Cereal Stress Physiology

A special issue of Plants (ISSN 2223-7747). This special issue belongs to the section "Plant Response to Abiotic Stress and Climate Change".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2021) | Viewed by 7100

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Guest Editor
Agrochemical Laboratory, Agricultural Institute Osijek, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Interests: abiotic stress; biotic stress; senescence; photosynthesis; chlorophyll fluorescence; stress defence mechanisms; ROS; phenolics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Every day we witness climate changes that significantly affect the yields and quality of cereal crops—the most significant source of food, especially in the least-developed countries. Abiotic stress conditions such as drought, floods, salinity, high and low temperatures, UV radiation, air and soil pollution, nutrient deficiency, etc. lead to reduced yields and quality of cereal crops, and very often stimulate the development and spread of plant pathogens. Oxidative stress in plants alter morphological, physiological and biochemical processes—primarily photosynthesis, a key physiological process in plants. Photooxidative damage is the main source of ROS production, causing protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage at the cellular level, leading to cellular and finally plant death. As ROS have dual function, balance between signalling and oxidative roles is crucial to preserve plant metabolic homeostasis. In oxidative stress conditions, the whole antioxidative machinery is activated to eliminate overall ROS production, so an understanding of defence mechanisms is crucial to find ways to enhance them.

The scientific community makes efforts to understand plant tolerance mechanisms and the genetics behind them, and has provided valuable information that breeders use in their breeding programs to create tolerant cultivars and hybrids. This Special issue is devoted to cereal crop research on single or combined stresses in controlled or field conditions. All studies about physiological and metabolic response mechanisms under and after stress conditions at the tissue, organ or whole-plant level are welcome.

Dr. Marija Viljevac Vuletić
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cereals
  • oxidative stress
  • drought
  • flood
  • high temperature
  • low temperature
  • air pollution
  • soil pollution
  • nutrient deficiency
  • pathogen
  • biotic stress
  • UV radiation
  • light stress
  • photosynthesis
  • photoassilimates
  • ROS
  • signalling molecules
  • antioxidative enzymes
  • non-enzymatic antioxidative components
  • lipid peroxidation
  • phenolics
  • secondary metabolites
  • tolerance
  • acclimation
  • adaptation

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

19 pages, 4486 KiB  
Article
Morpho-Physio-Biochemical and Molecular Responses of Maize Hybrids to Salinity and Waterlogging during Stress and Recovery Phase
by Umer Mahmood, Saddam Hussain, Sadam Hussain, Basharat Ali, Umair Ashraf, Shahid Zamir, Sami Asir Al-Robai, Fatima Omari Alzahrani, Christophe Hano and Mohamed A. El-Esawi
Plants 2021, 10(7), 1345; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10071345 - 1 Jul 2021
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 3125
Abstract
Maize is one of the most economically important cereal crops worldwide. Salinity coupled with waterlogging is a major challenge for successful crop production. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and impacts of individual and combined salinity and waterlogging stress on the morpho-physio-biochemical and molecular responses [...] Read more.
Maize is one of the most economically important cereal crops worldwide. Salinity coupled with waterlogging is a major challenge for successful crop production. Understanding the underlying mechanisms and impacts of individual and combined salinity and waterlogging stress on the morpho-physio-biochemical and molecular responses and oxidative metabolism of maize during stress and recovery periods is essential. The present study was carried out to assess the response of four hybrid maize cultivars viz. DK-6142, FH-1231, FH-949, and MALKA-2016 under individual and combined salinity and waterlogging conditions. The treatments comprised the control (no stress), NaCl (salinity with 10 dSm−1), WL (waterlogged conditions with 3 cm flooding), and NaCl + WL (combined salinity and waterlogging stress). The data regarding morpho-physiological attributes were collected at 22 days after sowing (DAS; stress phase) and 30 DAS (recovery phase). The results revealed that both stresses, either individually or in combination, substantially reduced the root-shoot length, root-shoot fresh and dry weights, leaf width, and the number of leaves per plant as well as the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids contents; however, the inhibitory effects were more severe in combined stresses than for individual stress factors in many cultivars. Both individual and combined stress conditions enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation, whereas the antioxidant enzyme activities, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), remained higher under stress conditions compared to the control. The expression levels of antioxidant genes (CAT and POD) were also upregulated under stress conditions. All of the cultivars recovered better from individual stresses than combined stress conditions; however, the hybrid DK-6142 performed better than the other maize hybrids under stress conditions and showed faster recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Stress Physiology)
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11 pages, 1997 KiB  
Article
Physiological Responses of Wheat Seedlings to Soil Waterlogging Applied after Treatment with Selective Herbicide
by Zornitsa Katerova, Iskren Sergiev, Dessislava Todorova, Elena Shopova, Ljudmila Dimitrova and Liliana Brankova
Plants 2021, 10(6), 1195; https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10061195 - 11 Jun 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2999
Abstract
Waterlogging impairs crop development and considerably affects plant productivity worldwide. Wheat is sensitive to waterlogging. Serrate® (Syngenta) is a selective herbicide controlling annual grass and broadleaf weeds for use in wheat. To extend the existing information about the physiological effects of selective [...] Read more.
Waterlogging impairs crop development and considerably affects plant productivity worldwide. Wheat is sensitive to waterlogging. Serrate® (Syngenta) is a selective herbicide controlling annual grass and broadleaf weeds for use in wheat. To extend the existing information about the physiological effects of selective herbicides (Serrate® in particular) and subsequent waterlogging in wheat, we monitored phenotype alterations and examined key enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant defense systems together with typical oxidative stress biomarkers. Seventeen-day-old wheat (Triticum asetivum L., cv. Sadovo-1) plants were sprayed with Serrate®; 72 h later, waterlogging was applied for 7 days, and then seedlings were left to recover for 96 h. The herbicide did not alter plant phenotype and increased antioxidant defense, along with H2O2 content, confirming the wheat’s tolerance to Serrate®. Evident yellowing and wilting of the leaves were observed at 96 h of recovery in waterlogged wheat, which were stronger in plants subjected to Serrate® + waterlogging. Waterlogging alone and herbicide + waterlogging gradually enhanced the content of stress markers (malondialdehyde, proline, and H2O2), non-enzymatic antioxidants (low-molecular thiols and total phenolics), and the activity of superoxide dismutase, guaiacol peroxidase, and glutathione reductase. The effects of herbicide + waterlogging were stronger than those of waterlogging alone even during recovery, suggesting that Serrate® interacted synergistically with the subsequently applied flooding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cereal Stress Physiology)
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