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Integration of DInSAR and SBAS Techniques to Determine Mining-Related Deformations Using Sentinel-1 Data: The Case Study of Rydułtowy Mine in Poland

Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Remote Sens. 2020, 12(2), 242;
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 10 January 2020
Underground coal exploitation often results in land-surface subsidence, the rate of which depends on geological characteristics, the mechanical properties of the rocks, and the applied extraction technology. Since mining-related subsidence is characterized by “fast” displacement and high nonlinearity, monitoring this process by using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is very challenging. The Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) approach needs to predefine an a priori deformation model to properly estimate an interferometric component related to displacements. As a consequence, there is a lack of distributed scatterers (DS) when the selected a priori deformation model deviates from the real deformation. The conventional differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR) approach does not have this limitation, since it does not need any deformation model. However, the accuracy of this technique is limited by factors related to spatial and temporal decorrelation, signal delays due to the atmospheric artifacts, and orbital or topographic errors. Therefore, this study presents the integration of DInSAR and SBAS techniques in order to leverage the advantages and overcome the disadvantages of both methods and to retrieve the complete deformation pattern over the investigated study area. The obtained results were evaluated internally and externally with leveling data. Results indicated that the Kriging-based integration method of DInSAR and SBAS can be effectively applied to monitor mining-related subsidence. The root-mean-square Error (RMSE) between modeled and measured deformation by InSAR was found to be 11 and 13 mm for vertical and horizontal displacements, respectively. Moreover, DInSAR technique as a cost-effective and complementary method to conventional geodetic techniques can be applied for effective monitoring fast mining subsidence. The minimum and maximum RMSE between DInSAR displacement and specific leveling profiles were found to be 0.9 and 3.2 cm, respectively. Since the SBAS processing failed in subsidence estimation in the area of maximum deformation rate, the deformation estimates outside the maximum rate could only be compared. In these areas, the good agreement between SBAS and DInSAR indicates that the SBAS technique could be reliable for monitoring the residual subsidence that surrounds the subsidence trough. Using the proposed approach, we detected subsidence of up to −1 m and planar displacements (east–west) of up to 0.24 m. View Full-Text
Keywords: DInSAR; SBAS; interferometry; mining; subsidence DInSAR; SBAS; interferometry; mining; subsidence
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Pawluszek-Filipiak, K.; Borkowski, A. Integration of DInSAR and SBAS Techniques to Determine Mining-Related Deformations Using Sentinel-1 Data: The Case Study of Rydułtowy Mine in Poland. Remote Sens. 2020, 12, 242.

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