Kraft lignin was catalytically graphitized to graphene-based nanostructures at 1000 °C under argon atmosphere with four iron catalysts, iron(III) nitrate (Fe-N); iron(II) chloride (Fe-Cl2
); iron(III) chloride (Fe-Cl3
); and iron(II) sulfate (Fe-S). The catalytic decomposition process of iron-promoted lignin materials was examined using thermalgravimetric analysis and temperature-programmed decomposition methods. The crystal structure, morphology and surface area of produced materials were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, Raman, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and N2
adsorption−desorption techniques. Experimental results indicated that iron nitrate catalyst had better iron dispersion three other iron salts. Iron nitrate was the most active catalyst among four iron salts. The low activity of iron in iron chloride-promoted samples was because the residual chlorine over iron surfaces prevent iron interaction with lignin functional groups.
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