Special Issue "Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Theory and Simulation of Nanostructures".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 6799

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Francesco Banfi
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Universitė de Lyon, Institut Lumière Matière (iLM), Université Lyon 1 and CNRS, France
Interests: ultrafast energy transfer at the nanoscale; ultrafast thermomechanics; nanoscale heat transfer; mechanical nanometrology; ultrafast optics
Prof. Dr. Claudio Melis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Physics, Universita’ degli studi di Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy
Interests: nanoscale thermal transport; anomalous heat transport in low dimensions; polymer-based hybrids for thermoelectrics and photovoltaics; atomistic simulations (classical molecular dynamics, density functional theory); Thermal properties of 2-dimensional atomic sheets
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Thermal and mechanical dynamics in nanosystems is a boosting research field at the forefront of physics, material science and engineering, embracing both fundamental and technological aspects. When the relevant dimensions are scaled to the sub-μm length-scale the thermal and mechanical dynamics may significantly deviate from the ones typically found at the macro-scale. Whatever the application, accessing the thermal and mechanical dynamics in nanosystems is of paramount importance in view of further devices downscaling and will pave the way to novel paradigms in heat management and device schemes.

We seek for contribution covering recent progress on fundamental aspects, applications and the developments of metrology tools relevant to the thermal and mechanical dynamics of nanosystems at the nanoscale at large. Experimental and theoretical contributions are equally encouraged. Both original research articles, in the form of full papers or communications, and reviews are welcome.

This special issue is intended to cover a broad range of subjects. A non-exhaustive list of topics includes:

  1. Heat transport regimes peculiar to the nanoscale (ballistic, wave-like regime, etc) involving any energy carriers (phonons, electrons, photons, excitations, etc.);
  2. Material design and device schemes involving the nano and meso-scale (including meta-materials) aimed at novel thermal management strategies, sensing schemes, improved thermal and mechanical properties and functionalities involving the thermal and mechanical dynamics at large;
  3. Nanomechanics and nanothermics of nano-objects, phononic superlattices, granular materialas, 2D materials, nano-patterned devices, phase changed materials;
  4. Innovative tools for mechanical and thermal nanometrology;
  5. Novel simulation protocols and methods;
  6. Theoretical methods for phonon dispersion and phonon transport;
  7. Nanoscale heat transfer around nanoparticles for biomedical applications;
  8. Systems of discontinuous (granular and porous) matter: elastic behavior and thermal conduction properties;

Prof. Dr. Francesco Banfi
Prof. Dr. Claudio Melis
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

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Article
Evaluation of Optical and Acoustical Properties of Ba1−xSrxTiO3 Thin Film Material Library via Conjugation of Picosecond Laser Ultrasonics with X-ray Diffraction, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, Electron Probe Micro Analysis, Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopies
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3131; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113131 - 20 Nov 2021
Viewed by 522
Abstract
Wide-range continuous spatial variation of the film composition in lateral compositionally graded epitaxial films requires the development of high throughput measurement techniques for their local and non-destructive characterization with the highest possible spatial resolution. Here we report on the first application of the [...] Read more.
Wide-range continuous spatial variation of the film composition in lateral compositionally graded epitaxial films requires the development of high throughput measurement techniques for their local and non-destructive characterization with the highest possible spatial resolution. Here we report on the first application of the picosecond laser ultrasonics (PLU) technique for the evaluation of acoustical and optical parameters of lateral compositionally graded film, the Ba1−xSrxTiO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) material library. The film was not dedicatedly prepared for its opto-acousto-optic evaluation by PLU, exhibiting significant lateral variations in thickness and surface roughness. Therefore, the achieved measurements of the sound velocity and of the optical refractive index, and characterization of the surface roughness confirm the robustness of the PLU technique for thin film evaluation. We hope that the first measurements of the acoustical and optical properties of epitaxial grown Ba1−xSrxTiO3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) by PLU technique accomplished here provide the parameters required for more extended predictive design of the phononic, photonic and phoxonic mirrors and cavities with superior properties/functionalities for novel multifunctional nanodevices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Article
Influences of Elastic Foundations and Material Gradient on the Dynamic Response of Polymer Cylindrical Pipes Patterned by Carbon Nanotube Subjected to Moving Pressures
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3075; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113075 - 15 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 426
Abstract
Composite materials are frequently used in the construction of rail, tunnels, and pipelines as well as in the construction of aircraft, ships, and chemical pipelines. When such structural elements are formed from new-generation composites, such as CNT-reinforced composites, and their interaction with the [...] Read more.
Composite materials are frequently used in the construction of rail, tunnels, and pipelines as well as in the construction of aircraft, ships, and chemical pipelines. When such structural elements are formed from new-generation composites, such as CNT-reinforced composites, and their interaction with the ground, there is a need to renew the dynamic response calculations under moving pressures and to create new mathematical solution methods during their design. The aim of this study was to analyze the influences of elastic foundations (EFs) and material gradient on the dynamic response of infinitely long carbon nanotube (CNT)-based polymer pipes under combined static and moving pressures. The CNT-based polymer pipes resting on the EFs were exposed to the axial and moving pressures. The uniform and heterogeneous reinforcement distributions of CNTs, which varied linearly throughout the thickness of polymer pipes, were considered. After setting the problem, the fundamental equations derived to find new analytical expressions for dynamic coefficients and critical velocity, which are dynamic characteristics of cylindrical pipes reinforced by the uniform and linear distributions of CNTs, were solved in the framework of the vibration theory. Finally, numerical computations were performed to examine the effects of EFs on the critical parameters depending on the characteristics of the pipes, the speed of moving pressures, the shape of the distribution of CNTs, and the change in volume fractions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Article
Tungsten Based Spectrally Selective Absorbers with Anisotropic Rough Surface Texture
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(8), 2018; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11082018 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Spectrally selective absorbers have received considerable interest due to their applications in thermophotovoltaic devices and as solar absorbers. Due to extreme operating conditions in these applications, such as high temperatures, thermo-mechanically stable and broadband spectrally selective absorbers are of interest. This paper demonstrates [...] Read more.
Spectrally selective absorbers have received considerable interest due to their applications in thermophotovoltaic devices and as solar absorbers. Due to extreme operating conditions in these applications, such as high temperatures, thermo-mechanically stable and broadband spectrally selective absorbers are of interest. This paper demonstrates anisotropic random rough surfaces that provide broadband spectrally selective absorption for the thermo-mechanically stable Tungsten surfaces. Anisotropic random rough surface has different correlation lengths in the x- and y-directions, which means their topography parameters have directional dependence. In particular, we demonstrate that spectral absorptance of Tungsten random rough surfaces at visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) spectral regions are sensitive to correlation length and RMS height variations. Our results indicate that by optimizing random rough surface parameters, absorption values exceeding 95% can be obtained. Moreover, our results indicate that anisotropic random rough surfaces broaden the bandwidth of the high absorption region. It is shown that in VIS and NIR regions, the absorption enhancements of up to 47% and 52% are achieved for the isotropic and anisotropic rough surfaces, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Article
Manufacturing of Conductive, Wear-Resistant Nanoreinforced Cu-Ti Alloys Using Partially Oxidized Electrolytic Copper Powder
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1261; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071261 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Reactive powder composites Cu-(0–15%)TiH2 containing up to 5% native Cu2O were manufactured by high energy ball milling and then hot-pressed to produce bulk nanostructured copper–matrix alloys reinforced by Cu3Ti3O inclusions. Two high-energy ball-milling (HEBM) protocols were [...] Read more.
Reactive powder composites Cu-(0–15%)TiH2 containing up to 5% native Cu2O were manufactured by high energy ball milling and then hot-pressed to produce bulk nanostructured copper–matrix alloys reinforced by Cu3Ti3O inclusions. Two high-energy ball-milling (HEBM) protocols were employed for the fabrication of Cu-Ti alloys: single-stage and two-stage ball milling, resulting in an order of magnitude refinement of TiH2 particles in the reactive mixtures. Single-stage HEBM processing led to the partial retention of Ti in the microstructure of hot-pressed specimens as the α-Ti phase and formation of fine-grained (100–200 nm) copper matrix interspersed with 5–20 nm Cu3Ti3O precipitates, whereas the two-stage HEBM led to the complete conversion of TiH2 into the Cu3Ti3O phase during the hot pressing but produced a coarser copper matrix (1–2 μm) with 0.1–0.2 μm wide polycrystalline Cu3Ti3O layers on the boundaries of Cu grains. The alloy produced using single-stage HEBM was characterized by the highest strength (up to 950 MPa) and electrical conductivity (2.6 × 107 Sm/m) as well as the lowest specific wear rate (1.1 × 10−5 mm3/N/m). The tribological performance of the alloy was enhanced by the formation of Cu3Ti3O microfibers in the wear debris, which reduced the friction coefficient against the Al2O3 counter-body. The potential applications of the developed alloys are briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Article
Anisotropic Thermal Conductivity in Few-Layer and Bulk Titanium Trisulphide from First Principles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(4), 704; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10040704 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
We study the thermal conductivity of monolayer, bilayer, and bulk titanium trisulphide (TiS3) by means of an iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation based on ab-initio force constants. Our results show that the thermal conductivity of these layers is anisotropic [...] Read more.
We study the thermal conductivity of monolayer, bilayer, and bulk titanium trisulphide (TiS 3 ) by means of an iterative solution of the Boltzmann transport equation based on ab-initio force constants. Our results show that the thermal conductivity of these layers is anisotropic and highlight the importance of enforcing the fundamental symmetries in order to accurately describe the quadratic dispersion of the flexural phonon branch near the center of the Brillouin zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Review

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Review
Mechanical Properties of Nanoporous Metallic Ultrathin Films: A Paradigmatic Case
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 3116; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11113116 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 683
Abstract
Nanoporous ultrathin films, constituted by a slab less than 100 nm thick and a certain void volume fraction provided by nanopores, are emerging as a new class of systems with a wide range of possible applications, including electrochemistry, energy storage, gas sensing and [...] Read more.
Nanoporous ultrathin films, constituted by a slab less than 100 nm thick and a certain void volume fraction provided by nanopores, are emerging as a new class of systems with a wide range of possible applications, including electrochemistry, energy storage, gas sensing and supercapacitors. The film porosity and morphology strongly affect nanoporous films mechanical properties, the knowledge of which is fundamental for designing films for specific applications. To unveil the relationships among the morphology, structure and mechanical response, a comprehensive and non-destructive investigation of a model system was sought. In this review, we examined the paradigmatic case of a nanoporous, granular, metallic ultrathin film with comprehensive bottom-up and top-down approaches, both experimentals and theoreticals. The granular film was made of Ag nanoparticles deposited by gas-phase synthesis, thus providing a solvent-free and ultrapure nanoporous system at room temperature. The results, bearing generality beyond the specific model system, are discussed for several applications specific to the morphological and mechanical properties of the investigated films, including bendable electronics, membrane separation and nanofluidic sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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Review
Time-Domain Investigations of Coherent Phonons in van der Waals Thin Films
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2543; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122543 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Coherent phonons can be launched in materials upon localized pulsed optical excitation, and be subsequently followed in time-domain, with a sub-picosecond resolution, using a time-delayed pulsed probe. This technique yields characterization of mechanical, optical, and electronic properties at the nanoscale, and is taken [...] Read more.
Coherent phonons can be launched in materials upon localized pulsed optical excitation, and be subsequently followed in time-domain, with a sub-picosecond resolution, using a time-delayed pulsed probe. This technique yields characterization of mechanical, optical, and electronic properties at the nanoscale, and is taken advantage of for investigations in material science, physics, chemistry, and biology. Here we review the use of this experimental method applied to the emerging field of homo- and heterostructures of van der Waals materials. Their unique structure corresponding to non-covalently stacked atomically thin layers allows for the study of original structural configurations, down to one-atom-thin films free of interface defect. The generation and relaxation of coherent optical phonons, as well as propagative and resonant breathing acoustic phonons, are comprehensively discussed. This approach opens new avenues for the in situ characterization of these novel materials, the observation and modulation of exotic phenomena, and advances in the field of acoustics microscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Thermal and Mechanical Dynamics in Nanosystems)
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