Special Issue "Fungal Pathogenesis and Immune Defense"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2017).

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Dr. Floyd L. Wormley, Jr.

Department of Biology, The University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: Cryptococcus; cryptococcosis; host-fungal interactions; fungal pathogenesis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The continuing AIDS epidemic, increased usage of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent organ rejection or to treat autoimmune diseases and the emergence of drug resistant organisms are all factors contributing to increased susceptibility, severity of disease and mortality to fungal pathogens. Consequently, there remains an urgent need to elucidate mechanisms for inducing protective immune responses against fungal pathogens. Overall, disease severity is not solely due to the virulence of the fungal pathogen or some underlying deficiency of the host response. Fortunately, several experimental models of human mycoses have been developed to study the interface between fungal pathogens and the host response such that a more global perspective of fungal pathogenesis may be gained. These studies are needed to facilitate the design of immune therapies, pharmaceuticals and/or vaccines to combat fungal infections.

This Special Issue will feature papers that advance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and host responses.

Prof. Dr. Floyd L. Wormley Jr.
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • fungal pathogenesis,
  • host responses
  • medical mycology
  • mycoses
  • host-fungal interactions
  • fungal vaccines

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Review

Open AccessReview
Interaction of Candida Species with the Skin
Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5020032
Received: 4 April 2017 / Revised: 30 May 2017 / Accepted: 2 June 2017 / Published: 7 June 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (573 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The human skin is commonly colonized by diverse fungal species. Some Candida species, especially C. albicans, do not only reside on the skin surface as commensals, but also cause infections by growing into the colonized tissue. However, defense mechanisms at the skin [...] Read more.
The human skin is commonly colonized by diverse fungal species. Some Candida species, especially C. albicans, do not only reside on the skin surface as commensals, but also cause infections by growing into the colonized tissue. However, defense mechanisms at the skin barrier level are very efficient, involving residential non-immune and immune cells as well as immune cells specifically recruited to the site of infection. Therefore, the skin is an effective barrier against fungal infection. While most studies about commensal and pathogenic interaction of Candida species with host epithelia focus on the interaction with mucosal surfaces such as the vaginal and gastrointestinal epithelia, less is known about the mechanisms underlying Candida interaction with the skin. In this review, we focus on the ecology and molecular pathogenesis of Candida species on the skin and give an overview of defense mechanisms against C. albicans in this context. We also discuss new research avenues in dermal infection, including the involvement of neurons, fibroblasts, and commensal bacteria in both mouse and human model systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis and Immune Defense)
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Open AccessReview
Immune Response to Coccidioidomycosis and the Development of a Vaccine
Microorganisms 2017, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5010013
Received: 10 September 2016 / Revised: 3 March 2017 / Accepted: 14 March 2017 / Published: 16 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (775 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It is estimated that 150,000 new infections occur in the United States each year. The incidence of this infection continues to rise in endemic regions. There is an urgent need [...] Read more.
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by Coccidioides posadasii and Coccidioides immitis. It is estimated that 150,000 new infections occur in the United States each year. The incidence of this infection continues to rise in endemic regions. There is an urgent need for the development of better therapeutic drugs and a vaccine against coccidioidomycosis. This review discusses the features of host innate and adaptive immune responses to Coccidioides infection. The focus is on the recent advances in the immune response and host-pathogen interactions, including the recognition of spherules by the host and defining the signal pathways that guide the development of the adaptive T-cell response to Coccidioides infection. Also discussed is an update on progress in developing a vaccine against these fungal pathogens. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis and Immune Defense)
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Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Immunoregulation in Fungal Diseases
Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms4040047
Received: 4 November 2016 / Revised: 2 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 10 December 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1131 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to [...] Read more.
This review addresses specific regulatory mechanisms involved in the host immune response to fungal organisms. We focus on key cells and regulatory pathways involved in these responses, including a brief overview of their broader function preceding a discussion of their specific relevance to fungal disease. Important cell types discussed include dendritic cells and regulatory T cells, with a focus on specific studies relating to their effects on immune responses to fungi. We highlight the interleukin-10, programmed cell death 1, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 signaling pathways and emphasize interrelationships between these pathways and the regulatory functions of dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. Throughout our discussion, we identify selected studies best illustrating the role of these cells and pathways in response to specific fungal pathogens to provide a contextual understanding of the tightly-controlled network of regulatory mechanisms critical to determining the outcome of exposure to fungal pathogens. Lastly, we discuss two unique phenomena relating to immunoregulation, protective tolerance and immune reactivation inflammatory syndrome. These two clinically-relevant conditions provide perspective as to the range of immunoregulatory mechanisms active in response to fungi. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogenesis and Immune Defense)
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Figure 1

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