Special Issue "Novel Nanomaterials for Thermochemical Storage: Development and Characterization"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 December 2018).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Candida Milone
Website
Guest Editor
Universita degli Studi di Messina, Department of Engineering, Messina, Italy
Interests: materials design and synthesis for catalysis, environmental and energy applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues.

Scope of this Special Issue is to present the latest advances in the development of ThermoChemical heat storage Materials (TCM), which represent a key factor for boosting the use of renewable energy in heating and cooling systems effectively, as they decouple the availability of renewable energy from the time when it is needed. Moreover, the use of TCM contributes to improving the energy efficiency of global energy systems by storing waste heat.

The key parameters of TCM are energy density (depends on the storage process), power (how fast the energy stored in the system can be discharged and charged), efficiency (losses over time and with charge/discharge), and cost. Environment-friendliness is also important to consider.

The development of thermochemical materials and technologies is still at an early stage. The study of novel TCM should result in a better understanding of its structure, composition, and performance characteristics. Knowledge of how to synthesize, characterize, and compare materials and their performances must be gained.

Prof. Dr. Candida Milone
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nanomaterials is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

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Keywords

  • chemical reactions
  • adsorption
  • salt hydrate
  • hydroxide
  • oxide
  • perovskite
  • zeolite
  • hybrid materials
  • thermochemical characterization
  • materials characterization

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Hydrated Salt/Graphite/Polyelectrolyte Organic-Inorganic Hybrids for Efficient Thermochemical Storage
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030420 - 12 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Hydrated salt thermochemical energy storage (TES) is a promising technology for high density energy storage, in principle opening the way for applications in seasonal storage. However, severe limitations are affecting large scale applications, related to their poor thermal and mechanical stability on hydration/dehydration [...] Read more.
Hydrated salt thermochemical energy storage (TES) is a promising technology for high density energy storage, in principle opening the way for applications in seasonal storage. However, severe limitations are affecting large scale applications, related to their poor thermal and mechanical stability on hydration/dehydration cycling. In this paper, we report the preparation and characterization of composite materials manufactured with a wet impregnation method using strontium bromide hexahydrate (SBH) as a thermochemical storage material, combined with expanded natural graphite (G). In addition to these fully inorganic formulations, an organic polyelectrolyte (PDAC, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride) was exploited in the structure, with the aim to stabilize the salt, while contributing to the sorption/desorption process. Different formulations were prepared with varying PDAC concentration to study its contribution to material morphology, by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, as well as water sorption/desorption properties, by thermogravimetry and differential calorimetry. Furthermore, the SBH/G/PDAC powder mixture was pressed to form tabs that were analyzed in a climatic chamber, which is evidence for an active role of PDAC in the improvement of water sorption, coupled with a significant enhancement of mechanical resistance upon hydration/dehydration cycling. Therefore, the addition of the polyelectrolyte is proposed as an innovative approach in the fabrication of efficient and durable TES devices. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Solid-State Reactions for the Storage of Thermal Energy
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 226; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020226 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
In this paper, the use of solid-state reactions for the storing of thermal energy at high temperature is proposed. The candidate reactions are eutectoid- and peritectoid-type transitions where all the components (reactants and reaction products) are in the solid state. To the best [...] Read more.
In this paper, the use of solid-state reactions for the storing of thermal energy at high temperature is proposed. The candidate reactions are eutectoid- and peritectoid-type transitions where all the components (reactants and reaction products) are in the solid state. To the best of our knowledge, these classes of reactions have not been considered so far for application in thermal energy storage. This study includes the theoretical investigation, based on the Calphad method, of binary metals and salts systems that allowed to determine the thermodynamic properties of interest such as the enthalpy, the free energy, the temperature of transition, the volume expansion and the heat capacity, giving guidelines for the selection of the most promising materials in view of their use for thermal energy storage applications. The theoretical investigation carried out allowed the selection of several promising candidates, in a wide range of temperatures (300–800 °C). Moreover, the preliminary experimental study and results of the binary Mn-Ni metallic system are reported. This system showed a complex reacting behavior with several discrepancies between the theoretical phase diagram and the experimental results regarding the type of reaction, the transition temperatures and enthalpies and the final products. The discrepancies observed could be due both to the synthesis method applied and to the high sensitivity of the material leading to partial or total oxidation upon heating even if in presence of small amount of oxygen (at the ppm level). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Composite Water Sorbents CaCl2-PHTS for Low-Temperature Sorption Heat Storage: Determination of Structural Properties
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010027 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Sorption heat storage, as one of low-energy consuming technologies, is an approach to reduce CO2 emissions. The efficiency of such technology is governed by the performance of the applied sorbents. Thus, sorbents with high water sorption capacity and regeneration temperature from 80 [...] Read more.
Sorption heat storage, as one of low-energy consuming technologies, is an approach to reduce CO2 emissions. The efficiency of such technology is governed by the performance of the applied sorbents. Thus, sorbents with high water sorption capacity and regeneration temperature from 80 to 150 °C are required. Incorporation of hygroscopic salt such as calcium chloride into porous materials is a logical strategy for increasing the water sorption capacity. This work reports the study on the development of composites with PHTS (plugged hexagonal templated silicate) matrix with an average pore size of 5.7 nm and different amounts of calcium chloride (4, 10, 20 wt.%) for solar thermal energy storage. These composites were prepared by wetness incipient impregnation method. Structural properties were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). CaCl2 was confined in micro- and mesopores of the matrix. The resulting CaCl2-PHTS materials were used for water sorption at 40 °C, showing an increase of maximal water uptake with higher amount of calcium chloride from 0.78 g/g to 2.44 g/g of the dry composite. A small reduction in water uptake was observed after 20 cycles of sorption/desorption between temperatures of 140 °C and 40 °C, indicating good cycling stability of these composites under the working conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cycle Stability and Hydration Behavior of Magnesium Oxide and Its Dependence on the Precursor-Related Particle Morphology
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(10), 795; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8100795 - 07 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Thermochemical energy storage is considered as an auspicious method for the recycling of medium-temperature waste heat. The reaction couple Mg(OH)2–MgO is intensely investigated for this purpose, suffering so far from limited cycle stability. To overcome this issue, Mg(OH)2, MgCO [...] Read more.
Thermochemical energy storage is considered as an auspicious method for the recycling of medium-temperature waste heat. The reaction couple Mg(OH)2–MgO is intensely investigated for this purpose, suffering so far from limited cycle stability. To overcome this issue, Mg(OH)2, MgCO3, and MgC2O4·2H2O were compared as precursor materials for MgO production. Depending on the precursor, the particle morphology of the resulting MgO changes, resulting in different hydration behavior and cycle stability. Agglomeration of the material during cyclization was identified as main reason for the decreased reactivity. Immersion of the spent material in liquid H2O decomposes the agglomerates restoring the initial reactivity of the material, thus serving as a regeneration step. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Me Doped Mg(OH)2 Materials for Thermochemical Heat Storage
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(8), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8080573 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
In order to investigate the influence of metal (Me) doping in Mg(OH)2 synthesis on its thermochemical behavior, Ca2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions were inserted in Mg(OH)2 matrix and the resulting materials were investigated for structural, morphological and [...] Read more.
In order to investigate the influence of metal (Me) doping in Mg(OH)2 synthesis on its thermochemical behavior, Ca2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ ions were inserted in Mg(OH)2 matrix and the resulting materials were investigated for structural, morphological and thermochemical characterization. The densification of the material accompanied by the loss in porosity significantly influenced the hydration process, diminishing the conversion percentage and the kinetics. On the other hand, it increased the volumetric stored/released heat capacity (between 400 and 725 MJ/m3), reaching almost three times the un-doped Mg(OH)2 value. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Adsorption Heat Storage: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(7), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8070522 - 12 Jul 2018
Cited by 13
Abstract
Thermal energy storage (TES) is a key technology to enhance the efficiency of energy systems as well as to increase the share of renewable energies. In this context, the present paper reports a literature review of the recent advancement in the field of [...] Read more.
Thermal energy storage (TES) is a key technology to enhance the efficiency of energy systems as well as to increase the share of renewable energies. In this context, the present paper reports a literature review of the recent advancement in the field of adsorption TES systems. After an initial introduction concerning different heat storage technologies, the working principle of the adsorption TES is explained and compared to other technologies. Subsequently, promising features and critical issues at a material, component and system level are deeply analyzed and the ongoing activities to make this technology ready for marketing are introduced. Full article
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