Special Issue "Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2017)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Martin Feely

Emeritus Professor, Earth and Ocean Sciences, Geofluids Research Group, School of Natural Sciences, Quadrangle Building, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: fluid inclusion studies of hydrothermal mineralization; oil prospective basins; evaporites; gem minerals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The pioneering work of H.C. Sorby in the mid-19th century highlighted the scientific importance of fluid inclusions in minerals; however, it was not until the mid-20th century that fluid inclusion studies began to gather momentum and play a key role in the recognition and understanding of Earth’s geofluid systems. Indeed, fluid inclusion studies of geofluid systems associated with sedimentary, metamorphic and magmatic environments continue to make significant contributions to our overall understanding of the character and genesis of economic mineral (including gem minerals) and hydrocarbon deposits. The diversity of fluid inclusion study applications, today, is highlighted by the investigations of microbial life on Earth and Mars using biosignatures trapped in evaporite (also known as Martian analogues) forming halite and gypsum. Furthermore, innovative analytical techniques e.g. microbeam technologies have greatly assisted the advancement of fluid inclusion study methodologies. This Special Issue of Minerals wants to celebrate the diversity of study applications and methodologies that exist today amongst the fluid inclusion research community. Therefore, it has wide ranging theme that solicits submissions that reflect innovations in both fluid inclusion analytical techniques and applications, in tandem, with case histories focused on geofluid systems in sedimentary (including evaporites), metamorphic and magmatic environments and linkages with mineral and hydrocarbon deposits.

Prof. Martin Feely
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • geofluid systems
  • sedimentary
  • metamorphic magmatic environments
  • mineral and hydrocarbon deposits
  • gemstones
  • geomicrobiology

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Editorial for Special Issue “Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications, and Case Histories”
Minerals 2018, 8(7), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8070307
Received: 18 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
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Abstract
The pioneering work of H.C. Sorby [1] in the mid-19th century highlighted the scientific importance of fluid inclusions in minerals [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Anomalously High Cretaceous Paleobrine Temperatures: Hothouse, Hydrothermal or Solar Heating?
Minerals 2017, 7(12), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7120245
Received: 1 November 2017 / Revised: 9 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 13 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4835 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elevated surface paleobrine temperatures (average 85.6 °C) are reported here from Cretaceous marine halites in the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Plateau, Thailand. Fluid inclusions in primary subaqueous “chevron” and “cumulate” halites associated with potash salts contain daughter crystals of sylvite (KCl) and carnallite [...] Read more.
Elevated surface paleobrine temperatures (average 85.6 °C) are reported here from Cretaceous marine halites in the Maha Sarakham Formation, Khorat Plateau, Thailand. Fluid inclusions in primary subaqueous “chevron” and “cumulate” halites associated with potash salts contain daughter crystals of sylvite (KCl) and carnallite (MgCl2·KCl·6H2O). Petrographic textures demonstrate that these fluid inclusions were trapped from the warm brines in which the halite crystallized. Later cooling produced supersaturated conditions leading to the precipitation of sylvite and carnallite daughter crystals within fluid inclusions. Dissolution temperatures of daughter crystals in fluid inclusions from the same halite bed vary over a large range (57.9 °C to 117.2 °C), suggesting that halite grew at different temperatures within and at the bottom of the water column. Consistency of daughter crystal dissolution temperatures within fluid inclusion bands and the absence of vapor bubbles at room temperature demonstrate that fluid inclusions have not stretched or leaked. Daughter crystal dissolution temperatures are reproducible to within 0.1 °C to 10.2 °C (average of 1.8 °C), and thus faithfully document paleobrine conditions. Microcrystalline hematite incorporated within halite crystals also indicate high paleobrine temperatures. We conclude that halite crystallized from warm brines rich in K-Mg-Na-Cl; sylvite and carnallite daughter crystals were nucleated during cooling of the warm brines sometime after deposition. Hothouse, hydrothermal, and solar-heating hypotheses are compared to explain the anomalously high surface paleobrine temperatures. Solar radiation stored in shallow density stratified brines is the most plausible explanation for the observed paleobrine temperatures and the progressively higher temperatures downward through the paleobrine column. The solar-heating hypothesis may also explain high paleobrine temperatures documented from fluid inclusions in other ancient halites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
Quartz-Amethyst Hosted Hydrocarbon-Bearing Fluid Inclusions from the Green Ridge Breccia in the Snoqualmie Granite, North Cascades, WA, USA
Minerals 2017, 7(9), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7090174
Received: 14 July 2017 / Revised: 24 July 2017 / Accepted: 4 September 2017 / Published: 19 September 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11729 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 [...] Read more.
The Green Ridge Breccia cuts the composite Miocene Snoqualmie Batholith in King County, WA, USA. The granite was emplaced at ~5 km depth between ~17 and 20 Ma and the crosscutting NW trending breccia contains large angular blocks of the host granite (<1 m in longest dimension). The brecciated granite blocks are cemented by quartz-amethyst euhedra (<10 cm in longest dimension) bearing vugs. A notable feature is the presence of centimetric scale amber coloured oil inclusions within the quartz-amethyst crystals. Fluid inclusion studies using Transmitted Light Petrography, UV Microscopy, Microthermometry, Laser Raman Microspectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry record the presence and the fluid composition of three fluid inclusion types hosted by the euhedra: primary Type 1 (liquid rich two-phase (L + V) aqueous inclusions) and secondary Type 2 bituminous two-phase (S + L) inclusions and Type 3 amber coloured oil bearing two-phase immiscible liquid inclusions. The Green Ridge Breccia was the locus for convective hydrothermal fluid flow that formed the quartz-amethyst vugs formed at T~390 °C assuming a trapping pressure of ~1.65 kb. Later, hydrocarbon fluids migrated downwards from the roof source rock (e.g., the Guye Sedimentary Member) and were trapped in the euhedra. This was followed by unroofing of the batholith and exposure of the Green Ridge Breccia. This study highlights the potential for other oil migrations into the Snoqualmie Batholith in areas where it forms the basement capped by the Guye Sedimentary Member. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
Hydrogen from Radiolysis of Aqueous Fluid Inclusions during Diagenesis
Minerals 2017, 7(8), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7080130
Received: 24 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 25 July 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1873 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A suite of Permian sylvite samples from Boulby potash mine, Yorkshire, UK, consistently yield traces of hydrogen upon analysis by a cold crush technique for liberating volatiles from entrapped fluid inclusions. In contrast, accompanying halite samples do not yield hydrogen. These data suggest [...] Read more.
A suite of Permian sylvite samples from Boulby potash mine, Yorkshire, UK, consistently yield traces of hydrogen upon analysis by a cold crush technique for liberating volatiles from entrapped fluid inclusions. In contrast, accompanying halite samples do not yield hydrogen. These data suggest the formation of hydrogen by radiolysis of water due to irradiation from potassium in the sylvite. The data indicate radiolysis as a mechanism for subsurface hydrogen generation, where it is available as an electron donor for a deep biosphere. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
Re-Equilibration Processes in Fluid Inclusion Assemblages
Minerals 2017, 7(7), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7070117
Received: 16 June 2017 / Revised: 4 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (6548 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Post-entrapment modifications reduce the reliability of fluid inclusions to determine trapping conditions in rock. Processes that may modify fluid inclusion properties are experimentally identified in this study using synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz with a well-defined composition and density. Modifications are characterized with [...] Read more.
Post-entrapment modifications reduce the reliability of fluid inclusions to determine trapping conditions in rock. Processes that may modify fluid inclusion properties are experimentally identified in this study using synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz with a well-defined composition and density. Modifications are characterized with microthermometry (homogenization and dissolution temperatures) and Raman-spectroscopy in binary fluid systems H2O-D2O and H2O-NaCl. Three distinct processes were identified in this study: (1) diffusion of H2O and D2O; (2) crystal-recovery, expulsion of H2O and accumulation of quartz in inclusions (preferential H2O loss); (3) irreversible total volume increase at the α-β quartz transition. Diffusion is caused by H2O fugacity gradients and can be modelled according to classical diffusion models. The variability of re-equilibrated properties in fluid inclusion assemblages depends on time, temperature, diffusion distance and the size of fluid inclusions. Negative pressure gradients (internal under-pressure) induce the crystal-recovery process, in which H2O is preferentially extracted from inclusions that simultaneously shrink by the inward growth of quartz. This process reduces the H2O concentration and increases the fluid density by total volume loss. Temperature and time are also controlling factors of this process, which is able to transport H2O against fugacity gradients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
The Hydrothermal Fluid Evolution of Vein Sets at the Pipeline Gold Mine, Nevada
Minerals 2017, 7(6), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7060100
Received: 9 May 2017 / Revised: 7 June 2017 / Accepted: 9 June 2017 / Published: 13 June 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11213 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The origin of sediment-hosted Nevada gold deposits has been highly debated, especially regarding the relative contribution of multiple mineralizing events, particularly relating to the Cretaceous. We examined the Pipeline gold mine in north-central Nevada, focusing on data from the four vein sets in [...] Read more.
The origin of sediment-hosted Nevada gold deposits has been highly debated, especially regarding the relative contribution of multiple mineralizing events, particularly relating to the Cretaceous. We examined the Pipeline gold mine in north-central Nevada, focusing on data from the four vein sets in this atypical deposit where there is evidence for Cretaceous gold mineralization. Only the third, a quartz-sericite-pyrite-calcite vein set, has any link with the alteration styles and gold mineralization within the Pipeline deposit. Our geochemical results from fluid inclusion microthermometry and gas analysis show that the fluids from which quartz deposited were sourced from condensing magmatic volatiles and were trapped at ~300 °C and 2 kbar lithostatic pressure (~8 km). 40Ar/39Ar dating of sericite demonstrates that the quartz-sericite-pyrite veins formed at ~92 Ma, matching the dates of gold-associated epigenetic illite. Ore fluids enriched in CO2 and H2S caused decarbonation thereby releasing Fe2+ that reacted with H2S to form pyrite. Decreasing H2S destabilized gold bisulfide complexes and deposited gold. We conclude that this process can occur in a single Cretaceous event in advance of potential Tertiary mineralization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Integrated Fluid Inclusion Studies for Constraining Petroleum Charge History at Parsons Pond, Western Newfoundland, Canada
Minerals 2017, 7(3), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/min7030039
Received: 10 January 2017 / Revised: 22 February 2017 / Accepted: 27 February 2017 / Published: 12 March 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5211 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study, based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy of inclusion oil, investigates the petroleum charge history at Parsons Pond, western Newfoundland. To address this matter, drill core and cuttings samples of allochthonous and autochthonous strata in the Parson’s Pond area [...] Read more.
This study, based on fluid inclusion petrography, microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy of inclusion oil, investigates the petroleum charge history at Parsons Pond, western Newfoundland. To address this matter, drill core and cuttings samples of allochthonous and autochthonous strata in the Parson’s Pond area were collected from three exploration wells. Fluid inclusions were examined from fragments of calcite and quartz veins, diagenetic cements in sandstone, and in large hydrothermal dolomite and calcite crystals. Primary aqueous inclusions in authigenic sandstone cements indicate that cementation occurred at relatively shallow depths and low temperatures (<50 °C). Hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions (petroleum, wet gas and gas) are generally restricted to calcite and quartz veins, indicating that petroleum and gas migration at Parson’s Pond is fracture-controlled. No hydrocarbons were observed in the diagenetic cements of the essentially tight sandstones. Fluid inclusion microthermometry and ultraviolet microspectroscopy indicate the presence of multiple generations of hydrocarbon fluid, ranging in composition from ~33 API gravity petroleum to pure CH4. Petrographic evidence suggests that hydrocarbons were generated multiple times during progressive burial and heating. In addition, the distribution of hydrocarbon bearing inclusions with depth suggests that deeper levels are gas-prone, with petroleum confined to relatively shallow depths. Although only gas flow was encountered during the drilling of exploration wells at Parson’s Pond, the presence of petroleum-bearing fluid inclusions in calcite and quartz veins indicates that the historical production from shallow wells in the Parsons Pond area likely tapped small reservoirs of fractured petroliferous strata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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Open AccessArticle
Pressure–Temperature–Fluid Constraints for the Poona Emerald Deposits, Western Australia: Fluid Inclusion and Stable Isotope Studies
Minerals 2016, 6(4), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/min6040130
Received: 13 November 2016 / Revised: 26 November 2016 / Accepted: 30 November 2016 / Published: 9 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8554 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Emerald from the deposits at Poona shows micrometre-scale chemical, optical, and cathodoluminescence zonation. This zonation, combined with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, indicates early emerald precipitation from a single-phase saline fluid of approximately 12 weight percent NaCl equivalent, over the temperature range of [...] Read more.
Emerald from the deposits at Poona shows micrometre-scale chemical, optical, and cathodoluminescence zonation. This zonation, combined with fluid inclusion and isotope studies, indicates early emerald precipitation from a single-phase saline fluid of approximately 12 weight percent NaCl equivalent, over the temperature range of 335–525 °C and pressures ranging from 70 to 400 MPa. The large range in pressure and temperature likely reflects some post entrapment changes and re-equilibration of oxygen isotopes. Secondary emerald-hosted fluid inclusions indicate subsequent emerald precipitation from higher salinity fluids. Likewise, the δ18O-δD of channel fluids extracted from Poona emerald is consistent with multiple origins yielding both igneous and metamorphic signatures. The combined multiple generations of emerald precipitation, different fluid compositions, and the presence of both metamorphic and igneous fluids trapped in emerald, likely indicate a protracted history of emerald precipitation at Poona conforming to both an igneous and a metamorphic origin at various times during regional lower amphibolite to greenschist facies metamorphism over the period ~2710–2660 Ma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Inclusions: Study Methods, Applications and Case Histories)
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