Special Issue "Chemical-Physical Properties of Minerals and Minerogenesis in Supergene Environment"

A special issue of Minerals (ISSN 2075-163X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Mineralogy and Biogeochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2019)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Marescotti Pietro

Department of Earth Sciences, Universita degli Studi di Genova, 16126 Genova GE, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: environmental mineralogy; applied mineralogy; mineral genesis and mineral weathering in supergenic enviroments; minerals, rocks and inorganic contaminants; interactions between minerals and biosphere; environmental impact of ore deposits exploitation; environmental impact of asbestos-bearing rocks and soils

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The processes involving minerals in supergene environments are those occurring at or near the Earth's surface. In these environments, lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere continuously interact with each other, triggering reactions that lead to the weathering of preexisting minerals and to the genesis of authigenic phases. The theoretical or practical understanding of these processes, the determination of the minerals involved and of their chemical-physical properties are of paramount importance, not only for the fundamentals of mineralogy, but also for their significant implications for environment, ecosystems, and human health protection, agriculture and food security, supergene metal deposit prospection and even for the conservation of cultural heritage. This Special Issue aims to collect articles focusing on minerals, mineral properties, and mineral reactions occurring at Earth’s outer layer due to the interactions among lithosphere, air, water, and biota. Interdisciplinary, cross-disciplinary, and multidisciplinary studies are welcome.

The first round submission deadline is: 30 November 2018

Prof. Marescotti Pietro
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Minerals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mineral weathering
  • mineral genesis
  • supergene environment
  • authigenic minerals
  • mineral-biosphere interactions

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Origin of Smectite in Salinized Soil of Junggar Basin in Xinjiang of China
Minerals 2019, 9(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9020100
Received: 13 December 2018 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 5 February 2019 / Published: 10 February 2019
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Abstract
In this paper, salinized soils with different degrees of salinity are sampled in Junggar Basin of Xinjiang of China. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are employed to investigate the morphology and distribution characteristics of smectite in [...] Read more.
In this paper, salinized soils with different degrees of salinity are sampled in Junggar Basin of Xinjiang of China. The X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry are employed to investigate the morphology and distribution characteristics of smectite in salinized soil profiles. In the salinized soil profiles of this region, crystals of smectite are poor where lattice fringes are not parallel. In all soil layers, the content of smectite in the soil increases with the decrease in content of illite, which has demonstrated significant negative correlation (r = 0.79, n = 50, p < 0.01) between illite and smectite. This phenomenon has demonstrated that illite may be transformed into smectite in salinized soils of studied regions. In general, the transformation process of illite to smectite is affected by climate condition. The δ18O values of secondary carbonate in the 0–10 cm soil layers is higher than that in deep soil layers, which indicates that δ18O concentrates in surface soil and reflects temperature rise during soil layer formation. The δ13C values of secondary carbonate and soil organic matter in 0–10 cm soil layers are higher than that in deep soil layers. It indicates that C4 plants were the main plants, which reflects that the climate was relatively dry during the formation of the surface soil. Thus, the climate during the surface soil formation is arid, which is not conducive for leaching K+ from illite of the 0–10 cm soil to form smectite. As a result, the content of the smectite becomes lowest in the soil surface. In the relative humid condition of deep soil layers, the K+ of the illite of the soil would be relative easily leached and more smectite may be formed. Furthermore, the presence of salt in the salinized soil would promote the formation of smectite in Junggar Basin of Xinjiang. A lot of Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+ in the soil solution of salinized soils would enter into the illite and occupy K+ positions. The studied result shows that the amount of smectite would increase with the increase of salt below 10 cm of the soil layer, where the amount of smectite would be significantly correlated with soil electrical conductivity (r = 0.64, n = 39, p < 0.01). In the Junggar Basin in Xinjiang, therefore, the salinized soil below 10 cm would have the necessary water conditions and chemical components for illite transformation to smectite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Crystallization Behaviour of Iron-Hydroxide Sulphates by Aging under Ambient Temperature Conditions
Minerals 2019, 9(1), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/min9010027
Received: 11 December 2018 / Revised: 27 December 2018 / Accepted: 4 January 2019 / Published: 5 January 2019
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Abstract
The crystallization behaviour of jarosite and schwertmannite has been studied by precipitation-aging experiments performed using different parent-solution concentrations at acidic conditions and ambient temperature. Schwertmannite exhibits low crystallinity and is the only mineral identified during low-concentration (LC) experiments. However, in high-concentration (HC) experiments, [...] Read more.
The crystallization behaviour of jarosite and schwertmannite has been studied by precipitation-aging experiments performed using different parent-solution concentrations at acidic conditions and ambient temperature. Schwertmannite exhibits low crystallinity and is the only mineral identified during low-concentration (LC) experiments. However, in high-concentration (HC) experiments, a relatively rapid Ostwald ripening process leads to the transformation of schwertmannite into natrojarosite. The presence of sodium modifies the morphology and stability of the obtained phases. TEM observations reveal that schwertmannite particles consist of disoriented nanodomains (~6 nm) spread in an amorphous mass. In contrast, natrojarosite particles exhibit a single-domain, highly crystalline core, with the crystallinity decreasing from core to rim. The thermal behaviour of these phases depends on both their composition and their degree of crystallinity. TG and DTG analyses show that, below 500 °C, the amount of structural water is clearly higher in schwertmannite than in natrojarosite. The present results highlight the role of the ripening processes in epigenetic conditions and could be important in interpreting the formation of jarosite in Earth and Martian surface environments. Full article
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