Special Issue "Nanomaterials in Environmental Friendly Fuel Cell"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hirohisa Tanaka
Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
Interests: gas conversion catalysts; fuel cells; thermoelectricity materials
Prof. Dr. Teppei OGURA
Website
Guest Editor
School of Science and Technology, Kwansei Gakuin University, 2-1 Gakuen, Sanda, Hyogo 669-1337, Japan
Interests: nanotechnology; physical chemistry; surface chemistry; reaction kinetics; combustion chemistry

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fuel cells are expected as an energy system for a low carbon or even hydrogen society. Fuel cells have already been put into practical use as residential and automotive power supplies, and are expected to spread dramatically in the near future. However, the performances of rechargeable batteries, exemplified by lithium-ion batteries, have also improved year-by-year, and further developments of fuel cells as energy systems are strongly desired. In order to widely disseminate fuel cells, it is important to acquire environmentally-friendly characteristics, namely the development of platinum-group-metal-free electrodes, securing system diversity. Especially, the use of various fuels (other than hydrogen), such as liquid fuels, biofuels and biogas, is an important key. Recent progress in experimental techniques and computational theories can provide fundamental insights in the development of new electrode and electrolyte materials corresponding to a wide range of fuels types. This Special Issue features nanomaterials in new-generation fuel cell technologies, including computational theoretical research, as well as experimental research and development.

Prof. Dr. Hirohisa Tanaka
Prof. Dr. Teppei OGURA
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • fuel cell
  • nanomaterial
  • environmental friendly
  • platinum-group-metal-free electrode
  • diversity
  • liquid fuel
  • energy system
  • computational research

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Electrochemical Adsorption on Pt Nanoparticles in Alkaline Solution Observed Using In Situ High Energy Resolution X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 642; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9040642 - 20 Apr 2019
Abstract
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt/C in alkaline solution was studied by in situ high energy resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To discuss the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), this paper introduced the rate of change of the Δμ (RCD), which is [...] Read more.
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on Pt/C in alkaline solution was studied by in situ high energy resolution X-ray absorption spectroscopy. To discuss the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES), this paper introduced the rate of change of the Δμ (RCD), which is an analysis method that is sensitive to surface adsorption. The surface adsorptions as hydrogen (below 0.34 V), superoxide anion (from 0.34 V to 0.74 V), hydroxyl species (from 0.44 V to 0.74 V), atomic oxygen (above 0.74 V), and α-PtO2 (above 0.94 V) were distinguished. It is clarified that the catalytic activity in an alkaline solution is enhanced by the stability of atomic oxygen and the low stability of superoxide anion/peroxide adsorption on the platinum surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Environmental Friendly Fuel Cell)
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Open AccessArticle
Structure of Active Sites of Fe-N-C Nano-Catalysts for Alkaline Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(12), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8120965 - 22 Nov 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalysts based on transition metal-nitrogen-carbon nanomaterials have been studied by a combination of ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy techniques; high-resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM); Mößbauer spectroscopy combined with electrochemical methods and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modeling/theoretical [...] Read more.
Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalysts based on transition metal-nitrogen-carbon nanomaterials have been studied by a combination of ex situ and in situ synchrotron X-ray spectroscopy techniques; high-resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM); Mößbauer spectroscopy combined with electrochemical methods and Density Functional Theory (DFT) modeling/theoretical approaches. The main objective of this study was to correlate the HO2 generation with the chemical nature and surface availability of active sites in iron-nitrogen-carbon (Fe-N-C) catalysts derived by sacrificial support method (SSM). These nanomaterials present a carbonaceous matrix with nitrogen-doped sites and atomically dispersed and; in some cases; iron and nanoparticles embedded in the carbonaceous matrix. Fe-N-C oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts were synthesized by varying several synthetic parameters to obtain nanomaterials with different composition and morphology. Combining spectroscopy, microscopy and electrochemical reactivity allowed the building of structure-to-properties correlations which demonstrate the contributions of these moieties to the catalyst activity, and mechanistically assign the active sites to individual reaction steps. Associated with Fe-Nx motive and the presence of Fe metallic particles in the electrocatalysts showed the clear differences in the variation of composition; processing and treatment conditions of SSM. From the results of material characterization; catalytic activity and theoretical studies; Fe metallic particles (coated with carbon) are main contributors into the HO2 generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Environmental Friendly Fuel Cell)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Study of the ORR Activity and Stability of Pt and PtM (M = Ni, Co, Cr, Pd) Supported on Polyaniline/Carbon Nanotubes in a PEM Fuel Cell
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(5), 299; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8050299 - 04 May 2018
Cited by 14
Abstract
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability of platinum (Pt) and PtM (M = Ni, Co, Cr, Pd) supported on polyaniline/carbon nanotube (PtM/PANI-CNT) were explored and compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (ETEK). The Pt/PANI-CNT catalyst exhibited higher ORR activity and stability [...] Read more.
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and stability of platinum (Pt) and PtM (M = Ni, Co, Cr, Pd) supported on polyaniline/carbon nanotube (PtM/PANI-CNT) were explored and compared with the commercial Pt/C catalyst (ETEK). The Pt/PANI-CNT catalyst exhibited higher ORR activity and stability than the commercial Pt/C catalyst even though it had larger crystallite/particle sizes, lower catalyst dispersion and lower electrochemical surface area (ESA), probably because of its high electrical conductivity. The addition of second metal (M) enhanced the ORR activity and stability of the Pt/PANI-CNT catalyst, because the added M induced the formation of a PtM alloy and shifted the d-band center to downfield, leading to a weak chemical interaction between oxygenated species and the catalyst surface and, therefore, affected positively the catalytic activity. Among all the tested M, the addition of Cr was optimal. Although it improved the ORR activity of the Pt/PANI-CNT catalyst slightly less than that of Pd (around 4.98%) in low temperature (60 °C)/pressure (1 atm abs), it reduced the ESA loss by around 14.8% after 1000 cycles of repetitive cyclic voltammetry (CV). In addition, it is cheaper than Pd metal. Thus, Cr was recommended as the second metal to alloy with Pt on the PANI-CNT support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials in Environmental Friendly Fuel Cell)
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