Bacterial Polymers (Closed)

A topical collection in Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This collection belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

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Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bacteria are able to synthesize numerous biopolymers with different biological functions, acting as reserve material, protective capsules, and biofilm matrix components, which possess suitable material properties for industrial and medical applications. Bacterial polymers can be classified as polysaccharides, polyamides, polyesters, and inorganic polyanhydrides.

The current knowledge in the biosynthesis route and key enzymes has driven genetic engineering toward novel polymer production with unique and value-added material properties also supporting economic efficiency. In particular, metabolic engineering exploitation has led to new hosts able to synthesize even polythioesters and polylactic acid.

However, a higher understanding of the bioprocess and three-dimensional architecture of polymerases and synthases, or the respective polymerization, in order to enhance the efficiency of engineering experiments, is needed.

This Topical Collection addresses all the above areas in bacterial polymers, focusing on the engineering approaches and recent advances in the analysis of the polymer structure–material property relationship. Moreover, the key aspects of bacterial biopolymer production interconnected with polymer biosynthesis and material properties are of interest, as this approach can redirect the polymer industry toward the use of bacterial polymers as important renewable products.

Prof. Dr. Dan C. Vodnar
Collection Editor

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Keywords

  • bacterial polymers
  • biosynthesis
  • applications
  • metabolic engineering
  • material properties

Published Papers (2 papers)

2023

Jump to: 2021

20 pages, 2727 KiB  
Article
Processing of Grape Bagasse and Potato Wastes for the Co-Production of Bacterial Cellulose and Gluconic Acid in an Airlift Bioreactor
by Manuel Vázquez, Gema Puertas and Patricia Cazón
Polymers 2023, 15(19), 3944; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15193944 - 29 Sep 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 939
Abstract
The feasibility of using Garnacha Tintorera bagasse and potato wastes as substrate for the co-production of bacterial cellulose (BC) and gluconic acid by Komagataibacter xylinus fermentation was studied. Firstly, the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of bagasse was evaluated depending on the sulfuric acid concentration [...] Read more.
The feasibility of using Garnacha Tintorera bagasse and potato wastes as substrate for the co-production of bacterial cellulose (BC) and gluconic acid by Komagataibacter xylinus fermentation was studied. Firstly, the sulfuric acid hydrolysis of bagasse was evaluated depending on the sulfuric acid concentration (2–4%), temperature (105–125 °C), and time (60–180 min). The bagasse hydrolysates showed a low monosaccharide concentration profile: glucose 3.24–5.40 g/L; cellobiose 0.00–0.48 g/L; arabinose 0.66–1.64 g/L and xylose 3.24–5.40 g/L. However, the hydrolysis treatment enhanced the total phenolic content of the bagasse extract (from 4.39 up to 12.72 mg GAE/g dried bagasse). The monosaccharide profile of the culture medium was improved by the addition of potato residues. From a medium containing bagasse–potato powder (50:50 w/w) and optimal hydrolysate conditions (125 °C for 60 min and 2% H2SO4), the composition of glucose increased up to 30.14 g/L. After 8 days of fermentation in an airlift bioreactor by Komagataibacter xylinus, 4 g dried BC/L and 26.41 g gluconic acid/L were obtained with a BC productivity of 0.021 g/L·h, an efficiency of 0.37 g/g and yield of 0.47 g/g. The productivity of gluconic acid was 0.14 g/L·h with an efficiency of 0.93 g/g and yield of 0.72 g/g. This research demonstrates the promising potential of utilizing waste materials, specifically Garnacha Tintorera bagasse and potato residues, as sustainable substrates for the co-production of valuable bioproducts, such as bacterial cellulose and gluconic acid. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2023

16 pages, 2734 KiB  
Review
Acetan and Acetan-Like Polysaccharides: Genetics, Biosynthesis, Structure, and Viscoelasticity
by Janja Trček, Iztok Dogsa, Tomaž Accetto and David Stopar
Polymers 2021, 13(5), 815; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym13050815 - 7 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3145
Abstract
Bacteria produce a variety of multifunctional polysaccharides, including structural, intracellular, and extracellular polysaccharides. They are attractive for the industrial sector due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability, low toxicity, stability, unique viscoelastic properties, stable cost, and supply. When incorporated into different matrices, they [...] Read more.
Bacteria produce a variety of multifunctional polysaccharides, including structural, intracellular, and extracellular polysaccharides. They are attractive for the industrial sector due to their natural origin, sustainability, biodegradability, low toxicity, stability, unique viscoelastic properties, stable cost, and supply. When incorporated into different matrices, they may control emulsification, stabilization, crystallization, water release, and encapsulation. Acetan is an important extracellular water-soluble polysaccharide produced mainly by bacterial species of the genera Komagataeibacter and Acetobacter. Since its original description in Komagataeibacter xylinus, acetan-like polysaccharides have also been described in other species of acetic acid bacteria. Our knowledge on chemical composition of different acetan-like polysaccharides, their viscoelasticity, and the genetic basis for their production has expanded during the last years. Here, we review data on acetan biosynthesis, its molecular structure, genetic organization, and mechanical properties. In addition, we have performed an extended bioinformatic analysis on acetan-like polysaccharide genetic clusters in the genomes of Komagataeibacter and Acetobacter species. The analysis revealed for the first time a second acetan-like polysaccharide genetic cluster, that is widespread in both genera. All species of the Komagataeibacter possess at least one acetan genetic cluster, while it is present in only one third of the Acetobacter species surveyed. Full article
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