Special Issue "Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Franz L. Dickert

Chemical Sensors and Optical Molecular Spectroscopy, Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: chemical sensors; physical sensors; metrology; supramolecular chemistry; molecular imprinting; molecular recognition; biomimitics; intermolecular interactions; anisotropic phases; physicochemical basis of sensors

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Metal oxides, especially ZnO and SnO2, are well-established sensor materials that have been used for detection of gases and vapors for many decades. By going from thin films to nanoparticles, sensor recognition properties can be tuned, which ultimately leads to an improved dynamic behavior and sensitivity. A large variety of metal oxides, such as nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanorods, nanoflowers, etc., have been applied as recognition materials in chemical sensors. Especially, hybrid materials are of significant interest for researchers, as they offer improved selectivity and adapt sensors to a suitable working temperature. Thus, doping with noble metals will envisage this aim. Additionally, appreciable progress is made by using hybrid materials for achieving the goal of room temperature gas sensors. Innovative graphene combinations with metal oxide nanomaterials, e.g., allow sensing to be possible at a greatly-reduced temperature. Arrays combined with pattern recognition strategies make improvements in tuning selectivity and diversity of analytes possible.

In addition, gaseous analytes metal oxides can also be applied for sensing in condensed phases. Metal oxide electrodes were combined with, e.g., enzymes, antibodies, or aptamers for selective recognition of a large variety of bioanalytes. Furthermore, metal oxides were generated by hydrolysis of, e.g., silyl compounds, according to a sol gel process, in the presence of analytes. Thus, patterned metal oxide particles are also available for analyte recognition by selective inclusion of even lean molecules.

The oxide materials of Zn, Sn, Ti, Si, In, and others can be combined with all types of transducers. These range from electrochemical procedures, such as resistive, potentiometric, and amperometric measurements, to optical and mass-sensitive detection. Even applications in harsh environments, as in the automotive field, can be performed in this manner.

Prof. Franz L. Dickert
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • sensors

  • oxide materials

  • hybride materials

  • material patterning, grapheme

  • transducers

  • metrology

  • gases

  • vapors

  • bioanalytes

  • lean molecules

  • pattern recognition

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Fabrication of Amine-Modified Magnetite-Electrochemically Reduced Graphene Oxide Nanocomposite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode for Sensitive Dopamine Determination
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040194
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 25 March 2018 / Published: 27 March 2018
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (15813 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Amine-modified magnetite (NH2–Fe3O4)/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrodes (NH2–Fe3O4/RGO/GCEs) were developed for the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). The NH2-Fe3O4/RGO/GCEs were fabricated using
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Amine-modified magnetite (NH2–Fe3O4)/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite modified glassy carbon electrodes (NH2–Fe3O4/RGO/GCEs) were developed for the sensitive detection of dopamine (DA). The NH2-Fe3O4/RGO/GCEs were fabricated using a drop-casting method followed by an electrochemical reduction process. The surface morphologies, microstructure and chemical compositions of the NH2–Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs), reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets and NH2–Fe3O4/RGO nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical behaviors of DA on the bare and modified GCEs were investigated in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Compared with bare electrode and RGO/GCE, the oxidation peak current (ipa) on the NH2–Fe3O4/RGO/GCE increase significantly, owing to the synergistic effect between NH2–Fe3O4 NPs and RGO sheets. The oxidation peak currents (ipa) increase linearly with the concentrations of DA in the range of 1 × 10−8 mol/L – 1 × 10−7 mol/L, 1 × 10−7 mol/L – 1 × 10−6 mol/L and 1 × 10−6 mol/L – 1 × 10−5 mol/L. The detection limit is (4.0 ± 0.36) ×10−9 mol/L (S/N = 3). Moreover, the response peak currents of DA were hardly interfered with the coexistence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA). The proposed NH2–Fe3O4/RGO/GCE is successfully applied to the detection of dopamine hydrochloride injections with satisfactory results. Together with low cost, facile operation, good selectivity and high sensitivity, the NH2–Fe3O4/RGO/GCEs have tremendous prospects for the detection of DA in various real samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle The Room-Temperature Chemiresistive Properties of Potassium Titanate Whiskers versus Organic Vapors
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(12), 455; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7120455
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 19 December 2017
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Abstract
The development of portable gas-sensing units implies a special care of their power efficiency, which is often approached by operation at room temperature. This issue primarily appeals to a choice of suitable materials whose functional properties are sensitive toward gas vapors at these
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The development of portable gas-sensing units implies a special care of their power efficiency, which is often approached by operation at room temperature. This issue primarily appeals to a choice of suitable materials whose functional properties are sensitive toward gas vapors at these conditions. While the gas sensitivity is nowadays advanced by employing the materials at nano-dimensional domain, the room temperature operation might be targeted via the application of layered solid-state electrolytes, like titanates. Here, we report gas-sensitive properties of potassium titanate whiskers, which are placed over a multielectrode chip by drop casting from suspension to yield a matrix mono-layer of varied density. The material synthesis conditions are straightforward both to get stable single-crystalline quasi-one-dimensional whiskers with a great extent of potassium replacement and to favor the increase of specific surface area of the structures. The whisker layer is found to be sensitive towards volatile organic compounds (ethanol, isopropanol, acetone) in the mixture with air at room temperature. The vapor identification is obtained via processing the vector signal generated by sensor array of the multielectrode chip with the help of pattern recognition algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of the Effects of Nanoparticle Mixtures on Brassica Seed Germination and Bacterial Bioluminescence Activity Based on the Theory of Probability
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100344
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 11 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 23 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1115 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effects of binary mixtures of six metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; 54 combinations) on the activities of seed germination and bacterial bioluminescence were investigated using the theory of probability. The observed toxicities of various NPs combinations were compared with the theoretically expected toxicities, calculated
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Effects of binary mixtures of six metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs; 54 combinations) on the activities of seed germination and bacterial bioluminescence were investigated using the theory of probability. The observed toxicities of various NPs combinations were compared with the theoretically expected toxicities, calculated based on individual NPs toxicities. Different sensitivities were observed depending on the concentrations and the types of NPs. The synergistic mode (67%; observed toxicity greater than expected toxicity) was predominantly observed in the bioluminescence test, whereas both synergistic (47%) and additive (50%) modes were prevalent in the activity of seed germination. With regard to overall analysis, a slightly high percentage (56%) of the synergistic mode of action was (30 out of 54 binary mixture combinations; p < 0.0392) observed. These results suggest that the exposure of an NPs mixture in the environment may lead to a similar or higher toxicity level than the sum of its constituent NPs would suggest. In addition, one organism for assessment did not always show same results as those from a different assessment. Therefore, combining results of different organisms exposed to a wide range of concentrations of binary mixture will more properly predict and evaluate the expected ecotoxicity of pollutants on environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessArticle Impact of Temperature and UV Irradiation on Dynamics of NO2 Sensors Based on ZnO Nanostructures
Nanomaterials 2017, 7(10), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano7100312
Received: 4 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 5 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5871 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The main object of this study is the improvement of the dynamics of NO2 sensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Investigations presented in this paper showed that the combination of temperature and ultraviolet (UV) activation of the sensors can significantly decrease the sensor
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The main object of this study is the improvement of the dynamics of NO2 sensors based on ZnO nanostructures. Investigations presented in this paper showed that the combination of temperature and ultraviolet (UV) activation of the sensors can significantly decrease the sensor response and regeneration times. In comparison with the single activation method (elevated temperature or UV), these times for 1 ppm of NO2 decreased from about 10 min (or more) to less than 40 s. In addition, at the optimal conditions (200 °C and UV), sensors were very stable, were fully scalable (in the range on NO2 concentration of 1–20 ppm) and baseline drift was significantly reduced. Furthermore, in this paper, extensive studies of the influence of temperature and carrier gas (nitrogen and air) on NO2 sensing properties of the ZnO nanostructures were conducted. The NO2 sensing mechanisms of the sensors operating at elevated temperatures and under UV irradiation were also discussed. Our study showed that sensor responses to NO2 and response/regeneration times are comparable from sensor to sensor in air and nitrogen conditions, which suggests that the proposed simple technology connected with well-chosen operation conditions is repeatable. The estimated limit of detection of the sensors is within the level of ≈800 ppb in nitrogen and ≈700 ppb in air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Thermocatalytic Behavior of Manganese (IV) Oxide as Nanoporous Material on the Dissociation of a Gas Mixture Containing Hydrogen Peroxide
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040262
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
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Abstract
In this article, we present an overview on the thermocatalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) gas on a manganese (IV) oxide (MnO 2 ) catalytic structure. The principle of operation and manufacturing techniques are introduced for a calorimetric H
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In this article, we present an overview on the thermocatalytic reaction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) gas on a manganese (IV) oxide (MnO 2 ) catalytic structure. The principle of operation and manufacturing techniques are introduced for a calorimetric H 2 O 2 gas sensor based on porous MnO 2 . Results from surface analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the catalytic material provide indication of the H 2 O 2 dissociation reaction schemes. The correlation between theory and the experiments is documented in numerical models of the catalytic reaction. The aim of the numerical models is to provide further information on the reaction kinetics and performance enhancement of the porous MnO 2 catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Imprinted Oxide and MIP/Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(4), 257; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8040257
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7196 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The oxides of transition, post-transition and rare-earth metals have a long history of robust and fast responsive recognition elements for electronic, optical, and gravimetric devices. A wide range of applications successfully utilized pristine or doped metal oxides and polymer-oxide hybrids as nanostructured recognition
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The oxides of transition, post-transition and rare-earth metals have a long history of robust and fast responsive recognition elements for electronic, optical, and gravimetric devices. A wide range of applications successfully utilized pristine or doped metal oxides and polymer-oxide hybrids as nanostructured recognition elements for the detection of biologically relevant molecules, harmful organic substances, and drugs as well as for the investigative process control applications. An overview of the selected recognition applications of molecularly imprinted sol-gel phases, metal oxides and hybrid nanomaterials composed of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and metal oxides is presented herein. The formation and fabrication processes for imprinted sol-gel layers, metal oxides, MIP-coated oxide nanoparticles and other MIP/oxide nanohybrids are discussed along with their applications in monitoring bioorganic analytes and processes. The sensor characteristics such as dynamic detection range and limit of detection are compared as the performance criterion and the miniaturization and commercialization possibilities are critically discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors)
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