Characterization of Quantum Effects in Nanomaterials, Nano-Devices, and Nanophotonics

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Nanophotonics Materials and Devices".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2023) | Viewed by 9918

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Kyonggi University, Suwon, South Korea
Interests: nanomaterials; nanoscience; nanophotonics; quantum physics; quantum optics; quantum information theory; theoretical physics; mathematical physics; radiation

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Quantum effects, as we know, are relatively prominent in small-scale physical elements. In accordance with this, quantum properties of materials and electronic/photonic devices cannot be ignored as their size reaches to the nanometer range. The elucidation of quantum effects in quantum dots, quantum wells, nanowires, qubits, nanorobots, and superconducting quantum interference devices is important to understanding their optical and electronic properties. Electrons and photons constrained within these extremely small devices usually exhibit novel quantum confinement effects. We should inevitably regard quantum characteristics associated with them in order to clarify relevant physical properties.

For this reason, the analysis of quantum characteristics of nanomaterials and nano-sized device systems is growing in significance. An elegant combining of quantum mechanics with nanotechnology may possibly lead to the advent of exceptional quantum technology merged with innovative nanomaterials beyond our current technological limits. The eventual advancement of quantum information science depends upon this.

This Special Issue focuses on quantum effects in nanomaterials, nano-devices, nanoelectronic circuits, and other nanosystems. Quantum theory and its experimental verification, incorporated with nanophotonics and nano-optics, are of further particular interest. Research papers and reviews which characterize quantum properties of carbon nanotubes, graphenes and graphene-based materials, superconducting nano-devices, nano-biomaterials, etc. are welcome. Authors are also encouraged to submit articles related to various nanoscience issues which cannot be explained in the realm of classical mechanics.

Prof. Dr. Jeong Ryeol Choi
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • superconductors
  • nano-devices
  • superconducting quantum interference device
  • Josephson devices
  • quantum phenomena
  • quantum effects
  • nanophotonics
  • optoelectronics
  • nano-optics

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1885 KiB  
Article
Dynamics of Dispersive Measurements of Flux-Qubit States: Energy-Level Splitting Connected to Quantum Wave Mechanics
by Jeong Ryeol Choi
Nanomaterials 2023, 13(17), 2395; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano13172395 - 23 Aug 2023
Viewed by 868
Abstract
Superconducting flux qubits have many advantages as a storage of quantum information, such as broad range tunability of frequency, small-size fabricability, and high controllability. In the flux qubit–oscillator, qubits are connected to SQUID resonators for the purpose of performing dispersive non-destructive readouts of [...] Read more.
Superconducting flux qubits have many advantages as a storage of quantum information, such as broad range tunability of frequency, small-size fabricability, and high controllability. In the flux qubit–oscillator, qubits are connected to SQUID resonators for the purpose of performing dispersive non-destructive readouts of qubit signals with high fidelity. In this work, we propose a theoretical model for analyzing quantum characteristics of a flux qubit–oscillator on the basis of quantum solutions obtained using a unitary transformation approach. The energy levels of the combined system (qubit + resonator) are analyzed in detail. Equally spaced each energy level of the resonator splits into two parts depending on qubit states. Besides, coupling of the qubit to the resonator brings about an additional modification in the split energy levels. So long as the coupling strength and the tunnel splitting are not zero but finite values, the energy-level splitting of the resonator does not disappear. We conclude that quantum nondemolition dispersive measurements of the qubit states are possible by inducing bifurcation of the resonator states through the coupling. Full article
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11 pages, 2271 KiB  
Article
Photodetection Tuning with High Absorptivity Using Stacked 2D Heterostructure Films
by Umar Farooq, Kossi A. A. Min-Dianey, Pandey Rajagopalan, Muhammad Malik, Damgou Mani Kongnine, Jeong Ryeol Choi and Phuong V. Pham
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(4), 712; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12040712 - 21 Feb 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2142
Abstract
Graphene-based photodetection (PD) devices have been broadly studied for their broadband absorption, high carrier mobility, and mechanical flexibility. Owing to graphene’s low optical absorption, the research on graphene-based PD devices so far has relied on hybrid heterostructure devices to enhance photo-absorption. Designing a [...] Read more.
Graphene-based photodetection (PD) devices have been broadly studied for their broadband absorption, high carrier mobility, and mechanical flexibility. Owing to graphene’s low optical absorption, the research on graphene-based PD devices so far has relied on hybrid heterostructure devices to enhance photo-absorption. Designing a new generation of PD devices supported by silicon (Si) film is considered as an innovative technique for PD devices; Si film-based devices are typically utilized in optical communication and image sensing owing to the remarkable features of Si, e.g., high absorption, high carrier mobility, outstanding CMOS integration. Here, we integrate (i) Si film via a splitting/printing transfer with (ii) graphite film grown by a pyrolysis method. Consequently, p-type Si film/graphite film/n-type Si-stacked PD devices exhibited a broadband detection of 0.4–4 μm (in computation) and obtained good experimental results such as the responsivity of 100 mA/W, specific detectivity of 3.44 × 106 Jones, noise-equivalent power of 14.53 × 10−10 W/(Hz)1/2, external quantum efficiency of 0.2, and rise/fall time of 38 μs/1 μs under 532 nm laser illumination. Additionally, our computational results also confirmed an enhanced light absorption of the above stacked 2D heterostructure film-based PD device compatible with the experimental results. Full article
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10 pages, 4153 KiB  
Article
The Ripple Effect of Graphite Nanofilm on Stretchable Polydimethylsiloxane for Optical Sensing
by Kossi A. A. Min-Dianey, Top Khac Le, Akeel Qadir, Noé Landry Privace M’Bouana, Muhammad Malik, Sok Won Kim, Jeong Ryeol Choi and Phuong V. Pham
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(11), 2934; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11112934 - 2 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Graphene-based optical sensing devices have been widely studied for their broad band absorption, high carrier mobility, and mechanical flexibility. Due to graphene’s weak light absorption, studies on graphene-based optical sensing thus far have focused on hybrid heterostructure devices to enhance photo-absorption. Such hybrid [...] Read more.
Graphene-based optical sensing devices have been widely studied for their broad band absorption, high carrier mobility, and mechanical flexibility. Due to graphene’s weak light absorption, studies on graphene-based optical sensing thus far have focused on hybrid heterostructure devices to enhance photo-absorption. Such hybrid devices need a complicated integration process and lead to deteriorating carrier mobility as a result of heterogeneous interfaces. Rippled or wrinkled graphene has been studied in electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, concrete demonstrations of the impact of the morphology of nanofilms (e.g., graphite and graphene) associated with light absorption in optical sensing devices have not been fully examined. This study explored the optical sensing potential of a graphite nanofilm surface with ripples induced by a stretchable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) supporting layer under different stretch:release ratios and then transferred onto silicon, both under experimental conditions and via simulation. The optical sensing potential of the rippled graphite nanofilm was significantly enhanced (260 mA/W at the stretch–release state of 30%), as compared to the pristine graphite/PDMS (20 mA/W at the stretch–release state of 0%) under laser illumination at a wavelength of 532 nm. In addition, the results of our simulated computation also confirmed the improved light absorption of rippled graphite nanofilm surface-based optical sensing devices, which was comparable with the results found in the experiment. Full article
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12 pages, 2723 KiB  
Article
Titanium Nitride as a New Prospective Material for NanoSQUIDs and Superconducting Nanobridge Electronics
by Michael I. Faley, Yuchen Liu and Rafal E. Dunin-Borkowski
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 466; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020466 - 12 Feb 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4022
Abstract
Nanobridge Josephson junctions and nanometer-scale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) based on titanium nitride (TiN) thin films are described. The TiN films have a room temperature resistivity of ~15 µΩ·cm, a superconducting transition temperature Tc of up to 5.3 K and a [...] Read more.
Nanobridge Josephson junctions and nanometer-scale superconducting quantum interference devices (nanoSQUIDs) based on titanium nitride (TiN) thin films are described. The TiN films have a room temperature resistivity of ~15 µΩ·cm, a superconducting transition temperature Tc of up to 5.3 K and a coherence length ξ(4.2 K) of ~105 nm. They were deposited using pulsed DC magnetron sputtering from a stoichiometric TiN target onto Si (100) substrates that were heated to 800 °C. Electron beam lithography and highly selective reactive ion etching were used to fabricate nanoSQUIDs with 20-nm-wide nanobridge Josephson junctions of variable thickness. X-ray and high-resolution electron microscopy studies were performed. Non-hysteretic I(V) characteristics of the nanobridges and nanoSQUIDs, as well as peak-to-peak modulations of up to 17 µV in the V(B) characteristics of the nanoSQUIDs, were measured at 4.2 K. The technology offers prospects for superconducting electronics based on nanobridge Josephson junctions operating within the framework of the Ginzburg–Landau theory at 4.2 K. Full article
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18 pages, 4935 KiB  
Article
Quadrature Squeezing and Geometric-Phase Oscillations in Nano-Optics
by Jeong Ryeol Choi
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1391; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071391 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2005
Abstract
The geometric phase, as well as the familiar dynamical phase, occurs in the evolution of a squeezed state in nano-optics as an extra phase. The outcome of the geometric phase in that state is somewhat intricate: its time behavior exhibits a combination of [...] Read more.
The geometric phase, as well as the familiar dynamical phase, occurs in the evolution of a squeezed state in nano-optics as an extra phase. The outcome of the geometric phase in that state is somewhat intricate: its time behavior exhibits a combination of a linear increase and periodic oscillations. We focus in this work on the periodic oscillations of the geometric phase, which are novel and interesting. We confirm that such oscillations are due purely to the effects of squeezing in the quantum states, whereas the oscillation disappears when we remove the squeezing. As the degree of squeezing increases in q-quadrature, the amplitude of the geometric-phase oscillation becomes large. This implies that we can adjust the strength of such an oscillation by tuning the squeezing parameters. We also investigate geometric-phase oscillations for the case of a more general optical phenomenon where the squeezed state undergoes one-photon processes. It is shown that the geometric phase in this case exhibits additional intricate oscillations with small amplitudes, besides the principal oscillation. Such a sub-oscillation exhibits a beating-like behavior in time. The effects of geometric-phase oscillations are crucial in a wide range of wave interferences which are accompanied by rich physical phenomena such as Aharonov–Bohm oscillations, conductance fluctuations, antilocalizations, and nondissipative current flows. Full article
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