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Special Issue "Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors"

A special issue of Sensors (ISSN 1424-8220). This special issue belongs to the section "Biosensors".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. He Tian
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
Interests: sensors; graphene; actuator; 2D materials; nano devices
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Jian-Bin Xu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Electronic Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T.,Hong Kong SAR, China
2. Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Interests: Near-field sensing; surface plasmonics; energy conversion
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Philip Feng
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Electrical Engineering & Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Interests: Semiconductor Devices Physics; NEMS/MEMS; Circuits & Systems; Advanced Materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Yang Xu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Information Science and Electronic Engineering, College of Microelectronics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027, China
Interests: Graphene; Graphene-Si heterostructure; photodectors; image sensor
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

 Two-dimensional materials (graphene, MoS2, Black Phosphorus et.) with the combination of nano-fabrications can enable high performance sensors or novel sensors with new funtionalities, which can open widely applications.

Two-dimensional materials can be the building blocks for various type of sensors, such as photodectors, strain/pressure sensors, gas sensors et. The two-dimensional-based sensors can be also enlarged by creating two-dimentional heterostructures. The two-dimentional heterostructures can be produced by combining 2D-2D, 2D-3D, 2D-1D, 2D-0D structures. This special Issue aims to introduce the two-dimensional materials with the combination of nano-fabrications. Topics in general include, but are not limited, to:

  • Two-dimensional materials/heterostructures-based sensors: 2D material growth, transfer, fabrication, device prototype and demo
  • Two-dimensional materials/heterostructures as  photodectors
  • Graphene or other 2D materials-based strain/pressure sensor with high sensitivity
  • Two-dimensional materials as bio-sensors
  • Two-dimensional materials for acoustic or thermal sensing applications

Dr. He Tian
Prof. Dr. Jian-Bin Xu
Prof. Philip Feng
Prof. Dr. Yang Xu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Sensors is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • graphene
  • black Phosphorus
  • two-Dimensional Materials
  • photodetectors
  • strain/Pressure sensors
  • bio-sensors
  • acoustic or thermal sensing

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Two-Channel Graphene pH Sensor Using Semi-Ionic Fluorinated Graphene Reference Electrode
Sensors 2020, 20(15), 4184; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20154184 - 28 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 844
Abstract
A reference electrode is necessary for the working of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET)-type sensors in electrolyte solutions. The Ag/AgCl electrode is normally used as a reference electrode. However, the Ag/AgCl reference electrode limits the advantages of the ISFET sensor. In this work, we [...] Read more.
A reference electrode is necessary for the working of ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET)-type sensors in electrolyte solutions. The Ag/AgCl electrode is normally used as a reference electrode. However, the Ag/AgCl reference electrode limits the advantages of the ISFET sensor. In this work, we fabricated a two-channel graphene solution gate field-effect transistor (G-SGFET) to detect pH without an Ag/AgCl reference electrode in the electrolyte solution. One channel is the sensing channel for detecting the pH and the other channel is the reference channel that serves as the reference electrode. The sensing channel was oxygenated, and the reference channel was fluorinated partially. Both the channels were directly exposed to the electrolyte solution without sensing membranes or passivation layers. The transfer characteristics of the two-channel G-SGFET showed ambipolar field-effect transistor (FET) behavior (p-channel and n-channel), which is a typical characteristic curve for the graphene ISFET, and the value of VDirac was shifted by 18.2 mV/pH in the positive direction over the range of pH values from 4 to 10. The leakage current of the reference channel was 16.48 nA. We detected the real-time pH value for the two-channel G-SGFET, which operated stably for 60 min in the buffer solution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Article
Temperature Characteristics of a Pressure Sensor Based on BN/Graphene/BN Heterostructure
Sensors 2019, 19(10), 2223; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19102223 - 14 May 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1565
Abstract
Temperature is a significant factor in the application of graphene-based pressure sensors. The influence of temperature on graphene pressure sensors is twofold: an increase in temperature causes the substrates of graphene pressure sensors to thermally expand, and thus, the graphene membrane is stretched, [...] Read more.
Temperature is a significant factor in the application of graphene-based pressure sensors. The influence of temperature on graphene pressure sensors is twofold: an increase in temperature causes the substrates of graphene pressure sensors to thermally expand, and thus, the graphene membrane is stretched, leading to an increase in the device resistance; an increase in temperature also causes a change in the graphene electrophonon coupling, resulting in a decrease in device resistance. To investigate which effect dominates the influence of temperature on the pressure sensor based on the graphene–boron nitride (BN) heterostructure proposed in our previous work, the temperature characteristics of two BN/graphene/BN heterostructures with and without a microcavity beneath them were analyzed in the temperature range 30–150 °C. Experimental results showed that the resistance of the BN/graphene/BN heterostructure with a microcavity increased with the increase in temperature, and the temperature coefficient was up to 0.25%°C−1, indicating the considerable influence of thermal expansion in such devices. In contrast, with an increase in temperature, the resistance of the BN/graphene/BN heterostructure without a microcavity decreased with a temperature coefficient of −0.16%°C−1. The linearity of the resistance change rate (ΔR/R)–temperature curve of the BN/graphene/BN heterostructure without a microcavity was better than that of the BN/graphene/BN heterostructure with a microcavity. These results indicate that the influence of temperature on the pressure sensors based on BN/graphene/BN heterostructures should be considered, especially for devices with pressure microcavities. BN/graphene/BN heterostructures without microcavities can be used as high-performance temperature sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Article
Effects of Acetone Vapor on the Exciton Band Photoluminescence Emission from Single- and Few-Layer WS2 on Template-Stripped Gold
Sensors 2019, 19(8), 1913; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19081913 - 23 Apr 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are being used widely for chemical sensing applications due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and photoluminescence (PL) emission and emission exciton band tunability. To better understand how the analyte affects the PL response for a model 2D platform, we used [...] Read more.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials are being used widely for chemical sensing applications due to their large surface-to-volume ratio and photoluminescence (PL) emission and emission exciton band tunability. To better understand how the analyte affects the PL response for a model 2D platform, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and co-localized photoluminescence (PL) and Raman mapping to characterize tungsten disulfide (WS2) flakes on template-stripped gold (TSG) under acetone challenge. We determined the PL-based response from single- and few-layer WS2 arises from three excitons (neutral, A0; biexciton, AA; and the trion, A). The A0 exciton PL emission is the most strongly quenched by acetone whereas the A PL emission exhibits an enhancement. We find the PL behavior is also WS2 layer number dependent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Article
Controlled Growth of an Mo2C—Graphene Hybrid Film as an Electrode in Self-Powered Two-Sided Mo2C—Graphene/Sb2S0.42Se2.58/TiO2 Photodetectors
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051099 - 04 Mar 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1763
Abstract
The monotonic work function of graphene makes it difficult to meet the electrode requirements of every device with different band structures. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides (TMCs), such as carbides in MXene, are considered good candidates for electrodes as a complement to graphene. [...] Read more.
The monotonic work function of graphene makes it difficult to meet the electrode requirements of every device with different band structures. Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides (TMCs), such as carbides in MXene, are considered good candidates for electrodes as a complement to graphene. Carbides in MXene have been used to make electrodes for use in devices such as lithium batteries. However, the small lateral size and thermal instability of carbides in MXene, synthesized by the chemically etching method, limit its application in optoelectronic devices. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method provides a new way to obtain high-quality ultrathin TMCs without functional groups. However, the TMCs film prepared by the CVD method tends to grow vertically during the growth process, which is disadvantageous for its application in the transparent electrode. Herein, we prepared an ultrathin Mo2C—graphene (Mo2C—Gr) hybrid film by CVD to solve the above problem. The work function of Mo2C—Gr is between that of graphene and a pure Mo2C film. The Mo2C—Gr hybrid film was selected as a transparent hole-transporting layer to fabricate novel Mo2C—Gr/Sb2S0.42Se2.58/TiO2 two-sided photodetectors. The Mo2C—Gr/Sb2S0.42Se2.58/TiO2/fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) device could detect light from both the FTO side and the Mo2C—Gr side. The device could realize a short response time (0.084 ms) and recovery time (0.100 ms). This work is believed to provide a powerful method for preparing Mo2C—graphene hybrid films and reveals its potential applications in optoelectronic devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Article
A Sprayed Graphene Pattern-Based Flexible Strain Sensor with High Sensitivity and Fast Response
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1077; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051077 - 03 Mar 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2242
Abstract
Flexible strain sensors have a wide range of applications in biomedical science, aerospace industry, portable devices, precise manufacturing, etc. However, the manufacturing processes of most flexible strain sensors previously reported have usually required high manufacturing costs and harsh experimental conditions. Besides, research interests [...] Read more.
Flexible strain sensors have a wide range of applications in biomedical science, aerospace industry, portable devices, precise manufacturing, etc. However, the manufacturing processes of most flexible strain sensors previously reported have usually required high manufacturing costs and harsh experimental conditions. Besides, research interests are often focused on improving a single attribute parameter while ignoring others. This work aims to propose a simple method of manufacturing flexible graphene-based strain sensors with high sensitivity and fast response. Firstly, oxygen plasma treats the substrate to improve the interfacial interaction between graphene and the substrate, thereby improving device performance. The graphene solution is then sprayed using a soft PET mask to define a pattern for making the sensitive layer. This flexible strain sensor exhibits high sensitivity (gauge factor ~100 at 1% strain), fast response (response time: 400–700 μs), good stability (1000 cycles), and low overshoot (<5%) as well. Those processes used are compatible with a variety of complexly curved substrates and is expected to broaden the application of flexible strain sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Article
Sensitivity Enhancement of a Surface Plasmon Resonance with Tin Selenide (SnSe) Allotropes
Sensors 2019, 19(1), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19010173 - 05 Jan 2019
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 2078
Abstract
Single layers of tin selenide (SnSe), which have a similar structure as graphene and phosphorene, also show excellent optoelectronic properties, and have received much attention as a two-dimensional (2D) material beyond other 2D material family members. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on [...] Read more.
Single layers of tin selenide (SnSe), which have a similar structure as graphene and phosphorene, also show excellent optoelectronic properties, and have received much attention as a two-dimensional (2D) material beyond other 2D material family members. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors based on three monolayer SnSe allotropes are investigated with the transfer matrix method. The simulated results have indicated that the proposed SnSe-containing biochemical sensors are suitable to detect different types of analytes. Compared with the conventional Ag-only film biochemical sensor whose sensitivity is 116°/RIU, the sensitivities of these SnSe-based biochemical sensors containing α-SnSe, δ-SnSe, ε-SnSe, were obviously increased to 178°/RIU, 156°/RIU and 154°/RIU, respectively. The diverse biosensor sensitivities achieved with these three SnSe allotropes suggest that these 2D materials can adjust SPR sensor properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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Review

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Review
Structure-Property Relationships in Graphene-Based Strain and Pressure Sensors for Potential Artificial Intelligence Applications
Sensors 2019, 19(5), 1250; https://doi.org/10.3390/s19051250 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 3433
Abstract
Wearable electronic sensing devices are deemed to be a crucial technology of smart personal electronics. Strain and pressure sensors, one of the most popular research directions in recent years, are the key components of smart and flexible electronics. Graphene, as an advanced nanomaterial, [...] Read more.
Wearable electronic sensing devices are deemed to be a crucial technology of smart personal electronics. Strain and pressure sensors, one of the most popular research directions in recent years, are the key components of smart and flexible electronics. Graphene, as an advanced nanomaterial, exerts pre-eminent characteristics including high electrical conductivity, excellent mechanical properties, and flexibility. The above advantages of graphene provide great potential for applications in mechatronics, robotics, automation, human-machine interaction, etc.: graphene with diverse structures and leverages, strain and pressure sensors with new functionalities. Herein, the recent progress in graphene-based strain and pressure sensors is presented. The sensing materials are classified into four structures including 0D fullerene, 1D fiber, 2D film, and 3D porous structures. Different structures of graphene-based strain and pressure sensors provide various properties and multifunctions in crucial parameters such as sensitivity, linearity, and hysteresis. The recent and potential applications for graphene-based sensors are also discussed, especially in the field of human motion detection. Finally, the perspectives of graphene-based strain and pressure sensors used in human motion detection combined with artificial intelligence are surveyed. Challenges such as the biocompatibility, integration, and additivity of the sensors are discussed as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Materials Based Sensors)
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