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Precipitation Retrievals from Satellite and Radar Data

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2022) | Viewed by 5495

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Laboratory for Climatology and Remote Sensing, FB 19 Geography, Philipps-University of Marburg, Deutschausstr. 10, D-35032 Marburg, Germany
Interests: radar meteorology; climate variability, extremes and trends; precipitation: dynamics and hydrological impact; atmospheric modeling & remote sensing; land surface-atmosphere interactions; solar and eolic energy potential; mountain ecosystems; tropics and arid environments; South America
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The observation of regional and global precipitation has improved considerably in the last few decades with the worldwide implementation of dedicated weather radar networks and satellite missions. Specifically, this includes the Tropical Rain Fall Measurement Mission (TRMM) and its successor Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM), but new techniques of analyzing other satellite products have also contributed to advances in the field. Yet, there is still a gap to fill between the local scale represented by traditional point measurements and the large scale of remotely sensed data. The methodological challenge remains to identify, understand and compensate the characteristics of the different sensors employed for each task. This is not only with regard to precipitation amounts, but also considering the microphysical characteristics of precipitation, processes and dynamics of cloud and rain formation and the hydrological and socio-economic impact of the high temporal and spatial variability of precipitation.

Another open question in this field of research is the impact of global environmental and climate change. While for air temperature the temporal trend is quite obvious, for precipitation the issue is much more complex and there are contrasting hypotheses of increasing or decreasing rainfall, increases in extreme events or changes in precipitation characteristics and spatial distribution.

Bringing together the data of ground-based precipitation radars with space-borne sensors is an urgent topic and the main aim of this Special Issue. Special importance is given to research considering longer time periods and/or detailed analyses of precipitation events with a combined set of sensors, unraveling the strengths and limitations of each individual approach. Studies contributing new and unpublished datasets from around the world are also welcome, specifically when regions are covered where data availability has been low in the past.

Suggested themes and article types for submissions.

Research articles:

- Studies of precipitation calibration and validation for quantity, areal extension, microphysics and dynamic development of rain events.

- Studies of drought and extreme precipitation from the satellite and/or ground-based radar perspective.

Reviews:

- Long-term analyses of data quality and temporal trends from satellite retrievals and ground-based radar.

- Development of technology, methodology and data availability of satellite and ground-based radar.

Technical Notes:

- Proposals of new sensor and/or instrument types.

- Innovative  methodological advances including machine learning techniques and/or computer vision.

Communication:

- Reporting recent events of unusual precipitation characteristics with limited temporal scope observed by satellite and/or radar.

- Setup of new sensor networks and projects aiming at improving the integration of satellite and ground-based radar data.

Dr. Ruetger Rollenbeck
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • satellite precipitation retrieval
  • weather radar
  • integrated sensor networks
  • sensor calibration
  • extreme events
  • precipitation dynamics

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

22 pages, 6893 KiB  
Article
The Coastal El Niño Event of 2017 in Ecuador and Peru: A Weather Radar Analysis
by Rütger Rollenbeck, Johanna Orellana-Alvear, Jörg Bendix, Rodolfo Rodriguez, Franz Pucha-Cofrep, Mario Guallpa, Andreas Fries and Rolando Célleri
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(4), 824; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14040824 - 10 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
The coastal regions of South Ecuador and Peru belong to the areas experiencing the strongest impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon. However, the impact and dynamic development of weather patterns during those events are not well understood, due to the sparse [...] Read more.
The coastal regions of South Ecuador and Peru belong to the areas experiencing the strongest impact of the El Niño Southern Oscillation phenomenon. However, the impact and dynamic development of weather patterns during those events are not well understood, due to the sparse observational networks. In spite of neutral to cold conditions after the decaying 2015/16 El Niño in the central Pacific, the coastal region was hit by torrential rainfall in 2017 causing floods, erosion and landslides with many fatalities and significant damages to infrastructure. A new network of X-band weather radar systems in South Ecuador and North Peru allowed, for the first time, the spatio-temporally high-resolution monitoring of rainfall dynamics, also covering the 2017 event. Here, we compare this episode to the period 2014–2018 to point out the specific atmospheric process dynamics of this event. We found that isolated warming of the Niño 1 and 2 region sea surface temperature was the initial driver of the strong rainfall, but local weather patterns were modified by topography interacting with the synoptic situation. The high resolution radar data, for the first time, allowed to monitor previously unknown local spots of heavy rainfall during ENSO-related extreme events, associated with dynamic flow convergence initiated by low-level thermal breezes. Altogether, the coastal El Niño of 2017, at the same time, caused positive rainfall anomalies in the coastal plain and on the eastern slopes of the Andes, the latter normally associated only with La Niña events. Thus, the 2017 event must be attributed to the La Niña Modoki type. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precipitation Retrievals from Satellite and Radar Data)
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20 pages, 4865 KiB  
Article
A Comparison of Convective and Stratiform Precipitation Microphysics of the Record-breaking Typhoon In-Fa (2021)
by Zuhang Wu, Yun Zhang, Lifeng Zhang, Hepeng Zheng and Xingtao Huang
Remote Sens. 2022, 14(2), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs14020344 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
In July 2021, Typhoon In-Fa attacked eastern China and broke many records for extreme precipitation over the last century. Such an unrivaled impact results from In-Fa’s slow moving speed and long residence time due to atmospheric circulations. With the supports of 66 networked [...] Read more.
In July 2021, Typhoon In-Fa attacked eastern China and broke many records for extreme precipitation over the last century. Such an unrivaled impact results from In-Fa’s slow moving speed and long residence time due to atmospheric circulations. With the supports of 66 networked surface disdrometers over eastern China and collaborative observations from the advanced GPM satellite, we are able to reveal the unique precipitation microphysical properties of the record-breaking Typhoon In-Fa (2021). After separating the typhoon precipitation into convective and stratiform types and comparing the drop size distribution (DSD) properties of Typhoon In-Fa with other typhoons from different climate regimes, it is found that typhoon precipitation shows significant internal differences as well as regional differences in terms of DSD-related parameters, such as mass-weighted mean diameter (Dm), normalized intercept parameter (Nw), radar reflectivity (Z), rain rate (R), and intercept, shape, and slope parameters (N0, µ, Λ). Comparing different rain types inside Typhoon In-Fa, convective rain (Nw ranging from 3.80 to 3.96 mm−1 m−3) shows higher raindrop concentration than stratiform rain (Nw ranging from 3.40 to 3.50 mm−1 m−3) due to more graupels melting into liquid water while falling. Large raindrops occupy most of the region below the melting layer in convective rain due to a dominant coalescence process of small raindrops (featured by larger ZKu, Dm, and smaller N0, µ, Λ), while small raindrops account for a considerable proportion in stratiform rain, reflecting a significant collisional breakup process of large raindrops (featured by smaller ZKu, Dm, and larger N0, µ, Λ). Compared with other typhoons in Hainan and Taiwan, the convective precipitation of Typhoon In-Fa shows a larger (smaller) raindrop concentration than that of Taiwan (Hainan), while smaller raindrop diameter than both Hainan and Taiwan. Moreover, the typhoon convective precipitation measured in In-Fa is more maritime-like than precipitation in Taiwan. Based on a great number of surface disdrometer observational data, the GPM precipitation products were further validated for both rain types, and a series of native quantitative precipitation estimation relations, such as ZR and RDm relations were derived to improve the typhoon rainfall retrieval for both ground-based radar and spaceborne radar. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Precipitation Retrievals from Satellite and Radar Data)
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