Diversity of Aromatic Plants: Chemical Profiles and Antioxidant Activities

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2024 | Viewed by 762

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Guest Editor
University of Niš, Faculty of Technology, Bulevar Oslobođenja 124, 16000 Leskovac, Serbia
Interests: phytochemical analysis; plant biochemistry; essential oils; phenolic compounds; natural product chemistry and technology; phytochemicals; antioxidant activity; extraction; biological activities; medicinal and aromatic plants
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Guest Editor
Faculty of Agriculture, University of Priština in Kosovska Mitrovica, Kopaonička bb, 38219 Lešak, Serbia
Interests: vegetable production; organic production; vegetable grafting; medical–aromatic herbs; quality; essential oil; antioxidant activity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aromatic and medicinal plants (AMPs) are a diverse group of plants characterized by their ability to synthesize a specific type of aroma; the concentration, type, and biological activity of this aroma tend to be unusual and variable. These plants are characterized by their great diversity both morphologically and chemically, as well as in terms of their biological activity. Their properties are modified by various factors of variation: genetic, ontogenetic, environmental, and post-harvest. The biodiversity of aromatic and medical plants and their chemical composition can be a potential source of natural bioactive compounds (phenolic content with antioxidant and antimicrobial potential) for applications on human health and food preservation. The variation in the chemical composition of aromatic plants (applying to both wild and cultivated species) determines their culinary and medical value. The essential oils (EOs) synthesized by numerous plant species from different botanical families vary considerably in their chemical composition and biological activity.

Future research studies should be based on the importance of the rational use and collection of wild plants from spontaneous flora and optimized production techniques for cultivated aromatic and medical plants (using adequate agricultural techniques with crop shading and adequate plant density) with the goal of obtaining an increased content of a high-quality essential oil. These investigations on topics such as the extraction and purification of medicinal compounds can be an effective means of obtaining safe pharmaceutical products.

Dr. Zoran S. Ilic
Dr. Ljiljana P. Stanojević
Prof. Dr. Lidija Milenković
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • aromatic plants
  • medicinal plants
  • wild plants
  • essential oil
  • content
  • constitution
  • polyphenols
  • antioxidant

Published Papers (1 paper)

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Research

12 pages, 1267 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Bioactivity of Dill Seed (Anethum graveolens L.) Essential Oil from Plants Grown under Shading
by Lidija Milenković, Zoran S. Ilić, Ljiljana Stanojević, Bojana Danilović, Ljubomir Šunić, Žarko Kevrešan, Jelena Stanojević and Dragan Cvetković
Plants 2024, 13(6), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants13060886 - 19 Mar 2024
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Abstract
This study determined the content and composition of dill seed (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil under varying light conditions: non-shaded plants in open fields and plants covered with pearl shade nets (40% shade index). Essential oil was extracted using Clevenger hydrodistillation. The [...] Read more.
This study determined the content and composition of dill seed (Anethum graveolens L.) essential oil under varying light conditions: non-shaded plants in open fields and plants covered with pearl shade nets (40% shade index). Essential oil was extracted using Clevenger hydrodistillation. The essential oil content was 4.63% for non-shaded plants and 4.81% for shaded plants. GC/MS analysis revealed twenty-one and twenty-two components in dill seed from non-shaded and shaded plants, respectively. The terpenic fraction of essential oil from non-shaded plants consisted mainly of oxygen-containing monoterpene derivatives (53.6%), with carvone (46.1%) as the primary component, followed by monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.4%), predominantly limonene (43.8%). Essential oil from shaded plants contained a higher content of carvone (49.8%) and a lower content of limonene (37.8%) compared to essential oil from non-shaded plants. Non-shaded plant essential oil exhibited stronger antioxidant activity (EC50 value: 26.04 mg mL−1) than shaded plant essential oil (54.23 mg mL−1). Dill seed essential oil showed the most potent antimicrobial activity (disc diffusion method) against Escherichia coli (inhibition zone: 15–18 mm). Shaded plants demonstrated a positive influence of essential oil against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Carvone and its derivatives, as the main components, hold significant potential in the food industry and alternative medicines. A practical implication of this study could be higher plant densities or intercropping of dill, as it thrives with minimal light. Full article
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