Special Issue "Magnetic Nanostructures with Optical Properties for Biomedical Applications"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 December 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Ali Abou-Hassan
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Sorbonne Université, CNRS, PHysico-Chimie des Electroyltes et Nanosystèmes InterfaciauX, F-75005, Paris, France
Interests: nanomaterials; magnetic nanoparticles, plasmonic nanoparticles; magneto-plasmonic nanostructures, multifunctional materials; self-assembly, microreactors, magnetic hyperthermia, photothermia, multimodal theranostics, biomedical applications, nanomedecine, biodegradation, confinement

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the field of biomedical applications, magnetic nanoparticles are the state-of-the-art theranostic agents. They are widely used as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in particular for cell tracking as well as for therapeutic magnetic hyperthermia (MHT), and in drug delivery. Beside the magnetic functionality of the nanoparticles, their optical properties can be engineered to provide them with absorption in the biological window i.e. near infra-red (NIR) suitable for photothermal (PT) applications. Another approach to increase the theranostic functionalities of the magnetic particles while endowing them with optical properties suitable for biomedical applications is based on their association with other materials such as plasmonic and metallic materials as gold or plasmonic semiconductors such as copper sulfide. This can be done either by controlled assembly strategies or by using molecular bottom up approaches. Synergistic physical properties may arise in the magneto-plasmonic structures from the interactions between the individual components, transcending their individual physical properties.

The present Special Issue “Magnetic nanostructures with optical properties for biomedical applications” aims to cover all research areas related to the synthesis, and engineering of magnetic nanoparticles or magnetic nanostructured assemblies having optical properties, their characterization, and various applications, specifically emphasizing biomedical applications.

Prof. Dr. Ali Abou-Hassan
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Magnetic nanoparticles
  • Magnetic based nano-assemblies
  • Theranostics
  • Optical properties
  • Biological window
  • Magneto-plasmonic
  • Biomedical applications
  • Thermal therapies

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
The Effects of a Varied Gold Shell Thickness on Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Cores in Magnetic Manipulation, T1 and T2 MRI Contrasting, and Magnetic Hyperthermia
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2424; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122424 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
Fe3O4–Au core–shell magnetic-plasmonic nanoparticles are expected to combine both magnetic and light responsivity into a single nanosystem, facilitating combined optical and magnetic-based nanotheranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic) applications, for example, photothermal therapy in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging. [...] Read more.
Fe3O4–Au core–shell magnetic-plasmonic nanoparticles are expected to combine both magnetic and light responsivity into a single nanosystem, facilitating combined optical and magnetic-based nanotheranostic (therapeutic and diagnostic) applications, for example, photothermal therapy in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging. To date, the effects of a plasmonic gold shell on an iron oxide nanoparticle core in magnetic-based applications remains largely unexplored. For this study, we quantified the efficacy of magnetic iron oxide cores with various gold shell thicknesses in a number of popular magnetic-based nanotheranostic applications; these included magnetic sorting and targeting (quantifying magnetic manipulability and magnetophoresis), MRI contrasting (quantifying benchtop nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based T1 and T2 relaxivity), and magnetic hyperthermia therapy (quantifying alternating magnetic-field heating). We observed a general decrease in magnetic response and efficacy with an increase of the gold shell thickness, and herein we discuss possible reasons for this reduction. The magnetophoresis speed of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with the thickest gold shell tested here (ca. 42 nm) was only ca. 1% of the non-coated bare magnetic nanoparticle, demonstrating reduced magnetic manipulability. The T1 relaxivity, r1, of the thick gold-shelled magnetic particle was ca. 22% of the purely magnetic counterpart, whereas the T2 relaxivity, r2, was 42%, indicating a reduced MRI contrasting. Lastly, the magnetic hyperthermia heating efficiency (intrinsic loss power parameter) was reduced to ca. 14% for the thickest gold shell. For all applications, the efficiency decayed exponentially with increased gold shell thickness; therefore, if the primary application of the nanostructure is magnetic-based, this work suggests that it is preferable to use a thinner gold shell or higher levels of stimuli to compensate for losses associated with the addition of the gold shell. Moreover, as thinner gold shells have better magnetic properties, have previously demonstrated superior optical properties, and are more economical than thick gold shells, it can be said that “less is more”. Full article
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Article
Nanostructured and Spiky Gold Shell Growth on Magnetic Particles for SERS Applications
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112136 - 27 Oct 2020
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Multifunctional micro- and nanoparticles have potential uses in advanced detection methods, such as the combined separation and detection of biomolecules. Combining multiple tasks is possible but requires the specific tailoring of these particles during synthesis or further functionalization. Here, we synthesized nanostructured gold [...] Read more.
Multifunctional micro- and nanoparticles have potential uses in advanced detection methods, such as the combined separation and detection of biomolecules. Combining multiple tasks is possible but requires the specific tailoring of these particles during synthesis or further functionalization. Here, we synthesized nanostructured gold shells on magnetic particle cores and demonstrated the use of them in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To grow the gold shells, gold seeds were bound to silica-coated iron oxide aggregate particles. We explored different functional groups on the surface to achieve different interactions with gold seeds. Then, we used an aqueous cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-based strategy to grow the seeds into spikes. We investigated the influence of the surface chemistry on seed attachment and on further growth of spikes. We also explored different experimental conditions to achieve either spiky or bumpy plasmonic structures on the particles. We demonstrated that the particles showed SERS enhancement of a model Raman probe molecule, 2-mercaptopyrimidine, on the order of 104. We also investigated the impact of gold shell morphology—spiky or bumpy—on SERS enhancements and on particle stability over time. We found that spiky shells lead to greater enhancements, however their high aspect ratio structures are less stable and morphological changes occur more quickly than observed with bumpy shells. Full article
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Article
Iron Oxide Mediated Photothermal Therapy in the Second Biological Window: A Comparative Study between Magnetite/Maghemite Nanospheres and Nanoflowers
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1548; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081548 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
The photothermal use of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) is becoming more and more popular and documented. Herein, we compared the photothermal (PT) therapy potential versus magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) modality of magnetic nanospheres, largely used in the biomedical field and magnetic multicore nanoflowers [...] Read more.
The photothermal use of iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) is becoming more and more popular and documented. Herein, we compared the photothermal (PT) therapy potential versus magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) modality of magnetic nanospheres, largely used in the biomedical field and magnetic multicore nanoflowers known among the best nanoheaters. The NPs were imaged using transmission electron microscopy and their optical properties characterized by UV-Vis-NIR-I-II before oxidation (magnetite) and after oxidation to maghemite. The efficiency of all NPs in MHT and PT in the preferred second near-infrared (NIR-II) biological window was carried out in water and in cancer cells. We show that, in water, magnetite nanoflowers are the most efficient nanoheaters for both modalities. Moreover, PT appears much more efficient than MHT at low NP dose, whatever the NP. In the cellular environment, for PT, efficiency was totally conserved, with magnetite nanoflowers as the best performers compared to MHT, which was totally lost. Finally, cell uptake was significantly increased for the nanoflowers compared to the nanospheres. Finally, the antitumor therapy was investigated for all NPs at the same dose delivered to the cancer cells and at reasonable laser power density (0.3 W/cm2), which showed almost total cell death for magnetite nanoflowers. Full article
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Review

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Review
Design and Synthesis of Luminescent Lanthanide-Based Bimodal Nanoprobes for Dual Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Optical Imaging
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020354 - 01 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 545
Abstract
Current biomedical imaging techniques are crucial for the diagnosis of various diseases. Each imaging technique uses specific probes that, although each one has its own merits, do not encompass all the functionalities required for comprehensive imaging (sensitivity, non-invasiveness, etc.). Bimodal imaging methods are [...] Read more.
Current biomedical imaging techniques are crucial for the diagnosis of various diseases. Each imaging technique uses specific probes that, although each one has its own merits, do not encompass all the functionalities required for comprehensive imaging (sensitivity, non-invasiveness, etc.). Bimodal imaging methods are therefore rapidly becoming an important topic in advanced healthcare. This bimodality can be achieved by successive image acquisitions involving different and independent probes, one for each mode, with the risk of artifacts. It can be also achieved simultaneously by using a single probe combining a complete set of physical and chemical characteristics, in order to record complementary views of the same biological object at the same time. In this scenario, and focusing on bimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging (OI), probes can be engineered by the attachment, more or less covalently, of a contrast agent (CA) to an organic or inorganic dye, or by designing single objects containing both the optical emitter and MRI-active dipole. If in the first type of system, there is frequent concern that at some point the dye may dissociate from the magnetic dipole, it may not in the second type. This review aims to present a summary of current activity relating to this kind of dual probes, with a special emphasis on lanthanide-based luminescent nano-objects. Full article
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Other

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Perspective
Magneto-Optical Nanostructures for Viral Sensing
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1271; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071271 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
The eradication of viral infections is an ongoing challenge in the medical field, as currently evidenced with the newly emerged Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe respiratory distress. As treatments are often not available, early detection of an eventual infection and its [...] Read more.
The eradication of viral infections is an ongoing challenge in the medical field, as currently evidenced with the newly emerged Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe respiratory distress. As treatments are often not available, early detection of an eventual infection and its level becomes of outmost importance. Nanomaterials and nanotechnological approaches are increasingly used in the field of viral sensing to address issues related to signal-to-noise ratio, limiting the sensitivity of the sensor. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (MPs) present one of the most exciting prospects for magnetic bead-based viral aggregation assays and their integration into different biosensing strategies as they can be easily separated from a complex matrix containing the virus through the application of an external magnetic field. Despite the enormous potential of MPs as capture/pre-concentrating elements, they are not ideal with regard of being active elements in sensing applications as they are not the sensor element itself. Even though engineering of magneto-plasmonic nanostructures as promising hybrid materials directly applicable for sensing due to their plasmonic properties are often used in sensing, to our surprise, the literature of magneto-plasmonic nanostructures for viral sensing is limited to some examples. Considering the wide interest this topic is evoking at present, the different approaches will be discussed in more detail and put into wider perspectives for sensing of viral disease markers. Full article
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