Special Issue "Lake Remote Sensing"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Remote Sensing in Geology, Geomorphology and Hydrology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Jean-Francois Crétaux
E-Mail
Guest Editor
CNES/ Legos, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse, France
Interests: satellite remote-sensing for hydrology; geodesy
Dr. Rodrigo Abarca Del Rio
E-Mail
Guest Editor
DGEO, University of Concepcion, Casilla: 160-C, Barrio Universitario S/N, Concepcion, Chile
Interests: remote sensing; lakes; climate variability
Prof. Claude Duguay
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario N2T 2R5, Canada
Interests: remote sensing of the cryosphere and hydrosphere; observations and modelling of lake-atmosphere interactions

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

All around the world, millions of lakes dot the landscape. Scientifically, lakes are of great interest in hydrology, limnology, climatology, biogeochemistry, and geodesy. Lakes and enclosed inland seas are integrators of environmental and climatic changes occurring within their contributing basins. The factors that drive lake conditions vary widely across space and time, and lakes, in turn, impact their surrounding environments in important and diverse ways. Lakes serve as sentinels of current and changing conditions, as actors in influencing their surrounding environments, and as integrators of human and environmental activities in their contributing basins. One of the most fruitful ways that lake scientists might collaborate is via the shared tool of remote sensing, which, through existing and planned sensors, can help to extend on-the-ground measurements to regional and global contexts. Existing and forthcoming remote-sensing technologies possess great potential to accurately monitor lake-storage change, water surface-temperature, ice, and watercolor. The aim of this Special Issue is to make state-of-the-art remote-sensing technology for studying lake changes and their interaction with their environment, and the impact and feedback of the climate change.

Dr. Jean-Francois Crétaux
Dr. Rodrigo Abarca Del Rio
Prof. Claude Duguay
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • remote sensing
  • climate changes
  • reservoirs
  • lake water level
  • lake water storage
  • lake ice
  • lake water colour

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Remote Sensing of Secchi Depth in Highly Turbid Lake Waters and Its Application with MERIS Data
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(19), 2226; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11192226 - 25 Sep 2019
Abstract
The Secchi disk depth (ZSD, m) has been used globally for many decades to represent water clarity and an index of water quality and eutrophication. In recent studies, a new theory and model were developed for ZSD, which [...] Read more.
The Secchi disk depth (ZSD, m) has been used globally for many decades to represent water clarity and an index of water quality and eutrophication. In recent studies, a new theory and model were developed for ZSD, which enabled its semi-analytical remote sensing from the measurement of water color. Although excellent performance was reported for measurements in both oceanic and coastal waters, its reliability for highly turbid inland waters is still unknown. In this study, we extend this model and its evaluation to such environments. In particular, because the accuracy of the inherent optical properties (IOPs) derived from remote sensing reflectance (Rrs, sr−1) plays a key role in determining the reliability of estimated ZSD, we first evaluated a few quasi-analytical algorithms (QAA) specifically tuned for turbid inland waters and determined the one (QAATI) that performed the best in such environments. For the absorption coefficient at 443 nm (a(443), m−1) ranging from ~0.2 to 12.5 m−1, it is found that the QAATI-derived absorption coefficients agree well with field measurements (r2 > 0.85, and mean absolute percentage difference (MAPD) smaller than ~39%). Furthermore, with QAATI-derived IOPs, the MAPD was less than 25% between the estimated and field-measured ZSD (r2 > 0.67, ZSD in a range of 0.1–1.7 m). Furthermore, using matchup data between Rrs from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and in-situ ZSD, a similar performance in the estimation of ZSD from remote sensing was obtained (r2 = 0.73, MAPD = 37%, ZSD in a range of 0.1–0.9 m). Based on such performances, we are confident to apply the ZSD remote sensing scheme to MERIS measurements to characterize the spatial and temporal variations of ZSD in Lake Taihu during the period of 2003–2011. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
A High-Resolution Airborne Color-Infrared Camera Water Mask for the NASA ABoVE Campaign
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(18), 2163; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11182163 - 17 Sep 2019
Abstract
The airborne AirSWOT instrument suite, consisting of an interferometric Ka-band synthetic aperture radar and color-infrared (CIR) camera, was deployed to northern North America in July and August 2017 as part of the NASA Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE). We present validated, open (i.e., vegetation-free) [...] Read more.
The airborne AirSWOT instrument suite, consisting of an interferometric Ka-band synthetic aperture radar and color-infrared (CIR) camera, was deployed to northern North America in July and August 2017 as part of the NASA Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE). We present validated, open (i.e., vegetation-free) surface water masks produced from high-resolution (1 m), co-registered AirSWOT CIR imagery using a semi-automated, object-based water classification. The imagery and resulting high-resolution water masks are available as open-access datasets and support interpretation of AirSWOT radar and other coincident ABoVE image products, including LVIS, UAVSAR, AIRMOSS, AVIRIS-NG, and CFIS. These synergies offer promising potential for multi-sensor analysis of Arctic-Boreal surface water bodies. In total, 3167 km2 of open surface water were mapped from 23,380 km2 of flight lines spanning 23 degrees of latitude and broad environmental gradients. Detected water body sizes range from 0.00004 km2 (40 m2) to 15 km2. Power-law extrapolations are commonly used to estimate the abundance of small lakes from coarser resolution imagery, and our mapped water bodies followed power-law distributions, but only for water bodies greater than 0.34 (±0.13) km2 in area. For water bodies exceeding this size threshold, the coefficients of power-law fits vary for different Arctic-Boreal physiographic terrains (wetland, prairie pothole, lowland river valley, thermokarst, and Canadian Shield). Thus, direct mapping using high-resolution imagery remains the most accurate way to estimate the abundance of small surface water bodies. We conclude that empirical scaling relationships, useful for estimating total trace gas exchange and aquatic habitats on Arctic-Boreal landscapes, are uniquely enabled by high-resolution AirSWOT-like mappings and automated detection methods such as those developed here. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
Volumetric Analysis of Reservoirs in Drought-Prone Areas Using Remote Sensing Products
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(17), 1974; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11171974 - 22 Aug 2019
Abstract
Globally, the number of dams increased dramatically during the 20th century. As a result, monitoring water levels and storage volume of dam-reservoirs has become essential in order to understand water resource availability amid changing climate and drought patterns. Recent advancements in remote sensing [...] Read more.
Globally, the number of dams increased dramatically during the 20th century. As a result, monitoring water levels and storage volume of dam-reservoirs has become essential in order to understand water resource availability amid changing climate and drought patterns. Recent advancements in remote sensing data show great potential for studies pertaining to long-term monitoring of reservoir water volume variations. In this study, we used freely available remote sensing products to assess volume variations for Lake Mead, Lake Powell and reservoirs in California between 1984 and 2015. Additionally, we provided insights on reservoir water volume fluctuations and hydrological drought patterns in the region. We based our volumetric estimations on the area–elevation hypsometry relationship, by combining water areas from the Global Surface Water (GSW) monthly water history (MWH) product with corresponding water surface median elevation values from three different digital elevation models (DEM) into a regression analysis. Using Lake Mead and Lake Powell as our validation reservoirs, we calculated a volumetric time series for the GSWMWH–DEMmedian elevation combinations that showed a strong linear ‘area (WA) – elevation (WH)’ (R2 > 0.75) hypsometry. Based on ‘WA-WH’ linearity and correlation analysis between the estimated and in situ volumetric time series, the methodology was expanded to reservoirs in California. Our volumetric results detected four distinct periods of water volume declines: 1987–1992, 2000–2004, 2007–2009 and 2012–2015 for Lake Mead, Lake Powell and in 40 reservoirs in California. We also used multiscalar Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) for San Joaquin drainage in California to assess regional links between the drought indicators and reservoir volume fluctuations. We found highest correlations between reservoir volume variations and the SPEI at medium time scales (12–18–24–36 months). Our work demonstrates the potential of processed, open source remote sensing products for reservoir water volume variations and provides insights on usability of these variations in hydrological drought monitoring. Furthermore, the spatial coverage and long-term temporal availability of our data presents an opportunity to transfer these methods for volumetric analyses on a global scale. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
An Object-Based Classification Method to Detect Methane Ebullition Bubbles in Early Winter Lake Ice
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(7), 822; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11070822 - 05 Apr 2019
Abstract
Thermokarst lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic release carbon from thawing permafrost in the form of methane and carbon dioxide with important implications for regional and global carbon cycles. Lake ice impedes the release of gas during the winter. For instance, bubbles released [...] Read more.
Thermokarst lakes in the Arctic and Subarctic release carbon from thawing permafrost in the form of methane and carbon dioxide with important implications for regional and global carbon cycles. Lake ice impedes the release of gas during the winter. For instance, bubbles released from lake sediments become trapped in downward growing lake ice, resulting in vertically-oriented bubble columns in the ice that are visible on the lake surface. We here describe a classification technique using an object-based image analysis (OBIA) framework to successfully map ebullition bubbles in airborne imagery of early winter ice on an interior Alaska thermokarst lake. Ebullition bubbles appear as white patches in high-resolution optical remote sensing images of snow-free lake ice acquired in early winter and, thus, can be mapped across whole lake areas. We used high-resolution (9–11 cm) aerial images acquired two and four days following freeze-up in the years 2011 and 2012, respectively. The design of multiresolution segmentation and region-specific classification rulesets allowed the identification of bubble features and separation from other confounding factors such as snow, submerged and floating vegetation, shadows, and open water. The OBIA technique had an accuracy of >95% for mapping ebullition bubble patches in early winter lake ice. Overall, we mapped 1195 and 1860 ebullition bubble patches in the 2011 and 2012 images, respectively. The percent surface area of lake ice covered with ebullition bubble patches for 2011 was 2.14% and for 2012 was 2.67%, representing a conservative whole lake estimate of bubble patches compared to ground surveys usually conducted on thicker ice 10 or more days after freeze-up. Our findings suggest that the information derived from high-resolution optical images of lake ice can supplement spatially limited field sampling methods to better estimate methane flux from individual lakes. The method can also be used to improve estimates of methane ebullition from numerous lakes within larger regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Remote Sensing)
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Open AccessArticle
A Multisensor Approach to Satellite Monitoring of Trends in Lake Area, Water Level, and Volume
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(2), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11020158 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Lakes in arid regions play an important role in regional water cycles and are a vital economic resource, but can fluctuate widely in area and volume. This study demonstrates the use of a multisensor satellite remote sensing method for the comprehensive monitoring of [...] Read more.
Lakes in arid regions play an important role in regional water cycles and are a vital economic resource, but can fluctuate widely in area and volume. This study demonstrates the use of a multisensor satellite remote sensing method for the comprehensive monitoring of lake surface areas, water levels, and volume for the Toshka Lakes in southern Egypt, from lake formation in 1998 to mid-2017. Two spectral water indices were used to construct a daily time-series of surface area from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), validated by higher-resolution Landsat images. Water levels were obtained from analysis of digital elevation models from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), validated with ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) laser altimetry. Total lake volume peaked at 26.54 × 109 m3 in December 2001, and declined to 0.76 × 109 m3 by August 2017. Evaporation accounted for approximately 86% of the loss, and groundwater recharge accounted for 14%. Without additional inflows, the last remaining lake will likely disappear between 2020 and 2022. The Enhanced Lake Index, a water index equivalent to the Enhanced Vegetation Index, was found to have lower noise levels than the Normalized Difference Lake Index. The results show that multi-platform satellite remote sensing provides an efficient method for monitoring the hydrology of lakes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lake Remote Sensing)
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