Special Issue "Monitoring of Active Deformation Areas: A Role for Synthetic Aperture Radar"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 July 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jin-Woo Kim
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Research Scientist, Roy M. Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University; 3225 Daniel Ave, Suite 207, Dallas, TX 75205
Interests: SAR, InSAR, active deformation, deformation monitoring

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

There is globally widespread active deformation caused by natural and anthropogenic processes. Earthquakes and volcanisms are two well-known natural geohazards that dislocate the subsurface and surface as a part of geophysical tectonic processes. In addition to those, many people are living adjacent to areas susceptible to landslides and flooding during wet seasons. Moreover, humans themselves induce deformation; land subsidence in arid areas due to the intensive groundwater withdrawal, surface uplift caused by fluid injection, and sinkhole occurrence resulting from mismanagement of water resources. It is crucial to monitor the active deformation for mitigating its consequences; i.e., damages to the infrastructures (roads, railroads, pipelines), fatalities, and property losses.

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique day-and-night sensor to image the ground surface experiencing deformation at a large and small spatial scale. SAR interferometry (InSAR) is a popularly used technique to quantify ground shift and assess the active deformation through exploiting phase information. Offset tracking using the correlation of SAR intensity is also a useful geodetic method to supplement or enhance the phase analysis in deformation monitoring.  

This Special Issue will gather original research articles, reviews, technical notes, and letters to redeem a role of SAR in monitoring active deformation areas that helps to mitigate the hazards and support decision processes of authorities. Research studies are not limited to the single use of SAR images, but the synergetic use with other sensors (i.e., LiDAR, optical images, field survey) is also welcome. Studies related to large-scale (>50 km wide) mapping and in-depth analysis with SAR imagery are preferred, but small-scale mapping related to natural and anthropogenic disturbance is also encouraged.

Dr. Jin-Woo Kim
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Deformation monitoring
  • Use of SAR
  • InSAR and offset tracking
  • Natural and anthropogenic hazards
  • Large-scale and small-scale mapping
  • Deformation mechanism and modeling

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Integration of DInSAR and SBAS Techniques to Determine Mining-Related Deformations Using Sentinel-1 Data: The Case Study of Rydułtowy Mine in Poland
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020242 - 10 Jan 2020
Abstract
Underground coal exploitation often results in land-surface subsidence, the rate of which depends on geological characteristics, the mechanical properties of the rocks, and the applied extraction technology. Since mining-related subsidence is characterized by “fast” displacement and high nonlinearity, monitoring this process by using [...] Read more.
Underground coal exploitation often results in land-surface subsidence, the rate of which depends on geological characteristics, the mechanical properties of the rocks, and the applied extraction technology. Since mining-related subsidence is characterized by “fast” displacement and high nonlinearity, monitoring this process by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is very challenging. The Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach needs to predefine an a priori deformation model to properly estimate an interferometric component related to displacements. As a consequence, there is a lack of distributed scatterers (DS) when the selected a priori deformation model deviates from the real deformation. The conventional differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) approach does not have this limitation, since it does not need any deformation model. However, the accuracy of this technique is limited by factors related to spatial and temporal decorrelation, signal delays due to the atmospheric artifacts, and orbital or topographic errors. Therefore, this study presents the integration of DInSAR and SBAS techniques in order to leverage the advantages and overcome the disadvantages of both methods and to retrieve the complete deformation pattern over the investigated study area. The obtained results were evaluated internally and externally with leveling data. Results indicated that the Kriging-based integration method of DInSAR and SBAS can be effectively applied to monitor mining-related subsidence. The root-mean-square Error (RMSE) between modeled and measured deformation by InSAR was found to be 11 and 13 mm for vertical and horizontal displacements, respectively. Moreover, DInSAR technique as a cost-effective and complementary method to conventional geodetic techniques can be applied for effective monitoring fast mining subsidence. The minimum and maximum RMSE between DInSAR displacement and specific leveling profiles were found to be 0.9 and 3.2 cm, respectively. Since the SBAS processing failed in subsidence estimation in the area of maximum deformation rate, the deformation estimates outside the maximum rate could only be compared. In these areas, the good agreement between SBAS and DInSAR indicates that the SBAS technique could be reliable for monitoring the residual subsidence that surrounds the subsidence trough. Using the proposed approach, we detected subsidence of up to −1 m and planar displacements (east–west) of up to 0.24 m. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Geodetic Measurements and Numerical Models of Deformation at Coso Geothermal Field, California, USA, 2004–2016
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs12020225 - 09 Jan 2020
Abstract
We measure transient deformation at Coso geothermal field using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2016 and relative positions estimated from global positioning system (GPS) to quantify relationships between deformation and pumping. We parameterize the reservoir as a cuboidal [...] Read more.
We measure transient deformation at Coso geothermal field using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired between 2004 and 2016 and relative positions estimated from global positioning system (GPS) to quantify relationships between deformation and pumping. We parameterize the reservoir as a cuboidal sink and solve for best-fitting reservoir dimensions and locations before and after 2010 in accordance with sustainability efforts implemented in late 2009 at the site. Time-series analysis is performed on volume changes estimated from pairs of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and daily GPS data. We identify decreasing pore-fluid pressure as the dominant mechanism driving the subsidence observed at Coso geothermal field. We also find a significant positive correlation between deformation and production rate. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparing DInSAR and PSI Techniques Employed to Sentinel-1 Data to Monitor Highway Stability: A Case Study of a Massive Dobkovičky Landslide, Czech Republic
Remote Sens. 2019, 11(22), 2670; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs11222670 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Single-pair differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) as well as more advanced methods, such as persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI), allow vertical displacements to be detected at the sub-centimeter level. Since 2014 free SAR data—Sentinel-1—have been collected systematically under the COPERNICUS program at a [...] Read more.
Single-pair differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry (DInSAR) as well as more advanced methods, such as persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI), allow vertical displacements to be detected at the sub-centimeter level. Since 2014 free SAR data—Sentinel-1—have been collected systematically under the COPERNICUS program at a high temporal resolution and with global coverage. Such an open-access policy greatly helps build a wide user-community and develop diverse SAR-based applications. In this study conventional single-pair DInSAR and the PSI techniques were employed to monitor the vertical displacements of the newly constructed D8 highway, more specifically the part passing through the České Středohoří Mountains, where, during highway construction, a massive landslide occurred in June 2013. For both DInSAR and PSI, free Sentinel-1 radar data were used; moreover, the conventional single-pair DInSAR workflow was processed using freely available SNAP software. Results from the radar interferometry were validated using in situ techniques, such as geodetic measurements, 3D inclinometers, and laser scanning. Both approaches proved their ability to achieve reliable results in detecting vertical displacement “hotspots”. Additionally, in terms of absolute values, the PSI interferometry corresponds very well with the in situ measurements. This study also shows that open-source solutions (free data and SW) provided under the COPERNICUS program bring a great potential for monitoring vertical displacements. Full article
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