Special Issue "Remote Sensing of Engineering Problems in Karst"

A special issue of Remote Sensing (ISSN 2072-4292). This special issue belongs to the section "Engineering Remote Sensing".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Mario Floris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Geosciences, University of Padua, 35122 Padua, Italy
Interests: rainfall-induced landslides; GIS-based landslide hazard assessment; SAR interferometry applied to landslides and subsidence
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Mario Parise
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Earth and Geo-Environmental Sciences, Università Aldo Moro di Bari, Bari, Italy
Interests: karst; geological hazards; sinkholes; susceptibility to collapse; landslides; slope movements mapping; hydrogeology; flash flood
Prof. Dr. Zhong Lu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Huffington Department of Earth Sciences, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX, USA
Interests: SAR; InSAR; time-series InSAR; geophysical modeling; volcanoes; landslides; geohazards
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Giulia Tessari
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sarmap SA, Switzerland
Interests: space-borne SAR interferometry to monitor geological hazards and instability phenomena such as landslides, subsidence, sinkholes; even man-made structures as well as buildings and infrastructures affected by possible damage; modelling the sources of the cause of these events to understand their triggering factors
Dr. Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
GIS and Remote Sensing Laboratory, Division of Applied Geology and Geophysics, University of Patras, GR-265 04 Patra, Greece
Interests: GIS; remote sensing; photogrammetery; UAV; USV and GNSS appilcations in geology–geomorphology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Karst phenomena can result in the formation of spectacular natural landscapes, which can be partly exploited as show caves and tourist sites, but, at the same time, they can represent serious threats to human property and activity. Numerous anthropic structures and infrastructures are underlain by karstified bedrocks around the world, and about 20% of population lives on or nearby karst-prone areas. Consequently, karst phenomena pose an increasing number of engineering challenges because the surface displacements induced by the underground dissolution processes can seriously damage or sometimes even destroy man-made structures. In facing these problems, the first step is the detection and monitoring of the phenomena and the elements at risk. This requires an investigation at different spatial scales under different surface conditions (topography, land cover, soil properties, geological settings). To this end, remote sensing represents a useful tool to monitor the spatial and temporal evolution of ground deformations due to karst processes in order to carry out effective mitigation strategies through the detection of the hazardous areas and the most exposed elements. Remote sensing acquisitions from terrestrial, airborne, and satellite sensors along with optical, hyperspectral, Lidar, and SAR techniques, are nowadays able to provide key information on detecting and monitoring karst processes and evolution. Results obtained from remote sensing observations can be integrated with geological and geophysical measurements for modelling the instability and the associated causal factors, and for assessing the vulnerability of anthropic elements as well.

Our aim is to realize a Special Issue that serves as a reference point for remote sensing applications aimed at the detection, characterization, and monitoring of karst processes and their effects on structures/infrastructures at risk. Toward this goal, we encourage scientists and engineers to submit the results of their experiences on engineering problems in karst using remote sensing data and innovative methods for hazard and risk assessment.

Prof. Mario Floris
Prof. Mario Parise
Prof. Zhong Lu
Dr. Giulia Tessari
Prof. Konstantinos G. Nikolakopoulos
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Remote Sensing is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • karst
  • remote sensing
  • detection
  • monitoring
  • modelling
  • hazard
  • vulnerability
  • risk
  • mitigation strategies

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Article
Evaluating the Applicability of Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing in Estimating Water Potential of the Karst Aquifer: A Case Study in North Adriatic, Croatia
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(18), 3737; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13183737 - 17 Sep 2021
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Abstract
One of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Adriatic coast, the city of Opatija, is facing a problem concerning seasonal drinking water shortages. The existing water resources are no longer sufficient, and attention is being given to alternative resources such as the [...] Read more.
One of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Adriatic coast, the city of Opatija, is facing a problem concerning seasonal drinking water shortages. The existing water resources are no longer sufficient, and attention is being given to alternative resources such as the underlying karstic aquifer and several coastal springs in the city itself. However, the water potential of the area still cannot be estimated due to the insufficient hydrological data. The goal of this research was to evaluate the use of thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing as the source of valuable information that will improve our understanding of the groundwater discharge dynamics. Ten Landsat ETM+ (enhanced thematic mapper plus) and two Landsat TM (thematic mapper) images of the north Adriatic, recorded during 1999–2004 at the same time as the field discharge measurements, were used to derive sea surface temperature (SST) and to analyze freshwater outflows seen as the thermal anomaly in the TIR images. The approach is based on finding the functional relationship between the size of the freshwater thermal signatures and the measured discharge data, and to estimate the water potential of the underlying aquifer. It also involved analyzing the possible connection between the adjusted size of the spring’s thermal signatures and groundwater level fluctuations in the deeper karst hinterland. The proposed methodology resulted in realistic discharge estimates, as well as a good fit between thermal anomalies with measured discharges and the groundwater level. It should be emphasized that the results are site specific and based on a limited data set. However, they confirm that the proposed method can provide additional information on groundwater outflow dynamics and coastal springs’ freshwater quantification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Engineering Problems in Karst)
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Article
The Detection of Active Sinkholes by Airborne Differential LiDAR DEMs and InSAR Cloud Computing Tools
Remote Sens. 2021, 13(16), 3261; https://doi.org/10.3390/rs13163261 - 18 Aug 2021
Viewed by 474
Abstract
InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) cloud computing and the subtraction of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) are innovative approaches to detect subsidence in karst areas. InSAR cloud computing allows for analyzing C-band Envisat and Sentinel S1 SAR images through [...] Read more.
InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) cloud computing and the subtraction of LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) DEMs (Digital Elevation Models) are innovative approaches to detect subsidence in karst areas. InSAR cloud computing allows for analyzing C-band Envisat and Sentinel S1 SAR images through web platforms to produce displacement maps of the Earth’s surface in an easy manner. The subtraction of serial LiDAR DEMs results in the same product but with a different level of accuracy and precision than InSAR maps. Here, we analyze the capability of these products to detect active sinkholes in the mantled evaporite karst of the Ebro Valley (NE Spain). We found that the capability of the displacement maps produced with open access, high-resolution airborne LiDAR DEMs was up to four times higher than InSAR displacement maps generated by the Geohazard Exploitation Platform (GEP). Differential LiDAR maps provide accurate information about the location, active sectors, maximum subsidence rate and growing trend of the most rapid and damaging sinkholes. Unfortunately, artifacts and the subsidence detection limit established at −4 cm/yr entailed important limitations in the precise mapping of the sinkhole edges and the detection of slow-moving sinkholes and small collapses. Although InSAR maps provided by GEP show a worse performance when identifying active sinkholes, in some cases they can serve as a complementary technique to overcome LiDAR limitations in urban areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Remote Sensing of Engineering Problems in Karst)
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