels. To this end, we combined classic self-reported measures of sensory aspects, preferences, environmental attitudes, and consumption habits together with physiological measures of cognitive–emotional processing. Three different materials—two recycled materials, M2 and M3, and one raw material, M1—were chosen for inspection through three different sensory conditions, which we refer to as channels —visual, tactile, and visuo-tactile. The assignation of materials to sensory channels was counterbalanced so that each participant evaluated only one of the materials per channel. Although participants in general were not very accurate in discriminating between the materials, self-reported sensory evaluations showed that M3 (a recycled material that is made to look non-recycled), was clearly less liked. Meanwhile, the psychophysiological analyses revealed higher levels of electrodermal activity for the tactile evaluations of both recycled materials (M2 and M3). Finally, the results from the attitudes and habits evaluations indicate that the participants had positive environmental attitudes yet poor consumption habits. Altogether, these results suggest that some sensorial properties differ between recycled materials and natural raw materials and that there is a chance to improve and implement new consumption habits. The implications of these results are further discussed both in terms of suggestions for designers and methodological recommendations for researchers. Full article
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21 pages, 3562 KiB  
Article
Total Design in the Design and Development Process of a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) with Particular Consideration of Sensorization
by Teresa Ramos, Antonio Córdoba, Amalia Luque and Ana de las Heras
Sensors 2022, 22(9), 3284; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22093284 - 25 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
This paper provides a methodological proposal for the design and development process of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The design core and product design specifications (PDS) of Pugh’s Total Design model are considered, with a focus on the early stages of the product [...] Read more.
This paper provides a methodological proposal for the design and development process of a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). The design core and product design specifications (PDS) of Pugh’s Total Design model are considered, with a focus on the early stages of the product design and development process. A modularization of the functional groups of an ROV is proposed, focusing attention on the sensor system. The main concepts regarding ROVs are presented, Pugh’s Total Design model is explained, justifying the application interest in technological projects, a methodological proposal adapted to ROV projects is provided, based on Pugh’s Total Design model, with special interest in the early stages of the new product development process (NPD), the suitability of applying our own model of industrial design engineering in an ROV system is analyzed, and the contribution of this study is evaluated, proposing future work and lines of research. Full article
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15 pages, 2647 KiB  
Article
Intelligibility of Haptic Signals in Vehicle Information Systems
by Jong-Gyu Shin and Sang-Ho Kim
Sensors 2021, 21(13), 4583; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21134583 - 4 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2021
Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify changes in a driver’s emotions through the physical characteristics of haptic signals. This is to improve the performance of drivers by designing haptic signals with emotional semantics. Background: Currently, drivers receive a variety of [...] Read more.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify changes in a driver’s emotions through the physical characteristics of haptic signals. This is to improve the performance of drivers by designing haptic signals with emotional semantics. Background: Currently, drivers receive a variety of information through intelligent systems installed in their vehicles. Because this is mainly achieved through visual and auditory channels, an excessive amount of information is provided to drivers, which increases the amount of information and cognitive load that they must accept. This, in turn, can reduce driving safety. It is, therefore, necessary to develop a haptic signal, a sensory channel that has not been widely used in in-vehicle information systems. Methods: The experiment was performed to collect a driver’s emotions according to the haptic signal in a driving simulator. Haptic signals were designed by various frequencies and accelerations, and driver emotions were collected through Kansei engineering techniques and analyzed through factor analysis. To verify intelligibility, haptic signals were compared and evaluated based on response time, response rate, and amount of transmitted information. Results: The final determined emotional map consisted of dangerousness and urgency. Based on the emotional map, four emotional semantic haptic signals were designed. It was confirmed that these four signals displayed higher performance than the discriminability haptic signal in terms of response time, response rate, and amount of transmitted information. Conclusions: Using emotional maps, it is possible to design haptic signals that can be applied to various driving situations. These maps may also assist in securing design guidelines for haptic signals that apply to in-vehicle information systems. Full article
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21 pages, 3105 KiB  
Article
User Experience of the Mobile Terminal Customization System: The Influence of Interface Design and Educational Background on Personalized Customization
by Minzhe Yi, Ying Wang, Xiaoxue Tian and Huichao Xia
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2428; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072428 - 1 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
The study verified the role that different interface designs and users’ educational backgrounds play in the task performance and subjective evaluation of mobile terminal customization system. Interface type (based on scroll, alternative, and attribute) and user group (college students and industrial workers) were [...] Read more.
The study verified the role that different interface designs and users’ educational backgrounds play in the task performance and subjective evaluation of mobile terminal customization system. Interface type (based on scroll, alternative, and attribute) and user group (college students and industrial workers) were employed as the variables. A total of 72 users were included in the study, and an analysis of 3 × 2 between-participants design indicated that (1) Different interface designs of customization systems had a significant difference in task performance, the alternative based interface had the best results in the task performance, and there was no significant difference between the attribute-based and scroll-based interfaces in task performance; (2) The matching between educational background and interface type will affect the users’ evaluation on system usability. Industrial workers thought that the scroll-based and alternative-based interfaces were more useable, while college students preferred attribute-based interface design; (3) Different interfaces had a significant difference in user task load. The scroll-based interface had the lowest mental demand on the users, while alternative-based had the lowest physical demand on the users, though it consumed more effort; (4) Different educational backgrounds had a significant difference in user task load. Industrial workers showed lower effort in the scroll-based and alternative-based interfaces, while college students had lower effort in the attribution-based interface; (5) A correlation analysis showed that there was a significant negative correlation between the system usability score and the effort in task load. This study results have a positive significance for interface design. With educational background and layout as two important factors in our interface design, we may obtain the most appropriate design principles for enhancing the online customization experiences of different groups of consumers. The more important is that this study is based on the actual needs of the industry. For the first time, we take suitcase as an online customized product, which may not only help local manufacturers to extend their traditional offline distribution channels to online, but also provide a constructive thinking concerning interface design for customization of a single product. Full article
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37 pages, 5083 KiB  
Article
Framework for the Development of Affective and Smart Manufacturing Systems Using Sensorised Surrogate Models
by María Jesús Ávila-Gutiérrez, Francisco Aguayo-González and Juan Ramón Lama-Ruiz
Sensors 2021, 21(7), 2274; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21072274 - 24 Mar 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 3787
Abstract
Human Factor strategy and management have been affected by the incorporation of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) of industry 4.0, whereby operator 4.0 has been configured to address the wide variety of cooperative activities and to support skills that operate in VUCA (volatile, uncertain, [...] Read more.
Human Factor strategy and management have been affected by the incorporation of Key Enabling Technologies (KETs) of industry 4.0, whereby operator 4.0 has been configured to address the wide variety of cooperative activities and to support skills that operate in VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous) environments under the interaction with ubiquitous interfaces on real and virtual hybrid environments of cyber-physical systems. Current human Competences-Capacities that are supported by the technological enablers could result in a radically disempowered human factor. This means that in the processes of optimization and improvement of manufacturing systems from industry 4.0 to industry 5.0, it would be necessary to establish strategies for the empowerment of the human factor, which constitute symbiotic and co-evolutionary socio-technical systems through talent, sustainability, and innovation. This paper establishes a new framework for the design and development of occupational environments 5.0 for the inclusion of singularized operators 4.0, such as individuals with special capacities and talents. A case study for workers and their inclusion in employment is proposed. This model integrates intelligent and inclusive digital solutions in the current workspaces of organizations under digital transformation. Full article
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Review

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31 pages, 3734 KiB  
Review
Assistive Technology to Improve Collaboration in Children with ASD: State-of-the-Art and Future Challenges in the Smart Products Sector
by Raquel Cañete and Estela Peralta
Sensors 2022, 22(21), 8321; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22218321 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3106
Abstract
Within the field of products for autism spectrum disorder, one of the main research areas is focused on the development of assistive technology. Mid and high-tech products integrate interactive and smart functions with multisensory reinforcements, making the user experience more intuitive, adaptable, and [...] Read more.
Within the field of products for autism spectrum disorder, one of the main research areas is focused on the development of assistive technology. Mid and high-tech products integrate interactive and smart functions with multisensory reinforcements, making the user experience more intuitive, adaptable, and dynamic. These products have a very significant impact on improving the skills of children with autism, including collaboration and social skills, which are essential for the integration of these children into society and, therefore, their well-being. This work carried out an exhaustive analysis of the scientific literature, as well as market research and trends, and patent analysis to explore the state-of-the-art of assistive technology and smart products for children with ASD, specifically those aimed at improving social and communication skills. The results show a reduced availability of products that act as facilitators of the special needs of children with ASD, which is even more evident for products aimed at improving collaboration skills. Products that allow the participation of several users simultaneously through multi-user interfaces are required. On top of this, the trend toward virtual environments is leading to a loss of material aspects in the design that are essential for the development of these children. Full article
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