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Special Issue "Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Chemical Sensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (1 March 2016).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Gregory Schneider Website E-Mail
Faculty of Science, Leiden Institute of Chemistry, Supramolecular & Biomaterials Chemistry, 2333 CC Leiden, The Netherlands
Interests: nanotechnology, bionanotechnology, surface and interfacial chemistry, physical and organic chemistry, materials science, biophysical chemistry, nanofluidics, and self-assembly

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, Over the last decade, a wide spectrum of chemistry research areas (organic, soft-matter, physical, surface, interfacial, electrochemistry, chemical biology, nanochemistry, theoretical, to name a few) increasingly contributed to a better understanding of the properties of graphene and other two-dimensional materials. The focus of this issue is to highlight the role and place of chemistry in the design, operation and efficiency of 2D molecular sensors (i.e., based on graphene most particularly, but also other two dimensional layered materials). More than ten years after the discovery of graphene by the Manchester group and two years after the start of the Graphene Flagship in Europe, it is timely to review and collect the most recent work, particularly the one focusing on the chemical aspects of graphene (and other 2D materials) and to identify to what extent chemistry plays a fundamental role in harvesting the properties of 2D materials for sensing applications. Exploiting the full potential offered by graphene in sensing applications requires extensive fundamental studies of the behaviour of the surface and of the edges of graphene upon their interaction with biological systems (lipids, proteins, enzymes, DNA, RNA and ultimately biological cells), as well as a quantification of the measurable electronic response of the graphene surface (and edge respectively) caused by a biological stimuli such as the presence and the passage of a biomolecule. The surface and the edges of graphene operate as sensors in two fundamentally different ways: in a typical solution-gated graphene field-effect transistor, the surface is sensitive to charge transfer conferred by a molecule in the vicinity of graphene and therefore could potentially detect a single molecule as a whole, while edges can be used as atomically flat electrodes that could transversally sense the precise structure and chemical composition of a biomolecule passing close to the edges. In both cases, biomolecules are being sensed, but the level of output information is different: surfaces can trap, detect and sense while edges can provide sequence information. This holds the potential that one can combine both and use the surface to selectively trap and identify, guide electrophoretically the trapped molecule towards the edge, and obtain molecular information; for example, using a transverse electrochemical current generated between two edges separated by a physical gap on the order of the lateral dimension of the biomolecule. In my research group, we conduct interdisciplinary research on graphene in the field of bionanotechnology. We particularly investigate the chemical properties of graphene from the perspective of using this material, for example, as a sensor by exploiting its unique surface and edge reactivity. To these ends, graphene has three fantastic properties: it conducts electricity outstandingly well, its edge is only a single carbon atom thin, and the fact that all the atoms are located on the surface makes graphene very sensitive to nearby environmental changes. Whatever the sensing scheme, chemistry plays an important role, most remarkably in aqueous solutions and physiological serum. The editorial board of the journal ‘Sensors’ and myself are very pleased to announce this Special Issue and we are looking forward to your participation. Dr. Gregory SchneiderGuest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • graphene biosensors sensor DNA protein GFET nanopores nanogaps sequencing single molecule biointerface

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Recognizing Physisorption and Chemisorption in Carbon Nanotubes Gas Sensors by Double Exponential Fitting of the Response
Sensors 2016, 16(5), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16050731 - 19 May 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been grown in situ on a SiO2 substrate and used as gas sensors. For this purpose, the voltage response of the CNTs as a function of time has been used to detect H2 and CO2 [...] Read more.
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been grown in situ on a SiO 2 substrate and used as gas sensors. For this purpose, the voltage response of the CNTs as a function of time has been used to detect H 2 and CO 2 at various concentrations by supplying a constant current to the system. The analysis of both adsorptions and desorptions curves has revealed two different exponential behaviours for each curve. The study of the characteristic times, obtained from the fitting of the data, has allowed us to identify separately chemisorption and physisorption processes on the CNTs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessArticle
An Easily Fabricated Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Graphene-Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Determination of Octopamine and Tyramine
Sensors 2016, 16(4), 535; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16040535 - 13 Apr 2016
Cited by 10
Abstract
A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the [...] Read more.
A simple electrochemical sensor has been developed for highly sensitive detection of octopamine and tyramine by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). The electrocatalytic oxidation of octopamine and tyramine is individually investigated at the surface of the ERGO modified glassy carbon electrode (ERGO/GCE) by using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Several essential factors including the deposition cycle of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets and the pH of the running buffer were investigated in order to determine the optimum conditions. Furthermore, the sensor was applied to the quantification of octopamine and tyramine by DPV in the concentration ranges from 0.5 to 40 μM and 0.1 to 25 μM, respectively. In addition, the limits of detection of octopamine and tyramine were calculated to be 0.1 μM and 0.03 μM (S/N = 3), respectively. The sensor showed good reproducibility, selectivity and stability. Finally, the sensor successfully detected octopamine and tyramine in commercially available beer with satisfactory recovery ranges which were 98.5%–104.7% and 102.2%–103.1%, respectively. These results indicate the ERGO/GCE based sensor is suitable for the detection of octopamine and tyramine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessArticle
Laccase-Functionalized Graphene Oxide Assemblies as Efficient Nanobiocatalysts for Oxidation Reactions
Sensors 2016, 16(3), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16030287 - 25 Feb 2016
Cited by 15
Abstract
Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene oxide-enzyme layers present in [...] Read more.
Multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies were prepared through the multi-point covalent immobilization of laccase from Trametes versicolor (TvL) on functionalized graphene oxide (fGO). The catalytic properties of the fGO-TvL nanoassemblies were found to depend on the number of the graphene oxide-enzyme layers present in the nanostructure. The fGO-TvL nanoassemblies exhibit an enhanced thermal stability at 60 °C, as demonstrated by a 4.7-fold higher activity as compared to the free enzyme. The multi-layer graphene oxide-enzyme nanoassemblies can efficiently catalyze the oxidation of anthracene, as well as the decolorization of an industrial dye, pinacyanol chloride. These materials retained almost completely their decolorization activity after five reaction cycles, proving their potential as efficient nano- biocatalysts for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessArticle
Reduced Graphene Oxide Modified the Interdigitated Chain Electrode for an Insulin Sensor
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010109 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 13
Abstract
Insulin is a key regulator in glucose homeostasis and its deficiency or alternations in the human body causes various types of diabetic disorders. In this paper, we present the development of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified interdigitated chain electrode (ICE) for direct [...] Read more.
Insulin is a key regulator in glucose homeostasis and its deficiency or alternations in the human body causes various types of diabetic disorders. In this paper, we present the development of a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) modified interdigitated chain electrode (ICE) for direct capacitive detection of insulin. The impedance properties of rGO-ICE were characterized by equivalent circuit modeling. After an electrochemical deposition of rGO on ICE, the electrode was modified with self-assembled monolayers and insulin antibodies in order to achieve insulin binding reactions. The impedance spectra and capacitances were measured with respect to the concentrations of insulin and the capacitance change (ΔC) was analyzed to quantify insulin concentration. The antibody immobilized electrode showed an increment of ΔC according to the insulin concentration in human serum ranging from 1 ng/mL to 10 µg/mL. The proposed sensor is feasible for label-free and real-time measuring of the biomarker and for point-of-care diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessArticle
Studies of Reduced Graphene Oxide and Graphite Oxide in the Aspect of Their Possible Application in Gas Sensors
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010103 - 15 Jan 2016
Cited by 83
Abstract
The paper presents the results of investigations on resistance structures based on graphite oxide (GRO) and graphene oxide (rGO). The subject matter of the investigations was thaw the sensitivity of the tested structures was affected by hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide. The [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of investigations on resistance structures based on graphite oxide (GRO) and graphene oxide (rGO). The subject matter of the investigations was thaw the sensitivity of the tested structures was affected by hydrogen, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide. The experiments were performed at a temperature range from 30 °C to 150 °C in two carrier gases: nitrogen and synthetic air. The measurements were also aimed at characterization of the graphite oxide and graphene oxide. In our measurements we used (among others) techniques such as: Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM); Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Raman Spectroscopy (RS); Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Microscopy (XPS). The data resulting from the characterizations of graphite oxide and graphene oxide have made it possible to interpret the obtained results from the point of view of physicochemical changes occurring in these structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessArticle
Mechanism of Electrochemical Delamination of Two-Dimensional Materials from Their Native Substrates by Bubbling
Sensors 2015, 15(12), 31811-31820; https://doi.org/10.3390/s151229888 - 16 Dec 2015
Cited by 3
Abstract
A capacitor-based circuit model is proposed to explain the electrochemical delamination of two-dimensional materials from their native substrates where produced gas bubbles squeeze into the interface. The delamination is actually the electric breakdown of the capacitor formed between the solution and substrate. To [...] Read more.
A capacitor-based circuit model is proposed to explain the electrochemical delamination of two-dimensional materials from their native substrates where produced gas bubbles squeeze into the interface. The delamination is actually the electric breakdown of the capacitor formed between the solution and substrate. To facilitate the procedure, the backside of the ubstrate has to be shielded so that the capacitor breakdown voltage can be reached. The screening effect can be induced either by nonreactive ions around the electrode or, more effectively, by an undetachable insulator. This mechanism serves as a guideline for the surface science and applications involving the bubbling delamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Application of 2D Non-Graphene Materials and 2D Oxide Nanostructures for Biosensing Technology
Sensors 2016, 16(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16020223 - 06 Feb 2016
Cited by 45
Abstract
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some [...] Read more.
The discovery of graphene and its unique properties has inspired researchers to try to invent other two-dimensional (2D) materials. After considerable research effort, a distinct “beyond graphene” domain has been established, comprising the library of non-graphene 2D materials. It is significant that some 2D non-graphene materials possess solid advantages over their predecessor, such as having a direct band gap, and therefore are highly promising for a number of applications. These applications are not limited to nano- and opto-electronics, but have a strong potential in biosensing technologies, as one example. However, since most of the 2D non-graphene materials have been newly discovered, most of the research efforts are concentrated on material synthesis and the investigation of the properties of the material. Applications of 2D non-graphene materials are still at the embryonic stage, and the integration of 2D non-graphene materials into devices is scarcely reported. However, in recent years, numerous reports have blossomed about 2D material-based biosensors, evidencing the growing potential of 2D non-graphene materials for biosensing applications. This review highlights the recent progress in research on the potential of using 2D non-graphene materials and similar oxide nanostructures for different types of biosensors (optical and electrochemical). A wide range of biological targets, such as glucose, dopamine, cortisol, DNA, IgG, bisphenol, ascorbic acid, cytochrome and estradiol, has been reported to be successfully detected by biosensors with transducers made of 2D non-graphene materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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Open AccessReview
Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?
Sensors 2016, 16(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/s16010137 - 21 Jan 2016
Cited by 19
Abstract
This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical [...] Read more.
This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Graphene and 2D Material Bionanosensors: Chemistry Matters)
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