The replacement of fossil fuels by a clean and renewable energy source is one of the most urgent and challenging issues our society is facing today, which is why intense research is devoted to this topic recently. Nature has been using sunlight as the primary energy input to oxidize water and generate carbohydrates (a solar fuel) for over a billion years. Inspired, but not constrained, by nature, artificial systems can be designed to capture light and oxidize water and reduce protons or other organic compounds to generate useful chemical fuels. Significant progress has been made recently in artificial photosynthesis based on molecular chemistry and material science. However, developments in these two areas have occurred more independently than what is perhaps desired. In the present meeting, we will bring together researchers in these two scientific communities to explore possible synergistic effects of “fusion” between molecular and materials systems.