Bio-Based Polymers: Synthesis and Applications

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomacromolecules, Biobased and Biodegradable Polymers".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 August 2024 | Viewed by 6130

Special Issue Editors

Department of Chemistry and International Institute of Nanotechnology, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208, USA
Interests: biopolymer; synthetic melanin; polypeptide; nanoparticle; self-assembly
Department of Chemistry and Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, University of New Haven, West Haven, CT 06516, USA
Interests: polymer chemistry; chemically-recyclable materials; biomedical polymers; polymer nanoparticles

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Fiber Science & Apparel Design, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA
Interests: materials; textiles; polymers; bio-based materials; sustainable materials; composites

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the past few decades, research focus has dramatically increased on the synthesis of bio-based polymers from renewable sources with an aim to supplement and substitute fossil fuel-based polymers. Bio-based polymers may be classified into three main categories, including polymers directly extracted from biomass, polymers produced by microorganisms or genetically modified bacteria, and polymers synthesized using bio-based monomers. Although substantial efforts have been applied to generate bio-based polymers which have an identical chemical structure to those derived from fossil fuel, synthesizing new sustainable bio-based polymers with better function and performance is also a critical long-term goal to achieve.

This Special Issue aims to publish original works and reviews focusing on the synthesis of novel bio-based monomers and polymers from renewable resources. It will cover but not be limited to the following aspects: development and preparation of new synthetic bio-based polymers, including polyester, polypeptide, polysaccharide, polyphenol, synthetic melanin, etc.; and property evaluations and applications of synthetic bio-based polymers.

Dr. Xuhao Zhou
Dr. Hao Sun
Dr. Namrata Patil
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2700 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biopolymer
  • polyester
  • polypeptide
  • polysaccharide
  • polyphenol
  • synthetic melanin
  • application

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

12 pages, 2245 KiB  
Article
Anti-Melanogenesis and Anti-Photoaging Effects of the Sulfated Polysaccharides Isolated from the Brown Seaweed Padina boryana
by Lei Wang, Thilina U. Jayawardena, Young-Sang Kim, Kaiqiang Wang, Xiaoting Fu, Ginnae Ahn, Seon-Heui Cha, Jeong Gyun Kim, Jung Suck Lee and You-Jin Jeon
Polymers 2023, 15(16), 3382; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15163382 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from seaweeds are thought of as ideal ingredients in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries. Our previous study isolated and characterized sulfated polysaccharides from Padina boryana. The sulfated polysaccharides of Padina boryana (PBP) were extracted, and the antioxidant activity [...] Read more.
Sulfated polysaccharides isolated from seaweeds are thought of as ideal ingredients in the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, and cosmetics industries. Our previous study isolated and characterized sulfated polysaccharides from Padina boryana. The sulfated polysaccharides of Padina boryana (PBP) were extracted, and the antioxidant activity of PBP was evaluated. The results indicate that PBP possesses antioxidant effects and potential in the cosmetic industry. To further investigate the potential of PBP in cosmetics, the photoprotective and anti-melanogenesis effects of PBP were evaluated. The anti-melanogenesis test results display that PBP reduced the melanin content in the murine melanoma cells stimulated by alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone from 203.7% to 183.64%, 144.63%, and 127.57% at concentrations of 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL, respectively. The anti-photodamage test results showed that PBP significantly protected skin cells against UVB-stimulated photodamage. PBP suppressed human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT cell) death by inhibiting apoptosis and reducing the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species. The intracellular reactive oxygen species level of HaCaT cells irradiated by UVB was reduced from 192.67% to 181.22%, 170.25%, and 160.48% by 25 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, and 100 μg/mL PBP, respectively. In addition, PBP remarkably reduced UVB-induced human dermal fibroblast damage by suppressing oxidative damage, inhibiting collagen degradation, and attenuating inflammatory responses. These results indicate that PBP possesses photoprotective and anti-melanogenesis activities and suggest that PBP is a potential ingredient in the cosmetic industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Synthesis and Applications)
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21 pages, 5485 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Waste from Argan Seeds for Polyhydroxybutyrate Production Using Bacterial Strains Isolated from Argan Soils
by Amina Aragosa, Valeria Specchia and Mariaenrica Frigione
Polymers 2023, 15(8), 1972; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15081972 - 21 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1516
Abstract
The aim of this work was to study the valorization of argan seed pulp, a waste material obtained from argan oil extraction, for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). A new species that showed the metabolic capacity for the conversion of argan waste into [...] Read more.
The aim of this work was to study the valorization of argan seed pulp, a waste material obtained from argan oil extraction, for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). A new species that showed the metabolic capacity for the conversion of argan waste into the bio-based polymer was isolated from an argan crop located in Teroudant, a southwestern region of Morocco, where the arid soil is exploited for goat grazing. The PHB accumulation efficiency of this new species was compared to the previously identified species 1B belonging to the genus Sphingomonas, and results were reported as dry cell weight residual biomass and PHB final yield measured. Temperature, incubation time, pH, NaCl concentration, nitrogen sources, residue concentrations, and culture medium volumes were analyzed with the aim of obtaining a maximum accumulation of PHB. UV-visible spectrophotometry and FTIR analysis confirmed that PHB was present in the material extracted from the bacterial culture. The results of this wide investigation indicated that the new isolated species 2D1 had a higher efficiency in PHB production compared to the previously identified strain 1B, which was isolated from a contaminated argan soil in Teroudant. PHB final yield of the two bacterial species, i.e., the new isolated and 1B, cultivated under optimal culture conditions, in 500 mL MSM enriched with 3% argan waste, were 21.40% (5.91 ± 0.16 g/L) and 8.16% (1.92 ± 0.23 g/L), respectively. For the new isolated strain, the result of the UV-visible spectrum indicates the absorbance at 248 nm, while the FTIR spectrum showed peaks at 1726 cm−1 and 1270 cm−1: these characteristic peaks indicated the presence of PHB in the extract. The data from the species 1B UV-visible and FTIR spectra were previously reported and were used in this study for a correlation analysis. Furthermore, additional peaks, uncharacteristic of standard PHB, suggest the presence of impurities (e.g., cell debris, solvent residues, biomass residues) that persisted after extraction. Therefore, a further enhancement of the sample purification during extraction is recommended for more accuracy in the chemical characterization. If 470,000 tons of argan fruit waste can be produced annually, and 3% of waste is consumed in 500 mL culture by 2D1 to produce 5.91 g/L (21.40%) of the bio-based polymer PHB, it can be estimated that the amount of putative PHB that can be extracted annually from the total argan fruit waste is about 2300 tons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Synthesis and Applications)
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12 pages, 1809 KiB  
Article
Synthesis, Curing and Thermal Behavior of Amine Hardeners from Potentially Renewable Sources
by Torben Wiegand and Andrea Osburg
Polymers 2023, 15(4), 990; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym15040990 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2599
Abstract
Research into bio-based epoxy resins has intensified in recent decades. Here, it is of great importance to use raw materials whose use does not compete with food production. In addition, the performance of the newly developed materials should be comparable to that of [...] Read more.
Research into bio-based epoxy resins has intensified in recent decades. Here, it is of great importance to use raw materials whose use does not compete with food production. In addition, the performance of the newly developed materials should be comparable to that of conventional products. Possible starting materials are lignin degradation products, such as vanillin and syringaldehyde, for which new synthesis routes to the desired products must be found and their properties determined. In this article, the first synthesis of two amine hardeners, starting with vanillin and syringaldehyde, using the Smiles rearrangement reaction is reported. The amine hardeners were mixed with bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, and the curing was compared to isophorone diamine, 4-4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, and 4-Aminonbenzylamine by means of differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the two amines prepared are cold-curing. As TG-MS studies showed, the thermal stability of at least one of the polymers prepared with the potentially bio-based amines is comparable to that of the polymer prepared with isophorone diamine, and similar degradation products are formed during pyrolysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bio-Based Polymers: Synthesis and Applications)
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