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Special Issue "Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2016)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Rosa Lasaponara

CNR-IMAA (National Research Council, Institute for Environmental Analysis), C.da S. Loya, 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ), Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: remote sensing; data processing; microwave sensor design; analytical methods, modeling, readout and software for sensors; sensor technology and new sensor principles

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Remote sensing is emerging as a key tool for archaeological investigations from the discovery to documentation and risk estimation, as well as for the development, management, and preservation of cultural heritage and landscapes. The preservation of cultural heritage and landscapes are, today, a strategic priority, not only to assure cultural treasures and evidence of human past to future generations, but, also, to exploit them as strategic and valuable economic assets, if inspired to sustainable development strategies. This is an extremely important key factor for countries that are owners of an extraordinary cultural legacy, which is today particularly fragile due to many reasons including industrial risk, pollution impacts and degradation factors. Remote sensing provides regular and repeated imagery of unparalleled importance for monitoring the effects of climate change, urban and rural development, looting, and conflict. In addition to this, the data produced is providing an exciting opportunity to examine past human–environment dynamics.

We would like to invite you to submit articles about your recent research with respect to the following topics.

  • SAR for palaeoenvironmental applications, site detection, risk monitoring
  • From aerial photo to declassified satellite images: the study of landscape over time using historical data sources
  • From visual data interpretation to semiautomatic and automatic procedures in an archaeological perspective.
  • Remote Sensing, GIS and Geospatial analysis for risk monitoring and the management of cultural resources
  • Integration of space/air borne and ground remote sensing in archaeogeophysics
  • The “LiDAR revolution” in archaeology
  • Comparison and evaluation of different remote sensing methods for site discovery and the reconstruction of historical landscapes
  • Remote sensing methods for studying past human-environment interactions
  • Review articles covering one or more of these topics are also welcome.

Authors are required to check and follow specific Instructions to Authors, see https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/165068305/Remote_Sensing-Additional_Instructions.pdf.

Dr. Rosa Lasaponara
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle High and Medium Resolution Satellite Imagery to Evaluate Late Holocene Human–Environment Interactions in Arid Lands: A Case Study from the Central Sahara
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9040351
Received: 23 November 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 30 March 2017 / Published: 6 April 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16382 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We present preliminary results of an Earth observation approach for the study of past human occupation and landscape reconstruction in the Central Sahara. This region includes a variety of geomorphological features such as palaeo-oases, dried river beds, alluvial fans and upland plateaux whose [...] Read more.
We present preliminary results of an Earth observation approach for the study of past human occupation and landscape reconstruction in the Central Sahara. This region includes a variety of geomorphological features such as palaeo-oases, dried river beds, alluvial fans and upland plateaux whose geomorphological characteristics, in combination with climate changes, have influenced patterns of human dispersal and sociocultural activities during the late Holocene. In this paper, we discuss the use of medium- and high-resolution remotely sensed data for the mapping of anthropogenic features and paleo- and contemporary hydrology and vegetation. In the absence of field inspection in this inaccessible region, we use different remote sensing methods to first identify and classify archaeological features, and then explore the geomorphological factors that might have influenced their spatial distribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Mobile LiDAR System: New Possibilities for the Documentation and Dissemination of Large Cultural Heritage Sites
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9030189
Received: 10 November 2016 / Revised: 30 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (5124 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mobile LiDAR System is an emerging technology that combines multiple sensors. Active sensors, together with Inertial and Global Navigation System, are synchronized on a mobile platform to produce an accurate and precise geospatial 3D point cloud. They allow obtaining a large amount of [...] Read more.
Mobile LiDAR System is an emerging technology that combines multiple sensors. Active sensors, together with Inertial and Global Navigation System, are synchronized on a mobile platform to produce an accurate and precise geospatial 3D point cloud. They allow obtaining a large amount of georeferenced 3D information in a fast and efficient way, which can be used in several applications such as the 3D recording and reconstruction of complex urban areas and/or landscapes. In this study the Mobile LiDAR System is applied in the field of Cultural Heritage aiming to evaluate its performance with the purpose to document, divulgate, or to develop an architectural analysis. This study was focused on the Medieval Wall of Avila (Spain) and, specifically, the performed accuracy tests were applied in the “Alcazar” gate (National Monument from 1884). The Mobile LiDAR System is then compared to the most commonly employed active sensors (Terrestrial Laser Scanner) for large Cultural Heritage sites in regard to time, accuracy and resolution of the point cloud. The discrepancies between both technologies are established comparing directly the 3D point clouds generated, highlighting the errors affecting the architectural structures. Consequently, and based on a detailed geometrical analysis, an optimization methodology is proposed, establishing a segmented and classified cluster for the structures. Furthermore, three main clusters are settled, according to the curvature: (i) planar or low curvature; (ii) cylindrical, mild transitions and medium curvature; and (iii) the abrupt transitions of high curvature. The obtained 3D point clouds in each cluster are analyzed and optimized, considering the reference spatial sampling, according to a confidence interval and the feature curvature. The presented results suggest that Mobile LiDAR System is an optimal approach, allowing a high-speed data acquisition and providing an adequate accuracy for large Cultural Heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle The Highest Gradient Model: A New Method for Analytical Assessment of the Efficiency of LiDAR-Derived Visualization Techniques for Landform Detection and Mapping
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9020120
Received: 16 November 2016 / Revised: 20 January 2017 / Accepted: 26 January 2017 / Published: 10 February 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (6246 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
ALS-derived raster visualization techniques have become common in recent years, opening up new possibilities for subtle landform detection in earth sciences and archaeology, but they have also introduced confusion for users. As a consequence, the choice between these visualization techniques is still mostly [...] Read more.
ALS-derived raster visualization techniques have become common in recent years, opening up new possibilities for subtle landform detection in earth sciences and archaeology, but they have also introduced confusion for users. As a consequence, the choice between these visualization techniques is still mostly supported by empirical knowledge. Some attempts have been made to compare these techniques, but there is still a lack of analytical data. This work proposes a new method, based on gradient modelling and spatial statistics, to analytically assess the efficacy of these visualization techniques. A selected panel of outstanding visualization techniques was assessed first by a classic non-analytical approach, and secondly by the proposed new analytical approach. The comparison of results showed that the latter provided more detailed and objective data, not always consistent with previous empirical knowledge. These data allowed us to characterize with precision the terrain for which each visualization technique performs best. A combination of visualization techniques based on DEM manipulation (Slope and Local Relief Model) appeared to be the best choice for normal terrain morphometry, occasionally supported by illumination techniques such as Sky-View Factor or Negative Openness as a function of terrain characteristics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Detection of Archaeological Residues in Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar
Remote Sens. 2017, 9(2), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs9020118
Received: 3 November 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 30 January 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (87162 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Buried archaeological structures, such as earthworks and buildings, often leave traces at the surface by altering the properties of overlying material, such as soil and vegetation. These traces may be better visible from a remote perspective than on the surface. Active and passive [...] Read more.
Buried archaeological structures, such as earthworks and buildings, often leave traces at the surface by altering the properties of overlying material, such as soil and vegetation. These traces may be better visible from a remote perspective than on the surface. Active and passive airborne and spaceborne sensors acquiring imagery from the ultraviolet to infrared have been shown to reveal these archaeological residues following the application of various processing techniques. While the active microwave region of the spectrum, in the form of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has been used for archaeological prospection, particularly in desert regions, it has yet to be fully exploited to detect buried structures indirectly though proxy indicators in overlying materials in vegetated areas. Studies so far have tended to focus on the intensity of the SAR signal, without making full use of the phase. This paper demonstrates that SAR backscatter intensity, coherence and interferometry can be used to identify archaeological residues over a number of areas in the vicinity of Rome, Italy. SAR imagery from the COnstellation of small Satellites for the Mediterranean basin Observation (COSMO-SkyMed) have been obtained for the analysis: 77 scenes in Stripmap and 27 in Spotlight mode. Processing included multitemporal speckle filtering, coherence generation and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) creation from Small Baseline Subsets (SBAS). Comparison of these datasets with archaeological, geological, soil, vegetation and meteorological data reveal that several products derived from SAR data can expose various types of archaeological residues under different environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle A Shape-Adjusted Tridimensional Reconstruction of Cultural Heritage Artifacts Using a Miniature Quadrotor
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 858; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8100858
Received: 28 July 2016 / Revised: 28 September 2016 / Accepted: 12 October 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (13325 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The innovative automated 3D modeling procedure presented here was used to reconstruct a Cultural Heritage (CH) object by means of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Using a motion capture system, a small low-cost quadrotor equipped with a miniature low-resolution Raspberry Pi camera module was [...] Read more.
The innovative automated 3D modeling procedure presented here was used to reconstruct a Cultural Heritage (CH) object by means of an unmanned aerial vehicle. Using a motion capture system, a small low-cost quadrotor equipped with a miniature low-resolution Raspberry Pi camera module was accurately controlled in the closed loop mode and made to follow a trajectory around the artifact. A two-stage process ensured the accuracy of the 3D reconstruction process. The images taken during the first circular trajectory were used to draw the artifact’s shape. The second trajectory was smartly and autonomously adjusted to match the artifact’s shape, then it provides new pictures taken close to the artifact and, thus, greatly improves the final 3D reconstruction in terms of the completeness, accuracy and quickness, in particular where the artifact’s shape is complex. The results obtained here using close-range photogrammetric methods show that the process of automated 3D model reconstruction based on a robotized quadrotor using a motion capture system is a realistic approach, which could provide a suitable new digital conservation tool in the cultural heritage field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle A Virtual Restoration Approach for Ancient Plank Road Using Mechanical Analysis with Precision 3D Data of Heritage Site
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 828; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8100828
Received: 6 August 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 9 October 2016
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4436 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ancient plank road is a creative building in the history of Chinese ancient traffic through cliffs. In this paper, a virtual restoration approach for ancient plank road using mechanical analysis with precision 3D data of current heritage site is proposed. Firstly, an [...] Read more.
The ancient plank road is a creative building in the history of Chinese ancient traffic through cliffs. In this paper, a virtual restoration approach for ancient plank road using mechanical analysis with precision 3D data of current heritage site is proposed. Firstly, an aero photogrammetry with multiple view images from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) imaging system is presented to obtain the 3D point cloud of ancient plank roads, which adopts a density image matching and aerial triangulation processing. In addition, a terrestrial laser scanner is integrated to obtain detail 3D data of the plank road. Secondly, a mechanical analysis method based on the precision 3D data of the current plank roads is proposed to determine their forms and restore each of their components with detail sizes. Finally, all components and background scene were added to the existing model to obtain a virtual restoration model, which indicates that it is effective and feasible to achieve a three-dimensional digital and virtual restoration of ancient sites. The Chiya Plank Road is taken as a virtual restoration example with the proposed approach. The restored 3D model of the ancient plank can be widely used for digital management, research, and visualization of ancient plank roads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Feature Extraction in the North Sinai Desert Using Spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar: Potential Archaeological Applications
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(10), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8100825
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 19 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 7 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (15330 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Techniques were implemented to extract anthropogenic features in the desert region of North Sinai using data from the first- and second-generation Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-1 and 2). To obtain a synoptic view over the study area, a mosaic of [...] Read more.
Techniques were implemented to extract anthropogenic features in the desert region of North Sinai using data from the first- and second-generation Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR-1 and 2). To obtain a synoptic view over the study area, a mosaic of average, multitemporal (De Grandi) filtered PALSAR-1 σ° backscatter of North Sinai was produced. Two subset regions were selected for further analysis. The first included an area of abundant linear features of high relative backscatter in a strategic, but sparsely developed area between the Wadi Tumilat and Gebel Maghara. The second included an area of low backscatter anomaly features in a coastal sabkha around the archaeological sites of Tell el-Farama, Tell el-Mahzan, and Tell el-Kanais. Over the subset region between the Wadi Tumilat and Gebel Maghara, algorithms were developed to extract linear features and convert them to vector format to facilitate interpretation. The algorithms were based on mathematical morphology, but to distinguish apparent man-made features from sand dune ridges, several techniques were applied. The first technique took as input the average σ° backscatter and used a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived Local Incidence Angle (LAI) mask to exclude sand dune ridges. The second technique, which proved more effective, used the average interferometric coherence as input. Extracted features were compared with other available information layers and in some cases revealed partially buried roads. Over the coastal subset region a time series of PALSAR-2 spotlight data were processed. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of De Grandi filtered imagery clearly revealed anomaly features of low CoV. These were compared with the results of an archaeological field walking survey carried out previously. The features generally correspond with isolated areas identified in the field survey as having a higher density of archaeological finds, and interpreted as possible islands of dry land, which may have been surrounded by lagoons, rivers, and swamplands in antiquity. It is suggested that these surrounding areas may still have a higher water content, sufficient to be detected in processed Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Cultural Heritage Sites in Danger—Towards Automatic Damage Detection from Space
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 781; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8090781
Received: 1 July 2016 / Revised: 10 August 2016 / Accepted: 18 September 2016 / Published: 21 September 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (16483 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intentional damage to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data provide important information to assess this damage in such non-accessible areas, and automated image processing [...] Read more.
The intentional damage to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data provide important information to assess this damage in such non-accessible areas, and automated image processing techniques will be needed to speed up the analysis if a fast response is desired. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas, based on the extraction of textural information and robust differences of brightness values related to pre- and post-disaster satellite images. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites of interest. Encouraging results are obtained for two archaeological sites in Syria and Iraq. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Detecting Slope and Urban Potential Unstable Areas by Means of Multi-Platform Remote Sensing Techniques: The Volterra (Italy) Case Study
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8090746
Received: 4 July 2016 / Revised: 30 August 2016 / Accepted: 30 August 2016 / Published: 9 September 2016
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (17306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Volterra (Central Italy) is a town of great historical interest, due to its vast and well-preserved cultural heritage, including a 2.6 km long Etruscan-medieval wall enclosure representing one of the most important elements. Volterra is located on a clayey hilltop prone to landsliding, [...] Read more.
Volterra (Central Italy) is a town of great historical interest, due to its vast and well-preserved cultural heritage, including a 2.6 km long Etruscan-medieval wall enclosure representing one of the most important elements. Volterra is located on a clayey hilltop prone to landsliding, soil erosion, therefore the town is subject to structural deterioration. During 2014, two impressive collapses occurred on the wall enclosure in the southwestern urban sector. Following these events, a monitoring campaign was carried out by means of remote sensing techniques, such as space-borne (PS-InSAR) and ground-based (GB-InSAR) radar interferometry, in order to analyze the displacements occurring both in the urban area and the surrounding slopes, and therefore to detect possible critical sectors with respect to instability phenomena. Infrared thermography (IRT) was also applied with the aim of detecting possible criticalities on the wall-enclosure, with special regards to moisture and seepage areas. PS-InSAR data allowed a stability back-monitoring on the area, revealing 19 active clusters displaying ground velocity higher than 10 mm/year in the period 2011–2015. The GB-InSAR system detected an acceleration up to 1.7 mm/h in near-real time as the March 2014 failure precursor. The IRT technique, employed on a double survey campaign, in both dry and rainy conditions, permitted to acquire 65 thermograms covering 23 sectors of the town wall, highlighting four thermal anomalies. The outcomes of this work demonstrate the usefulness of different remote sensing technologies for deriving information in risk prevention and management, and the importance of choosing the appropriate technology depending on the target, time sampling and investigation scale. In this paper, the use of a multi-platform remote sensing system permitted technical support of the local authorities and conservators, providing a comprehensive overview of the Volterra site, its cultural heritage and landscape, both in near-real time and back-analysis and at different scales of investigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Study of the Variations of Archaeological Marks at Neolithic Site of Lucera, Italy Using High-Resolution Multispectral Datasets
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(9), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8090723
Received: 17 July 2016 / Revised: 17 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (7538 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Satellite images have been systematically explored by archaeologists to detect crop marks, which are considered as a proxy for the identification of buried archaeological remains. Even though several existing algorithms are frequently applied, such as histogram enhancements and vegetation indices, the detection of [...] Read more.
Satellite images have been systematically explored by archaeologists to detect crop marks, which are considered as a proxy for the identification of buried archaeological remains. Even though several existing algorithms are frequently applied, such as histogram enhancements and vegetation indices, the detection of crop marks still remains a difficult task, while the final interpretation results can be very poor. This paper aims to present some of the current difficulties of “remote sensing archaeology” in terms of detection and interpretation of crop marks due to the crops’ phenological variations. At the same time, the presented work seeks to evaluate the recently proposed linear equations for the enhancement of crop marks, initially developed for the eastern Mediterranean region. These linear equations re-project the initial n-space spectral into a new 3D orthogonal space determined by three components: a crop mark component, a vegetation component, and a soil component. For the aims of this study, the Lucera archaeological site (southern Italy), where several Neolithic trenches have been identified, was selected. QuickBird and GeoEye high-resolution satellite images were analysed, indicating that vegetation indices may mismatch some crop marks depending on the phenological stage of the vegetation cultivated in the area of the archaeological site. On the contrary, ratios from linear equations were able to spot these crop marks even in shadow areas, indicating that improvements and developments of novel methodologies and equations based on remote sensing datasets can further assist archaeological research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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Open AccessArticle Monitoring Cultural Heritage Sites with Advanced Multi-Temporal InSAR Technique: The Case Study of the Summer Palace
Remote Sens. 2016, 8(5), 432; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs8050432
Received: 12 March 2016 / Revised: 11 May 2016 / Accepted: 17 May 2016 / Published: 21 May 2016
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (11945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cultural heritage sites are rare and irreplaceable wealth of human civilization. The majority of them are becoming unstable due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. High-precision, efficient deformation monitoring facilitates the early recognition of potential risks and enables preventive diagnosis of [...] Read more.
Cultural heritage sites are rare and irreplaceable wealth of human civilization. The majority of them are becoming unstable due to a combination of human and natural disturbances. High-precision, efficient deformation monitoring facilitates the early recognition of potential risks and enables preventive diagnosis of heritage sites. In this study, an advanced Multi-Temporal Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (MTInSAR) approach was developed by jointly analyzing Persistent Scatterers (PSs) and Distributed Scatterers (DSs) using high-resolution SAR images. Taking the World Heritage Site of Summer Palace in Beijing as the experimental site, deformation resulting from PSs/DSs showed that overall the site was generally stable except for specific areas and/or monuments. Urbanization (construction and demolition) triggered new subsidence in the vicinity of East and South Gate of the site. Slight to moderate (mm/cm-level) instabilities of ruins and monuments on Longevity Hill were detected, perhaps due to a combination of destructive anthropogenic activities and long-term natural decay. Subsidence was also detected along the Kunming Lakeside and was probably attributable to variation of the groundwater level, excessive visitor numbers as well as lack of maintenance. This study presents the potential of the MTInSAR approach for the monitoring and conservation of cultural heritage sites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing for Cultural Heritage)
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