Special Issue "Graphite, Graphene, Advanced Carbon Materials and Nanostructured Carbon-Based Composites and Selected Papers from Carbon 2018"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Isabel Suelves
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
ICB-CSIC, Institute of Carbochemistry, CSIC-Spanish National Research Council, C/. Miguel Luesma Castán, 4, 50018 Zaragoza, Spain
Interests: production of H2; catalytic methane decomposition; nanocarbons; biomass conversion; carbon-based catalysts; bio-oils
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Marcos Granda
E-Mail
Guest Editor
Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR-CSIC), Oviedo, Spain
Interests: materials chemistry; materials; nanomaterials; composites; material characteristics; graphene; preparation and characterization of carbon precursors from coal and petroleum derivatives; design of carbon materials (e.g. fibers, composites, graphene, etc.) for structural and energy storage applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The World Conference on Carbon (Carbon 2018) will take place in Madrid (Spain), July 1–6, 2018. The conference aims to provide an innovative and comprehensive overview of the latest research developments on carbon science and applications. This Special Issue will contain accepted papers presented during Carbon 2018, related to graphene and graphite, advanced carbon materials: Nanotubes, fullerenes, carbon fibers and carbon-based composites. The selected papers could include, not only the carbon materials preparation, modification, characterization and properties, but also relevant applications in the fields of energy conversion and storage, catalysis, medicine and biology, among others.

Dr. Isabel Suelves
Dr. Marcos Granda
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Graphite
  • Graphene
  • Advanced Carbon Materials
  • Nanotubes
  • Fullerenes
  • Carbon fibres
  • Carbon based composites

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Article
Lignin-Based Carbon Nanofibers as Electrodes for Vanadium Redox Couple Electrochemistry
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010106 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 2407
Abstract
Three different types of lignin (kraft, organosolv and phosphoric acid lignin) were characterized and tested as precursors of electrospun nanofibers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) was added as a plasticizer and dimethyl formamide (DMF) employed as a solvent. It was found that the molecular weight [...] Read more.
Three different types of lignin (kraft, organosolv and phosphoric acid lignin) were characterized and tested as precursors of electrospun nanofibers. Polyethylene oxide (PEO) was added as a plasticizer and dimethyl formamide (DMF) employed as a solvent. It was found that the molecular weight of lignin was the key parameter to understand the differences of the mechanical stability of the resultant fiber mats. In the case of kraft lignin (KL), the influence of some changes in the synthetic process was also tested: applied voltage, pretreatment in air or not, and the addition of a small amount of Ketjen black. After pyrolysis in nitrogen flow, the obtained carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were characterized by different techniques to analyze their differences in morphology and surface chemistry. Vanadium electrochemistry in 3M sulfuric acid was used to evaluate the different CNFs. All fibers allowed electrochemical reactions, but we observed that the oxidation of V(II) to V(III) was very sensitive to the nature of the raw material. Materials prepared from kraft and phosphorus lignin showed the best performances. Nevertheless, when 1 wt.% of Ketjen black was added to KL during the electrospinning, the electrochemical performance of the sample was significantly improved and all targeted reactions for an all-vanadium redox flow battery were observed. Therefore, in this work, we demonstrated that CNFs obtained by the electrospinning of lignin can be employed as electrodes for vanadium electrochemistry, and their properties can be tuned to improve their electrochemical properties. Full article
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Article
Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Titanium Dioxide Nanotubes (rGO/TNT) Composites as an Electrical Double Layer Capacitor
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110934 - 09 Nov 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3473
Abstract
Composites of synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) were examined and combined at different mass proportions (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) to develop an electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) nanocomposite. Three different combination methods of synthesis—(1) TNT introduction during GO [...] Read more.
Composites of synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and titanium dioxide nanotubes (TNTs) were examined and combined at different mass proportions (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) to develop an electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) nanocomposite. Three different combination methods of synthesis—(1) TNT introduction during GO reduction, (2) rGO introduction during TNT formation, and (3) TNT introduction in rGO sheets using a microwave reactor—were used to produce nanocomposites. Among the three methods, method 3 yielded an EDLC nanomaterial with a highly rectangular cyclic voltammogram and steep electrochemical impedance spectroscopy plot. The specific capacitance for method 3 nanocomposites ranged from 47.26–165.22 F/g while that for methods 1 and 2 nanocomposites only ranged from 14.03–73.62 F/g and 41.93–84.36 F/g, respectively. Furthermore, in all combinations used, the 3:1 graphene/titanium dioxide-based samples consistently yielded the highest specific capacitance. The highest among these nanocomposites is 3:1 rGO/TNT. Characterization of this highly capacitive 3:1 rGO/TNT EDLC composite revealed the dominant presence of partially amorphous rGO as seen in its XRD and SEM with branching crystalline anatase TNTs as seen in its XRD and TEM. Such property showed great potential that is desirable for applications to capacitive deionization and energy storage. Full article
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Article
Synthetic Bio-Graphene Based Nanomaterials through Different Iron Catalysts
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 840; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100840 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1926
Abstract
Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 °C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials [...] Read more.
Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 °C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials was examined using thermalgravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed decomposition methods. The crystal structure, morphology and surface area of produced materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N2 adsorption−desorption techniques. Experimental results indicated that iron nitrate catalyst had better iron dispersion three other iron salts. Iron nitrate was the most active catalyst among four iron salts. The low activity of iron in iron chloride-promoted samples was because the residual chlorine over iron surfaces prevent iron interaction with lignin functional groups. Full article
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Article
Palm Kernel Shell Activated Carbon as an Inorganic Framework for Shape-Stabilized Phase Change Material
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090689 - 05 Sep 2018
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
The preparation of activated carbon using palm kernel shells as the precursor (PKSAC) was successfully accomplished after the parametric optimization of the carbonization temperature, carbonization holding time, and the ratio of the activator (H3PO4) to the precursor. Optimization at [...] Read more.
The preparation of activated carbon using palm kernel shells as the precursor (PKSAC) was successfully accomplished after the parametric optimization of the carbonization temperature, carbonization holding time, and the ratio of the activator (H3PO4) to the precursor. Optimization at 500 °C for 2 h of carbonization with 20% H3PO4 resulted in the highest surface area of the activated carbon (C20) of 1169 m2 g−1 and, with an average pore size of 27 Å. Subsequently, the preparation of shape-stabilized phase change material (SSPCM-C20) was done by the encapsulation of n-octadecane into the pores of the PKSAC, C20. The field emission scanning electron microscope images and the nitrogen gas adsorption-desorption isotherms show that n-octadecane was successfully encapsulated into the pores of C20. The resulting SSPCM-C20 nano-composite shows good thermal reliability which is chemically and thermally stable and can stand up to 500 melting and freezing cycles. This research work provided a new strategy for the preparation of SSPCM material for thermal energy storage application generated from oil palm waste. Full article
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Article
Basic Medium Heterogeneous Solution Synthesis of α-MnO2 Nanoflakes as an Anode or Cathode in Half Cell Configuration (vs. Lithium) of Li-Ion Batteries
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 608; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080608 - 09 Aug 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2033
Abstract
Nano α-MnO2 is usually synthesized under hydrothermal conditions in acidic medium, which results in materials easily undergoing thermal reduction and offers single crystals often over 100 nm in size. In this study, α-MnO2 built up of inter-grown ultra-small nanoflakes with 10 [...] Read more.
Nano α-MnO2 is usually synthesized under hydrothermal conditions in acidic medium, which results in materials easily undergoing thermal reduction and offers single crystals often over 100 nm in size. In this study, α-MnO2 built up of inter-grown ultra-small nanoflakes with 10 nm thickness was produced in a rapid two-step procedure starting via partial reduction in solution in basic medium subsequently followed by co-proportionation in thermal treatment. This approach offers phase-pure α-MnO2 doped with potassium (cryptomelane type K0.25Mn8O16 structure) demonstrating considerable chemical and thermal stability. The reaction pathways leading to this new morphology and structure have been discussed. The MnO2 electrodes produced from obtained nanostructures were tested as electrodes of lithium ion batteries delivering initial discharge capacities of 968 mAh g−1 for anode (0 to 2.0 V) and 317 mAh g−1 for cathode (1.5 to 3.5 V) at 20 mA g−1 current density. At constant current of 100 mA g−1, stable cycling of anode achieving 660 mAh g−1 and 145 mAh g−1 for cathode after 200 cycles is recorded. Post diagnostic analysis of cycled electrodes confirmed the electrode materials stability and structural properties. Full article
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Article
Fabrication and Characterization of Graphene Microcrystal Prepared from Lignin Refined from Sugarcane Bagasse
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 565; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080565 - 24 Jul 2018
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2251
Abstract
Graphene microcrystal (GMC) is a type of glassy carbon fabricated from lignin, in which the microcrystals of graphene are chemically bonded by sp3 carbon atoms, forming a glass-like microcrystal structure. The lignin is refined from sugarcane bagasse using an ethanol-based organosolv technique [...] Read more.
Graphene microcrystal (GMC) is a type of glassy carbon fabricated from lignin, in which the microcrystals of graphene are chemically bonded by sp3 carbon atoms, forming a glass-like microcrystal structure. The lignin is refined from sugarcane bagasse using an ethanol-based organosolv technique which is used for the fabrication of GMC by two technical schemes: The pyrolysis reaction of lignin in a tubular furnace at atmospheric pressure; and the hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of lignin at lower temperature, followed by pyrolysis at higher temperature. The existence of graphene nanofragments in GMC is proven by Raman spectra and XRD patterns; the ratio of sp2 carbon atoms to sp3 carbon atoms is demonstrated by XPS spectra; and the microcrystal structure is observed in the high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) images. Temperature and pressure have an important impact on the quality of GMC samples. With the elevation of temperature, the fraction of carbon increases, while the fraction of oxygen decreases, and the ratio of sp2 to sp3 carbon atoms increases. In contrast to the pyrolysis techniques, the HTC technique needs lower temperatures because of the high vapor pressure of water. In general, with the help of biorefinery, the biomass material, lignin, is found to be qualified and sustainable material for the manufacture of GMC. Lignin acts as a renewable substitute for the traditional raw materials of glassy carbon, copolymer resins of phenol formaldehyde, and furfuryl alcohol-phenol. Full article
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