Special Issue "Permanently Porous Polymers"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360). This special issue belongs to the section "Polymer Processing and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2023 | Viewed by 2812

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Magdalena Rogulska
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Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Gliniana 33, 20-614 Lublin, Poland
Interests: sulfur-containing monomers; thermoplastic polyurethanes; polythiourethanes; elastomers; thermal (TG/DSC) analysis; mechanical and adhesive properties
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Małgorzata Maciejewska
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Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Gliniana 33, 20-614 Lublin, Poland
Interests: synthesis of new monomers; synthesis of polymers and copolymers in the form of monoliths and microspheres; synthesis of porous materials; investigation of the internal structure of the porous materials; hierarchical porous polymers; chemical modification of polymers; thermal (TG/DSC) analysis of synthetic and natural polymers
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Marta Grochowicz
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Department of Polymer Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Chemistry, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, 20-614 Lublin, Poland
Interests: novel synthesis of functional monomers; functional polymer synthesis and characterization; functionalization of polymer surface; thermal properties of polymers; application of polymeric microspheres in separation processes; polymeric drug delivery systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

For many years, porous polymeric materials have been a thriving area of scientific research. Permanent porosity along with chemical and thermal resistance generate significant advantages in many practical applications. Such materials are used as column packing in different chromatography techniques, as filtration/separation membranes, support for catalysts and sensors, as carriers in drug delivery systems, in water treatment and CO2 capture, etc. In comparison with alternative adsorbents, porous polymers are stable throughout the whole pH range, and they can be simply functionalized and have the ability to create specific sorption spaces. Moreover, they can be easily processed and obtained in the form of monoliths, thin films, and microspheres.

This Special Issue focuses on the synthesis, characterization, and modification of permanently porous polymers. Reviews, original articles, and short communications covering the most recent advances are welcome.

Dr. Magdalena Rogulska
Dr. Małgorzata Maciejewska
Dr. Marta Grochowicz
Guest Editors

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
New Bio-Based Polymer Sorbents out of Terpene Compounds or Vegetable Oils: Synthesis, Properties, Analysis of Sorption Processes
Polymers 2022, 14(24), 5389; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14245389 - 09 Dec 2022
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Abstract
This research presents a synthesis and characterization of new bio-based polymer sorbents. Natural origin substances such as terpenes (citral, limonene, and pinene) or vegetable oils (argan, linseed, and rapeseed oils) were used as monomers, and divinylbenzene was applied as the cross-linker. The newly [...] Read more.
This research presents a synthesis and characterization of new bio-based polymer sorbents. Natural origin substances such as terpenes (citral, limonene, and pinene) or vegetable oils (argan, linseed, and rapeseed oils) were used as monomers, and divinylbenzene was applied as the cross-linker. The newly prepared polymers were characterized by means of ATR-FTIR, TG/DTG and titration methods (acid and iodine values), and N2 physisorption experiments. Tests of sorption ability were carried out by a dynamic solid phase extraction method using a mixture of four phenols or single-component pharmaceutical solutions (salicylic acid, aspirin, ibuprofen, paracetamol, and ampicillin). The performed studies revealed that the terpene-based polymers possessed better-developed porous structures (420–500 m2/g) with more uniform pores than oil-based ones. However, the surface of the oil-based sorbents was more acidic in nature. The sorption tests showed that both the porosity and acidity of the surface significantly influenced the sorption. Recoveries of up to 90% were obtained for 2,4 dichlorophenol from C-DVB, L-DVB, and Ro-DVB. The lowest affinity to the polymers exhibited phenol (5–45%), aspirin (1–7%), and ampicillin (1–7%). A 70% recovery was achieved for ibuprofen from C-DVB. In-depth data analysis allowed the influence of various factors on the sorption process of test compounds of the studied polymers to be elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanently Porous Polymers)
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Article
Synthesis of Metalorganic Copolymers Containing Various Contorted Units and Iron(II) Clathrochelates with Lateral Butyl Chains: Conspicuous Adsorbents of Lithium Ions and Methylene Blue
Polymers 2022, 14(16), 3394; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14163394 - 19 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 747
Abstract
We report the synthesis of three highly soluble metalorganic copolymers, TCP1–3, that were made from a one-pot complexation of iron(II) clathrochelate units that are interconnected by various thioether-containing contorted groups. TCP1–3 were converted into their poly(vinyl sulfone) derivatives OTCP1–3 quantitatively via the selective [...] Read more.
We report the synthesis of three highly soluble metalorganic copolymers, TCP1–3, that were made from a one-pot complexation of iron(II) clathrochelate units that are interconnected by various thioether-containing contorted groups. TCP1–3 were converted into their poly(vinyl sulfone) derivatives OTCP1–3 quantitatively via the selective oxidation of the thioether moieties into their respective sulfones. All of the copolymers, TCP1–3 and OTCP1–3, underwent structural analysis by various techniques; namely, 1H- and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC). The copolymers were tested as potent lithium ions adsorbents revealing a maximum adsorption (qm) value of 2.31 mg g−1 for OTCP2. Furthermore, this same copolymer was found to be a promising adsorbent of methylene blue (MEB); an isothermal adsorption study divulged that OTCP2’s uptake of MEB from an aqueous solution (following the Langmuir model) was, at maximum adsorption capacity, (qm) of 480.77 mg g−1; whereas the kinetic study divulged that the adsorption follows pseudo second-order kinetics with an equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe,cal) of 45.40 mg g−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanently Porous Polymers)
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Article
Crosslinked 4-Vinylpyridine Monodisperse Functional Microspheres for Sorption of Ibuprofen and Ketoprofen
Polymers 2022, 14(10), 2080; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14102080 - 20 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Nowadays, ibuprofen and ketoprofen are widely used over-the-counter medications to treat inflammation, fever, or pain. Their high consumption and improper disposal cause them to get into the environment and often pollute surface water. In this study, the new polymeric porous microspheres based on [...] Read more.
Nowadays, ibuprofen and ketoprofen are widely used over-the-counter medications to treat inflammation, fever, or pain. Their high consumption and improper disposal cause them to get into the environment and often pollute surface water. In this study, the new polymeric porous microspheres based on 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) are presented as effective sorbents for ibuprofen and ketoprofen preconcentration and removal. The porous microspheres were obtained via seed swelling polymerization with the use of two types of methacrylate crosslinkers, i.e., trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) and 1,4-dimethacryloiloxybenzene (14DMB). Additionally, as a reference sorbent, a copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene was obtained. Porous structure investigations showed that the microspheres possess a specific surface area of about 100 m2/g, but noticeable differences were observed in their internal topography depending on the type of crosslinker used. Moreover, the porous structure of dry and swollen microspheres differs significantly. Swollen copolymers reveal the presence of micropores. The 4VP microspheres are characterized by high thermal stability; their initial decomposition temperature is about 300 °C. The performance of the 4VP copolymers as sorbents in aqueous solutions of drugs was evaluated in static and dynamic modes at three pH values of 3, 7, and 11. The highest sorption efficiency was obtained for ibuprofen and ketoprofen in pH 3. Both 4VP copolymers indicate the high sorption capacity in a static sorption as follows: towards ketoprofen of about 40 mg/g whereas towards ibuprofen of about 90 mg/g and 75 mg/g on copolymer crosslinked with trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate and 1,4-dimethacryloiloxybenzene, respectively. The recovery of ibuprofen and ketoprofen after dynamic sorption experiments was higher than 90%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Permanently Porous Polymers)
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