Special Issue "Frontiers in Nanotoxicology"

A special issue of Nanomaterials (ISSN 2079-4991). This special issue belongs to the section "Biology and Medicines".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2021) | Viewed by 20162

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Alexander Gusev
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
1. Department of Functional Nanosystems and High-Temperature Materials, National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, 119991 Moscow, Russia
2. Institute “Nanotechnology and Nanomaterials”, G.R. Derzhavin Tambov State University, 392000 Tambov, Russia
Interests: nanotoxicology; plant nanobiotechnology; antibacterial nanomaterials; carbon nanomaterials; bioaccumulation of nanoparticles
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Nanotoxicology is an arising discipline interested in characterizing and categorizing the adverse effects induced by nanomaterials for determining relationships of structure and function between nanoparticles and toxicity. The application of nanotechnology is one of the fastest growing areas of materials science, but the applied research in nanotechnology is ahead of nanotoxicological research. However, the safety assessment should be carried out in parallel with the development of new materials (safe-by-design).

This Special Issue will combine scientific articles and reviews devoted to such problems of nanotoxicology as the biological effects of both widely known and emerging nanomaterials (for example, 2D transition metal chalcogenides, MXenes, perovskites, etc.), the effects of nanoparticle size, geometry and surface properties on toxicity and dose-response relationships, cell and molecular mechanisms of nanotoxicity, environmental toxicology of nanomaterials, research of nano-bio interfaces, new research methods for nanotoxicology and nanomedicine, predictive and personalized nanotoxicology. Works based on an interdisciplinary approach regarding new biomedical nanomaterials are also welcomed.

Dr. Alexander Gusev
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nanomaterials
  • nanoparticles
  • nanotechnology
  • nanotoxicology
  • nanomedicine
  • dose-response
  • nano-bio interface

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
In Vivo Study of Entero- and Hepatotoxicity of Silver Nanoparticles Stabilized with Benzyldimethyl-[3-myristoylamine)-propyl]ammonium Chloride (Miramistin) to CBF1 Mice upon Enteral Administration
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020332 - 27 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely studied antimicrobial nanomaterials. However, their use in biomedicine is currently limited due to the availability of data that prove the nanosilver toxicity associated primarily with oxidative stress development in mammalian cells. The surface modification of AgNPs [...] Read more.
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely studied antimicrobial nanomaterials. However, their use in biomedicine is currently limited due to the availability of data that prove the nanosilver toxicity associated primarily with oxidative stress development in mammalian cells. The surface modification of AgNPs is a potent technique of improvement of their biocompatibility. The synthetic or natural compounds that combine zero or low toxicity towards human and animal organisms with inherent antimicrobial properties are the most promising stabilizing agents, their use would also minimize the risks of microorganisms developing resistance to silver-based materials. We used a simple technique to obtain 30–60 nm AgNPs stabilized with benzyldimethyl[3-myristoylamine)-propyl]ammonium chloride monohydrate (BAC)—a well-known active ingredient of many antibacterial drugs. The objective of the study was to assess the AgNPs-BAC entero- and hepatotoxicity to CBF1 mice upon enteral administration. The animals were exposed to 0.8–7.5 mg/kg doses of AgNPs-BAC in the acute and to 0.05–2.25 mg/kg doses of AgNPs-BAC in the subacute experiments. No significant entero- and hepatotoxic effects following a single exposure to doses smaller than 4 mg/kg were detected. Repeated exposure to the doses of AgNPs-BAC below 0.45 mg/kg and to the doses of BAC below 0.5 mg/kg upon enteral administration also led to no adverse effects. During the acute experiment, the higher AgNPs-BAC dose resulted in increased quantities of aminotransferases and urea, as well as the albumin-globulin ratio shift, which are indicative of inflammatory processes. Besides, the relative mass of the liver of mice was smaller compared to the control. During the subacute experiment, the groups treated with the 0.25–2.25 mg/kg dose of AgNPs-BAC had a lower weight gain rate compared to the control, while the groups treated with the 2.25 mg/kg dose of AgNPs-BAC showed statistically significant variations in the blood serum transaminases activity, which indicated hepatosis. It should be noted that the spleen and liver of the animals from the groups treated with the 0.45 and 2.25 mg/kg dose of AgNPs-BAC were more than two times smaller compared to the control. In the intestines of some animals from the group treated with the 2.25 mg/kg dose of AgNPs-BAC small areas of hyperemia and enlarged Peyer’s patches were observed. Histological examination confirmed the initial stages of the liver and intestinal wall inflammation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
The Potential of Caffeic Acid Lipid Nanoparticulate Systems for Skin Application: In Vitro Assays to Assess Delivery and Antioxidant Effect
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010171 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The object of this study is a comparison between solid lipid nanoparticles and ethosomes for caffeic acid delivery through the skin. Caffeic acid is a potent antioxidant molecule whose cutaneous administration is hampered by its low solubility and scarce stability. In order to [...] Read more.
The object of this study is a comparison between solid lipid nanoparticles and ethosomes for caffeic acid delivery through the skin. Caffeic acid is a potent antioxidant molecule whose cutaneous administration is hampered by its low solubility and scarce stability. In order to improve its therapeutic potential, caffeic acid has been encapsulated within solid lipid nanoparticles and ethosomes. The effect of lipid matrix has been evaluated on the morphology and size distribution of solid lipid nanoparticles and ethosomes loaded with caffeic acid. Particularly, morphology has been investigated by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering, while mean diameters have been evaluated by photon correlation spectroscopy. The antioxidant power has been evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl methodology. The influence of the type of nanoparticulate system on caffeic acid diffusion has been evaluated by Franz cells associated to the nylon membrane, while to evaluate caffeic acid permeation through the skin, an amperometric study has been conducted, which was based on a porcine skin-covered oxygen electrode. This apparatus allows measuring the O2 concentration changes in the membrane induced by polyphenols and H2O2 reaction in the skin. The antioxidative reactions in the skin induced by caffeic acid administered by solid lipid nanoparticles or ethosomes have been evaluated. Franz cell results indicated that caffeic acid diffusion from ethosomes was 18-fold slower with respect to solid lipid nanoparticles. The amperometric method evidenced the transdermal delivery effect of ethosome, indicating an intense antioxidant activity of caffeic acid and a very low response in the case of SLN. Finally, an irritation patch test conducted on 20 human volunteers demonstrated that both ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles can be safely applied on the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
Three-Year Study of Markers of Oxidative Stress in Exhaled Breath Condensate in Workers Producing Nanocomposites, Extended by Plasma and Urine Analysis in Last Two Years
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(12), 2440; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10122440 - 06 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
Human data concerning exposure to nanoparticles are very limited, and biomarkers for monitoring exposure are urgently needed. In a follow-up of a 2016 study in a nanocomposites plant, in which only exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was examined, eight markers of oxidative stress were [...] Read more.
Human data concerning exposure to nanoparticles are very limited, and biomarkers for monitoring exposure are urgently needed. In a follow-up of a 2016 study in a nanocomposites plant, in which only exhaled breath condensate (EBC) was examined, eight markers of oxidative stress were analyzed in three bodily fluids, i.e., EBC, plasma and urine, in both pre-shift and post-shift samples in 2017 and 2018. Aerosol exposures were monitored. Mass concentration in 2017 was 0.351 mg/m3 during machining, and 0.179 and 0.217 mg/m3 during machining and welding, respectively, in 2018. In number concentrations, nanoparticles formed 96%, 90% and 59%, respectively. In both years, pre-shift elevations of 50.0% in EBC, 37.5% in plasma and 6.25% in urine biomarkers were observed. Post-shift elevation reached 62.5% in EBC, 68.8% in plasma and 18.8% in urine samples. The same trend was observed in all biological fluids. Individual factors were responsible for the elevation of control subjects’ afternoon vs. morning markers in 2018; all were significantly lower compared to those of workers. Malondialdehyde levels were always acutely shifted, and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels best showed chronic exposure effect. EBC and plasma analysis appear to be the ideal fluids for bio-monitoring of oxidative stress arising from engineered nanomaterials. Potential late effects need to be targeted and prevented, as there is a similarity of EBC findings in patients with silicosis and asbestosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
Toxicity Evaluation of Nanostructured Silica Orally Administered to Rats: Influence on Immune System Function
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(11), 2126; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10112126 - 26 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
The experimental data on the oral toxicity of nanostructured amorphous silica (SiO2), widely used in food supplements, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, in terms of its in vivo effect on the immune system, are contradictory. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the rat’s [...] Read more.
The experimental data on the oral toxicity of nanostructured amorphous silica (SiO2), widely used in food supplements, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, in terms of its in vivo effect on the immune system, are contradictory. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the rat’s immune function after SiO2 oral administration. In the first experiment, SiO2 was daily orally administered to Wistar rats for 92 days in doses of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg/kg of body weight (bw). In the second 28-day experiment, SiO2 in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw was daily orally administered to rats parenterally immunized with the food allergen ovalbumin (OVA) for the reproduction of systemic anaphylaxis reaction. Together with integral indices, we assessed intestinal permeability to protein macromolecules; hematology; CD45RA+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD161a+ cells; cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10; and IgG to OVA. The results obtained showed that SiO2 has no effect on the severity of the anaphylactic reaction, but is capable inducing a toxic effect on the T-cell immune systems of rats. Estimated no observed adverse effect level NOAEL for SiO2 ranges up to 100 mg/kg bw in terms of its daily consumption for 1–3 months. Using SiO2 as a food additive should be the subject of regulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
Toxicity of Carbon, Silicon, and Metal-Based Nanoparticles to Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1825; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091825 - 13 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1464
Abstract
With the increasing annual production of nanoparticles (NPs), the risks of their harmful influence on the environment and human health are rising. However, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Prior studies have shown that echinoderms, [...] Read more.
With the increasing annual production of nanoparticles (NPs), the risks of their harmful influence on the environment and human health are rising. However, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Prior studies have shown that echinoderms, and especially sea urchins, represent one of the most suitable models for risk assessment in environmental nanotoxicology. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius has not been used for testing the toxicity of NPs. The present study was designed to determine the effect of 10 types of common NPs on spermatozoa activity, egg fertilization, and early stage of embryo development of the sea urchin S. intermedius. In this research, we used two types of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNT-1 and CNT-2), two types of carbon nanofibers (CNF-1 and CNF-2), two types of silicon nanotubes (SNT-1 and SNT-2), nanocrystals of cadmium and zinc sulfides (CdS and ZnS), gold NPs (Au), and titanium dioxide NPs (TiO2). The results of the embryotoxicity test showed the following trend in the toxicity level of used NPs: Au > SNT-2 > SNT-1 > CdS > ZnS > CNF-2 > CNF-1 > TiO2 > CNT-1 > CNT-2. This research confirmed that the sea urchin S. intermedius can be considered as a sensitive and stable test model in marine nanotoxicology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
The Natural-Mineral-Based Novel Nanomaterial IFMC Increases Intravascular Nitric Oxide without Its Intake: Implications for COVID-19 and beyond
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(9), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10091699 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4919
Abstract
There are currently no promising therapy strategies for either the treatment or prevention of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), despite the urgent need. In addition to respiratory diseases, vascular complications are rapidly emerging as a key threat of COVID-19. Existing nitric oxide (NO) [...] Read more.
There are currently no promising therapy strategies for either the treatment or prevention of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), despite the urgent need. In addition to respiratory diseases, vascular complications are rapidly emerging as a key threat of COVID-19. Existing nitric oxide (NO) therapies have been shown to improve the vascular system; however, they have different limitations in terms of safety, usability and availability. In light of this, we hypothesise that a natural-mineral-based novel nanomaterial, which was developed based on NO therapy, might be a viable strategy for the treatment and prevention of COVID-19. The present study examined if it could induce an increase of intravascular NO, vasodilation and the consequent increase of blood flow rate and temperature in a living body. The intravascular NO concentration in the hepatic portal of rats was increased by 0.17 nM over 35.2 s on average after its application. An ultrasonic Doppler flow meter showed significant increases in the blood flow rate and vessel diameter, but no difference in the blood flow velocity. These were corroborated by measurements of human hand surface temperature. To our knowledge, this result is the first evidence where an increase of intravascular NO and vasodilation were induced by bringing a natural-mineral-based nanomaterial into contact with or close to a living body. The precise mechanisms remain a matter for further investigation; however, we may assume that endothelial NO synthase, haemoglobin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarising factor are deeply involved in the increase of intravascular NO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
New Relevant Descriptor of Linear QNAR Models for Toxicity Assessment of Silver Nanoparticles
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(8), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10081459 - 25 Jul 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1293
Abstract
The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in medical, industrial and agricultural fields is becoming more widespread every year. This leads to an increasing number of experimental toxicological and microbiological studies of silver NPs aimed at establishing the risk–benefit ratio for their application. The [...] Read more.
The use of silver nanoparticles (NPs) in medical, industrial and agricultural fields is becoming more widespread every year. This leads to an increasing number of experimental toxicological and microbiological studies of silver NPs aimed at establishing the risk–benefit ratio for their application. The following key parameters affecting the biological activity of silver dispersions are traditionally taken into consideration: mean diameter of NPs, surface potential of NPs and equilibrium concentration of Ag+. These characteristics are mainly predetermined by the chemical nature of the capping agent used for stabilization. However, the extent to which they influence the biological activity and the toxicity of silver NPs varies greatly. In this work, dispersions of silver NPs stabilized with a wide array of substances of different chemical nature were used for quantitative evaluation of whether the various measurable properties of silver NPs fit as descriptors of linear QNAR (quantitative nanostructure–activity relationship) models for silver NP toxicity evaluation with respect to a model eukaryotic microorganism—Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells. It was shown that among the factors that determine silver NP toxicity, the charge of particles, their colloidal stability and the ability to generate Ag+ ions carry more importance than the descriptors related to the particle size. A significant synergistic effect between the ζ-potential and the colloidal stability of silver NPs on their toxicity was also discovered. Following this, a new descriptor has been proposed for the integral characterization of the silver dispersion colloidal stability. According to the obtained data, it can be considered applicable for building QNAR models of higher efficacy. The validity testing of the proposed model for theoretical prediction of silver NP toxicity using a wide range of living organisms has shown that this new descriptor correlates with toxicity much better compared to most traditionally used descriptors. Consequently, it seems promising in terms of being used not only in situations involving the rather narrow array of the objects tested, but also for the construction of silver NP toxicity models with respect to other living organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Communication
Nanotoxicity of ZrS3 Probed in a Bioluminescence Test on E. coli Bacteria: The Effect of Evolving H2S
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(7), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10071401 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1146
Abstract
Materials from a large family of transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) attract considerable attention because of their potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics and energy storage, but information on their toxicity is lacking. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of ZrS3, a [...] Read more.
Materials from a large family of transition metal trichalcogenides (TMTCs) attract considerable attention because of their potential applications in electronics, optoelectronics and energy storage, but information on their toxicity is lacking. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of ZrS3, a prominent TMTC material, toward photoluminescent E. coli bacteria in a bioluminescence test. We found that freshly prepared ZrS3 suspensions in physiological saline solution with concentrations as high as 1 g/L did not exhibit any toxic effects on the bacteria. However, ZrS3 suspensions that were stored for 24 h prior to the bioluminescence tests were very toxic to the bacteria and inhibited their emission, even at concentrations down to 0.001 g/L. We explain these observations by the aqueous hydrolysis of ZrS3, which resulted in the formation of ZrOx on the surface of ZrS3 particles and the release of toxic H2S. The formation of ZrOx was confirmed by the XPS analysis, while the characteristic H2S smell was noticeable for the 24 h suspensions. This study demonstrates that while ZrS3 appears to be intrinsically nontoxic to photoluminescent E. coli bacteria, it may exhibit high toxicity in aqueous media. The results of this study can likely be extended to other transition metal chalcogenides, as their toxicity in aqueous solutions may also increase over time due to hydrolysis and the formation of H2S. The results of this study also demonstrate that since many systems involving nanomaterials are unstable and evolve over time in various ways, their toxicity may evolve as well, which should be considered for relevant toxicity tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Article
Comparison of the Level and Mechanisms of Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes, Carbon Nanofibers, and Silicon Nanotubes in Bioassay with Four Marine Microalgae
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(3), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10030485 - 08 Mar 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 2053
Abstract
Nanoparticles (NPs) have various applications in medicine, cosmetics, optics, catalysis, environmental purification, and other areas nowadays. With an increasing annual production of NPs, the risks of their harmful influence to the environment and human health is rising. Currently, our knowledge about the mechanisms [...] Read more.
Nanoparticles (NPs) have various applications in medicine, cosmetics, optics, catalysis, environmental purification, and other areas nowadays. With an increasing annual production of NPs, the risks of their harmful influence to the environment and human health is rising. Currently, our knowledge about the mechanisms of interaction between NPs and living organisms is limited. Additionally, poor understanding of how physical and chemical characteristic and different conditions influence the toxicity of NPs restrict our attempts to develop the standards and regulations which might allow us to maintain safe living conditions. The marine species and their habitat environment are under continuous stress due to anthropogenic activities which result in the appearance of NPs in the aquatic environment. Our study aimed to evaluate and compare biochemical effects caused by the influence of different types of carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and silica nanotubes on four marine microalgae species. We evaluated the changes in growth-rate, esterase activity, membrane polarization, and size changes of microalgae cells using flow cytometry method. Our results demonstrated that toxic effects caused by the carbon nanotubes strongly correlated with the content of heavy metal impurities in the NPs. More hydrophobic carbon NPs with less ordered structure had a higher impact on the red microalgae P. purpureum because of higher adherence between the particles and mucous covering of the algae. Silica NPs caused significant inhibition of microalgae growth-rate predominantly produced by mechanical influence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Review

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Review
Graphene Nanoribbons: Prospects of Application in Biomedicine and Toxicity
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2425; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092425 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1290
Abstract
Graphene nanoribbons are a type of graphene characterized by remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. This review considers the prospects for the application of graphene ribbons in biomedicine, taking into account safety aspects. According to the analysis of the recent studies, the topical areas [...] Read more.
Graphene nanoribbons are a type of graphene characterized by remarkable electrical and mechanical properties. This review considers the prospects for the application of graphene ribbons in biomedicine, taking into account safety aspects. According to the analysis of the recent studies, the topical areas of using graphene nanoribbons include mechanical, chemical, photo- and acoustic sensors, devices for the direct sequencing of biological macromolecules, including DNA, gene and drug delivery vehicles, and tissue engineering. There is evidence of good biocompatibility of graphene nanoribbons with human cell lines, but a number of researchers have revealed toxic effects, including cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Moreover, the damaging effects of nanoribbons are often higher than those of chemical analogs, for instance, graphene oxide nanoplates. The possible mechanism of toxicity is the ability of graphene nanoribbons to damage the cell membrane mechanically, stimulate reactive oxidative stress (ROS) production, autophagy, and inhibition of proliferation, as well as apoptosis induction, DNA fragmentation, and the formation of chromosomal aberrations. At the same time, the biodegradability of graphene nanoribbons under the environmental factors has been proven. In general, this review allows us to conclude that graphene nanoribbons, as components of high-precision nanodevices and therapeutic agents, have significant potential for biomedical applications; however, additional studies of their safety are needed. Particular emphasis should be placed on the lack of information about the effect of graphene nanoribbons on the organism as a whole obtained from in vivo experiments, as well as about their ecological toxicity, accumulation, migration, and destruction within ecosystems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Review
Non-Heating Alternating Magnetic Field Nanomechanical Stimulation of Biomolecule Structures via Magnetic Nanoparticles as the Basis for Future Low-Toxic Biomedical Applications
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2255; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092255 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1333
Abstract
The review discusses the theoretical, experimental and toxicological aspects of the prospective biomedical application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) activated by a low frequency non-heating alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this approach, known as nano-magnetomechanical activation (NMMA), the MNPs are used as mediators [...] Read more.
The review discusses the theoretical, experimental and toxicological aspects of the prospective biomedical application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) activated by a low frequency non-heating alternating magnetic field (AMF). In this approach, known as nano-magnetomechanical activation (NMMA), the MNPs are used as mediators that localize and apply force to such target biomolecular structures as enzyme molecules, transport vesicles, cell organelles, etc., without significant heating. It is shown that NMMA can become a biophysical platform for a family of therapy methods including the addressed delivery and controlled release of therapeutic agents from transport nanomodules, as well as selective molecular nanoscale localized drugless nanomechanical impacts. It is characterized by low system biochemical and electromagnetic toxicity. A technique of 3D scanning of the NMMA region with the size of several mm to several cm over object internals has been described. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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Review
Fetotoxicity of Nanoparticles: Causes and Mechanisms
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(3), 791; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11030791 - 19 Mar 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
The application of nanoparticles in consumer products and nanomedicines has increased dramatically in the last decade. Concerns for the nano-safety of susceptible populations are growing. Due to the small size, nanoparticles have the potential to cross the placental barrier and cause toxicity in [...] Read more.
The application of nanoparticles in consumer products and nanomedicines has increased dramatically in the last decade. Concerns for the nano-safety of susceptible populations are growing. Due to the small size, nanoparticles have the potential to cross the placental barrier and cause toxicity in the fetus. This review aims to identify factors associated with nanoparticle-induced fetotoxicity and the mechanisms involved, providing a better understanding of nanotoxicity at the maternal–fetal interface. The contribution of the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs), maternal physiological, and pathological conditions to the fetotoxicity is highlighted. The underlying molecular mechanisms, including oxidative stress, DNA damage, apoptosis, and autophagy are summarized. Finally, perspectives and challenges related to nanoparticle-induced fetotoxicity are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Frontiers in Nanotoxicology)
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