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Special Issue "Recent Progress in Optical Voltage and Current Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Optical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2022) | Viewed by 2294

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Grzegorz Fusiek
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XW, UK
Interests: photonic sensors; sensor networks; interrogation techniques; distributed sensing; remote monitoring; photonic instrumentation for industrial applications
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Voltage and current measurements are required in different industrial applications across many sectors, including the electrical power, oil and gas or nuclear sectors. Optical voltage and current sensors offer a number of benefits over their conventional equivalents, such as light weight, small size, wide bandwidth, high accuracy, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and galvanic isolation. Some of the optical voltage and current sensors have matured to the point that they meet the relevant industry standards, and they may provide a direct replacement for their conventional counterparts, offering passive measurements over long distances and improvements in measurement quality, overcoming the current technology limitations.

This Special Issue aims at presenting the latest research activities in the field of optical voltage and current sensors, distributed voltage and current sensing, sensor networks, and their applications in power and energy sectors. The Special Issue will also focus on new sensor designs, fabrication methods, sensing techniques, and system architectures to achieve improved measurement accuracy and resolution, and unique functionality in voltage and current monitoring on AC and DC networks. Authors are invited to submit both review and original research articles describing recent progress in optical voltage and current sensors.

Topics of interests include (but are not limited to):

  • Novel concepts of optical voltage and current sensing;
  • Design and development of new optical voltage and current sensors;
  • Sensor fabrication and packaging;
  • Sensor interrogation techniques;
  • Sensor characterization and performance evaluation;
  • Distributed voltage and current sensing;
  • Remote voltage and current monitoring;
  • Optical voltage and current sensors for industrial applications. 

Dr. Grzegorz Fusiek
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Article
Construction and Evaluation of an Optical Medium Voltage Transducer Module Aimed at a 132 kV Optical Voltage Sensor for WAMPAC Systems
Sensors 2022, 22(14), 5307; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22145307 - 15 Jul 2022
Viewed by 238
Abstract
This paper reports on the construction and characterization of an optical voltage transducer module for applications in the field of wide-area monitoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC). The optical medium voltage transducer (MVT) module was designed to be combined with a capacitive voltage divider [...] Read more.
This paper reports on the construction and characterization of an optical voltage transducer module for applications in the field of wide-area monitoring, protection, and control (WAMPAC). The optical medium voltage transducer (MVT) module was designed to be combined with a capacitive voltage divider (CVD) to form a voltage sensor intended for 132 kV high voltage (HV) networks. The MVT module comprises a combination of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) and a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as a core optical sensing element. Changes in the input voltage across the PZT translate into strain being detected by the FBG. The resultant FBG peak wavelength can be calibrated in terms of the input voltage to obtain a precise voltage measurement. The module was experimentally evaluated in the laboratory, and its performance was assessed based on the requirements specified by the IEC standards for electronic voltage transformers and low power voltage transformers. The results of accuracy tests demonstrate that the MVT module is free from hysteresis, within the experimental error, and is capable of simultaneously meeting the requirements for 0.1 metering and 1P protection classes specified by the IEC 60044-7 and IEC 61869-11 standards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Optical Voltage and Current Sensors)
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Article
Optical Sensor for Monitoring Leakage Current and Weather Conditions in a 500-kV Transmission Line
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 5034; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22135034 - 04 Jul 2022
Viewed by 338
Abstract
The leakage current (LC) caused by the surface contamination of insulators, together with environmental variables, is one of the most basic online monitoring parameters for insulator status. However, the impact of weather conditions such as temperature, air humidity, and dew point on the [...] Read more.
The leakage current (LC) caused by the surface contamination of insulators, together with environmental variables, is one of the most basic online monitoring parameters for insulator status. However, the impact of weather conditions such as temperature, air humidity, and dew point on the LC has not been deeply studied until now. In this paper, based on meteorological data obtained online and LC obtained with an optical fiber sensor, installed in 500-kV insulator strings of a transmission line, the impact of weather conditions was studied. Results indicate that the LCs follow a specific pattern, according to weather conditions. The system has been continuously monitoring LC, humidity, temperature, and dew point uninterrupted for three years, sending the acquired data to a web page; therefore, it has been demonstrated to be robust, reliable, and repetitive. The sensor features the broadband response and acquisition capabilities of partial discharge pulses in high-voltage insulators, allowing the detection of high-frequency pulses. When comparing the LC measured in this work with those from other works, our measurements are substantially higher; this is due to the type of pollution found in this specific situation, which includes iron oxide powder, producing a conductive layer over the insulator surface that, unlike sea salt, does not depend on humidity to conduct an LC. One of the conclusions reached in this work is that partial discharge surges are caused when the local temperature reaches the dew point and not simply from the presence of high humidity, as stated in many works dealing with LCs. The monitored LC can be used as an indicative parameter of a possible flashover, enabling the proper planning of insulator predictive maintenance, either by jet-washing the surface or even changing the insulators when they are damaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Optical Voltage and Current Sensors)
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Article
Democratization of PV Micro-Generation System Monitoring Based on Narrowband-IoT
Sensors 2022, 22(13), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/s22134966 - 30 Jun 2022
Viewed by 317
Abstract
Power system configuration and performance are changing very quickly. Under the new paradigm of prosumers and energy communities, grids are increasingly influenced by microgeneration systems connected in both low and medium voltage. In addition, these facilities provide little or no information to distribution [...] Read more.
Power system configuration and performance are changing very quickly. Under the new paradigm of prosumers and energy communities, grids are increasingly influenced by microgeneration systems connected in both low and medium voltage. In addition, these facilities provide little or no information to distribution and/or transmission system operators, increasing power system management problems. Actually, information is a great asset to manage this new situation. The arrival of affordable and open Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is a remarkable opportunity to overcome these inconveniences allowing for the exchange of information about these plants. In this paper, we propose a monitoring solution applicable to photovoltaic self-consumption or any other microgeneration installation, covering the installations of the so-called ’prosumers’ and aiming to provide a tool for local self-consumption monitoring. A detailed description of the proposed system at the hardware level is provided, and extended information on the communication characteristics and data packets is also included. Results of different field test campaigns carried out in real PV self-consumption installations connected to the grid are described and analyzed. It can be affirmed that the proposed solution provides outstanding results in reliability and accuracy, being a popular solution for those who cannot afford professional monitoring platforms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Optical Voltage and Current Sensors)
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Article
Optical Voltage Transformer Based on FBG-PZT for Power Quality Measurement
Sensors 2021, 21(8), 2699; https://doi.org/10.3390/s21082699 - 12 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 833
Abstract
Optical Current Transformers (OCTs) and Optical Voltage Transformers (OVTs) are an alternative to the conventional transformers for protection and metering purposes with a much smaller footprint and weight. Their advantages were widely discussed in scientific and technical literature and commercial applications based on [...] Read more.
Optical Current Transformers (OCTs) and Optical Voltage Transformers (OVTs) are an alternative to the conventional transformers for protection and metering purposes with a much smaller footprint and weight. Their advantages were widely discussed in scientific and technical literature and commercial applications based on the well-known Faraday and Pockels effect. However, the literature is still scarce in studies evaluating the use of optical transformers for power quality purposes, an important issue of power system designed to analyze the various phenomena that cause power quality disturbances. In this paper, we constructed a temperature-independent prototype of an optical voltage transformer based on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and piezoelectric ceramics (PZT), adequate to be used in field surveys at 13.8 kV distribution lines. The OVT was tested under several disturbances defined in IEEE standards that can occur in the electrical power system, especially short-duration voltage variations such as SAG, SWELL, and INTERRUPTION. The results demonstrated that the proposed OVT presents a dynamic response capable of satisfactorily measuring such disturbances and that it can be used as a power quality monitor for a 13.8 kV distribution system. Test on the proposed system concluded that it was capable to reproduce up to the 41st harmonic without significative distortion and impulsive surges up to 2.5 kHz. As an advantage, when compared with conventional systems to monitor power quality, the prototype can be remote-monitored, and therefore, be installed at strategic locations on distribution lines to be monitored kilometers away, without the need to be electrically powered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Progress in Optical Voltage and Current Sensors)
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