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Special Issue "Latest Trend in Microwave Filters and Antennas for B5G Wireless Networks"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Communications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2023) | Viewed by 2044

Special Issue Editors

School of Computer Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Interests: detection system; network security; intrusion detection system; machine learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
NFC-Institute of Engineering & Fertilizer Research, Jaranwala Road, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
Interests: reconfigurable/switchable microwave filters; free space optical networks; spread spectrum communication
School of Electronics, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5BN, UK
Interests: antennas; filters; lenses
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

5G is enjoying an unprecedented development, with the user base set to grow to 500 million by 2023. 3G and 4G took nine and six years to achieve the same growth rate, respectively. The year 2019 has been the first year of 5G-scaled commercial adoption, with more than 60 5G commercial networks projected to be globally deployed. Recently, 19 telecom carriers in 11 countries announced the launch of 5G services. Scaled commercial rollouts have already kicked off in the UK, the US, Japan, South Korea, and China. Global 5G spectrum auctioning also signifies rapid development. By 2021, more than 35 countries auctioned the 5G spectrum, with C Band in 22 countries, mmWave in 8, the 2.6 GHz band in 5, and the 700 MHz band in 4. If it had not been for COVID-19, the prediction that 5G spectrum would be auctioned in over 100 countries should already have been completed by the end of 2022.

This is the right time not only to highlight, but also to ignite the research for microwave devices such as filters and antennas. We have already seen an increasing demand in recent years for 5G-ready and beyond 5G (B5G) emerging applications. Moreover, the requirement of such advancements cannot be understated for parallel but related applications such as software defined radios and radar systems. The exploration of new frequency spectrums reactivated the research on microwave filters and specifically the switch-ability and reconfigurable devices. Thus far, many effective techniques have been successfully developed to optimize microwave devices size and to transform the simple antenna or filter structure to a multi-band/tunable/reconfigurable and multifunction RF/microwave filtering devices without additional components. Low cost, simplicity, minimal occupied area, and performance are all desired characteristics of these antennas and filters in addition to multi-band functionality; however, this is not enough for B5G applications where speed, accuracy and cost-effectiveness are the keys.

At a device level, many matching structure models, including as open-circuited stubs, high-low impedance, parallel coupled, and end coupled structures, have been investigated to meet the desired frequency response of filters and antennas. Despite this, many techniques have ensured that good outcomes are still elusive. Depending on the applications, critical factors like power handling, nonlinear noise, switching speed and quality factors over the covered range are considered to the crucial factors, due to which sophisticated structures are the need of the time. Within this trend, the integrations of different microwave devices is also one of the key areas of research. The main benefits of such devices are compact size, efficient implementation using different high frequency components, along with co-simulations of different devices. Despite the current evolution in this field, challenges related to lack of accuracy, dependability, user ease and challenges in data analysis and interpretation have limited their wide-scale application. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new, reliable, and user-friendly approach in facing these problems.

This Special Issues of Sensors is specifically focused on recent trends and applications aimed to provide the readers with the information of recent developments and new design and techniques for the development of reconfigurable/switchable/tunable, and last but not the least, standalone microwave filters.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Prof. Dr. Vijayakumar Varadarajan
Dr. Salman Arain
Dr. Muhammad Ali Babar Abbasi
Guest Editors

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  • reconfigurable/switchable microwave filters
  • antennas lenses
  • B5G networks
  • 5G Communication

Published Papers (1 paper)

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20 pages, 4922 KiB  
Effective Size Reduction of the Metallic Waveguide Bandpass Filter with Metamaterial Resonators and Its 3D-Printed Version
Sensors 2023, 23(3), 1173; - 19 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1207
In this paper, a novel method is proposed to effectively reduce the size of a waveguide bandpass filter (BPF). Because the metallic cavities make the conventional waveguide end up with a large geometry, especially for high-order BPFs, very compact waveguide-type resonators having metamaterial [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel method is proposed to effectively reduce the size of a waveguide bandpass filter (BPF). Because the metallic cavities make the conventional waveguide end up with a large geometry, especially for high-order BPFs, very compact waveguide-type resonators having metamaterial zeroth-order resonance (WG ZOR) are designed on the cross section of the waveguide and substituted for the cavities. While the cavities are half-wavelength resonators, the WG ZOR is shorter than one-eighth of a wavelength. A substantial reduction in the size and weight of the waveguide filter is observed as the resonators are cascaded in series through coupling elements in the X-band that is much longer than that in K- or Ka-bands. The proposed metamaterial filter is realized as a 3D-printed structure to be lighter and thus more suitable for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites. An X-band of 7.25–7.75 GHz is chosen to verify the method as the passband with an attenuation of 40 dB at 7.00 GHz and 8.00 GHz as the roll-off in the stopband. The BPF is manufactured in two ways, namely the CNC-milling technique and metal coating–added 3D printing. The design is carried out with a geometrical parameter of not 10−2 mm but rather 10-1 mm, which is good for manufacturers but challenging for component designers. The measurement of the manufactured metal waveguide filters reveals that the passband has about ≤1 dB and ≤−15 dB as the insertion loss and the reflection coefficient, respectively, and the stopband has an attenuation of ≤−40 dB, which are in good agreement with the results of the circuit and the simulation. The proposed filter has a length of 14 cm as the eighth-order BPF, but the conventional waveguide is 20 cm as the seventh-order BPF for the same area of the cross section. Full article
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