Special Issue "Updates on Brucellosis"

A special issue of Microorganisms (ISSN 2076-2607). This special issue belongs to the section "Medical Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Pablo V. Yagupsky
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel
Interests: Kingella kingae; brucellosis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues:

More than 130 years after the identification of the agent of Malta fever by David Bruce, brucellosis remains an important zoonotic infection causing huge reproductive failure in animal husbandry, and economic losses of the dairy industry in developing countries. The disease is also a serious public health problem for human populations living in endemic areas, because of the consumption of contaminated food and/or occupational exposure to infected livestock. It is estimated that over one-fifth of the 1.4 billion worldwide cattle population are currently infected by Brucella, and the disease affects at least half-a-million new human cases worldwide annually, representing the most common systemic bacterial zoonosis.

Many biological features make members of the genus Brucella formidable foes, such as an extremely low infecting dose; multiple routes of transmission and portals of entry including the gastrointestinal, respiratory, conjunctival, and genital tracts; and despite vaccination programs, surveillance, and test-and-slaughter measures, the disease has proven to be difficult to eradicate.

Intensive research conducted in recent years has made exciting contributions to our understanding of the biology of these intriguing pathogens; discovered new Brucella species outside the traditional ruminant and canid hosts; elucidated the epidemiological importance of the wildlife reservoir of the disease; revealed the complex interaction between phagocyted Brucella and the macrophage cells; and introduced exquisitely sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests to detect the organism in animals, humans, and animal products.

The aim of this Special Issue of Microorganisms is to summarize, among other topics, some of the latest advances in the speciation and genomics of the novel Brucella species; the epidemiology of animal and human brucellosis; the traditional culture and serodiagnostic tools; and as the novel molecular methods, laboratory-acquired infections, and clinical manifestations of the disease in humans, and its antibiotic treatment. Original research contributions and reviews articles are invited.

Prof. Dr. Pablo V. Yagupsky
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Microorganisms is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • brucellosis
  • human and animal
  • biology
  • genomics
  • epidemiology
  • diagnosis
  • control
  • treatment

Published Papers (8 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Other

Article
Bayesian Estimation of the Prevalence and Test Characteristics (Sensitivity and Specificity) of Two Serological Tests (RB and SAT-EDTA) for the Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in Small and Medium Cattle Holders in Ecuador
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1815; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091815 - 26 Aug 2021
Viewed by 558
Abstract
In Ecuador, a national program for bovine brucellosis control has been in implementation since 2008. Given the costs, small- and medium-sized livestock holders are not completely committed to it. The objective of this study was to determine true prevalence (TP) of bovine brucellosis [...] Read more.
In Ecuador, a national program for bovine brucellosis control has been in implementation since 2008. Given the costs, small- and medium-sized livestock holders are not completely committed to it. The objective of this study was to determine true prevalence (TP) of bovine brucellosis in small- and medium-sized herd populations, as well as the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the Rose Bengal (RB) test and the sero-agglutination test (SAT)-EDTA using a Bayesian approach. Between 2011 and 2016, 2733 cattle herds were visited, and 22,592 animal blood samples were taken in nineteen provinces on mainland Ecuador. Bayes-p and deviance information criterion (DIC) statistics were used to select models. Additionally, risk-factor analysis was used for herds according to their brucellosis test status. True prevalence (TP) in herds was estimated by pool testing. National seroprevalence of farms was 7.9% (95% CI: 6.79–9.03), and TP was 12.2% (95% CI: 7.8–17.9). Apparent prevalence (AP) in animals was 2.2% (95% CI: 1.82–2.67), and TP was 1.6% (95% CrI: 1.0–2.4). Similarly, the sensitivity of the RB was estimated at 64.6% (95% CrI: 42.6–85.3) and specificity at 98.9% (95% CrI: 98.6–99.0); for the SAT-EDTA test, sensitivity was 62.3% (95% CrI: 40.0–84.8) and 98.9% (95% CrI: 98.6–99.1) for specificity. Results of the two tests were highly correlated in infected and uninfected animals. Likewise, high spatial variation was observed, with the Coastal Region being the zone with the highest TP at 2.5%. (95% CrI: 1.3–3.8%) in individual animals and 28.2% (95% CI: 15.7–39.8) in herds. Risk factors include herd size, type of production (milk, beef, and mixed), abortions recorded, and vaccination. The results of this study serve to guide authorities to make decisions based on parallel testing at the beginning of a bovine brucellosis program for small livestock holders to increase sensitivity level of the screening tests in Ecuador. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Brucella Infection in Dairy Animals in Urban and Rural Areas of Bihar and Assam, India
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 783; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040783 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 560
Abstract
This study assessed seropositivity of Brucella infection in dairy animals and risk factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study used multi-stage, random sampling in the states of Bihar and Assam in India. In total, 740 dairy animals belonging to 534 households of 52 [...] Read more.
This study assessed seropositivity of Brucella infection in dairy animals and risk factors associated with it. The cross-sectional study used multi-stage, random sampling in the states of Bihar and Assam in India. In total, 740 dairy animals belonging to 534 households of 52 villages were covered under this study. Serological testing was conducted by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). Animal-level Brucella seropositivity was found to be 15.9% in Assam and 0.3% in Bihar. Seropositivity in urban areas (18.7%) of Assam was found to be higher than in rural areas (12.4%). Bihar was excluded from the risk factor analysis, as only one Brucella seropositive sample was detected in the state. A total of 30 variables were studied for assessing risk factors, of which 15 were selected for multivariable regression analyses following a systematic process. Finally, only three risk factors were identified as statistically significant. It was found that animals belonging to districts having smaller-sized herds were less likely (p < 0.001) to be Brucella seropositive than animals belonging to districts having larger-sized herds. Furthermore, the chance of being Brucella seropositive increased (p = 0.007) with the increase in age of dairy animals, but decreased (p = 0.072) with the adoption of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding. We speculated that the identified risk factors in Assam likely explained the reason behind lower Brucella seropositivity in Bihar, and therefore any future brucellosis control program should focus on addressing these risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Brucella abortus Isolates from Various Regions of South Africa
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030570 - 11 Mar 2021
Viewed by 631
Abstract
The availability of whole genome sequences in public databases permits genome-wide comparative studies of various bacterial species. Whole genome sequence-single nucleotide polymorphisms (WGS-SNP) analysis has been used in recent studies and allows the discrimination of various Brucella species and strains. In the present [...] Read more.
The availability of whole genome sequences in public databases permits genome-wide comparative studies of various bacterial species. Whole genome sequence-single nucleotide polymorphisms (WGS-SNP) analysis has been used in recent studies and allows the discrimination of various Brucella species and strains. In the present study, 13 Brucella spp. strains from cattle of various locations in provinces of South Africa were typed and discriminated. WGS-SNP analysis indicated a maximum pairwise distance ranging from 4 to 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between the South African Brucella abortus virulent field strains. Moreover, it was shown that the South African B. abortus strains grouped closely to B. abortus strains from Mozambique and Zimbabwe, as well as other Eurasian countries, such as Portugal and India. WGS-SNP analysis of South African B. abortus strains demonstrated that the same genotype circulated in one farm (Farm 1), whereas another farm (Farm 2) in the same province had two different genotypes. This indicated that brucellosis in South Africa spreads within the herd on some farms, whereas the introduction of infected animals is the mode of transmission on other farms. Three B. abortus vaccine S19 strains isolated from tissue and aborted material were identical, even though they originated from different herds and regions of South Africa. This might be due to the incorrect vaccination of animals older than the recommended age of 4–8 months or might be a problem associated with vaccine production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis at the Wildlife-Livestock-Human Interface in Rwanda
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1553; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101553 - 09 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 861
Abstract
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Rwanda; however, little information is available on seroprevalence and risk factors. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among cattle farmed at the wildlife-livestock-human interface (n = 1691) in five districts and one peri-urban district (n = [...] Read more.
Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Rwanda; however, little information is available on seroprevalence and risk factors. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among cattle farmed at the wildlife-livestock-human interface (n = 1691) in five districts and one peri-urban district (n = 216). Cattle were screened using the Rose Bengal test, then the results were confirmed by indirect enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay. Potential risk factors were determined with a questionnaire and analyzed for their association with seropositivity. In all districts, the animal and herd-level seroprevalence was 7.4% (141/1907) and 28.9% (61/212), respectively, 8.3% (141/1691) and 30.9% (61/198) at the interface, and 0.0% (0/216) in peri-urban areas. Among the potential risk factors, old age (≥5 years), cattle farmed close to wildlife, herds of cattle and small ruminants, history of abortions, and replacement animals were significantly associated with brucellosis (p < 0.05). Low awareness of zoonotic brucellosis, assisting calving without biosafety protection, drinking raw milk, and manual milking were each observed in more than 21.7% of cattle keepers whose herds were seropositive. This study confirmed brucellosis endemicity in cattle farmed close to wildlife in Rwanda, suggesting the need to focus control efforts in these areas. Educated farmers with a high awareness of zoonotic brucellosis had low bovine brucellosis seropositivity, which emphasizes the importance of education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Investigation of Brucella melitensis in Sable Antelope (Hippotragus niger) in South Africa
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1494; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101494 - 29 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
In this study, Brucella melitensis infection in sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) was investigated on two wildlife ranches in South Africa over a 12-year period in order to determine the origin of the outbreaks and the role of livestock in maintaining the [...] Read more.
In this study, Brucella melitensis infection in sable antelope (Hippotragus niger) was investigated on two wildlife ranches in South Africa over a 12-year period in order to determine the origin of the outbreaks and the role of livestock in maintaining the disease. Retrospective data were obtained from farm records and interviews as well as samples tested from different disease scenarios and clinical settings. On one ranch, 10 of 74 sable tested seropositive for B. melitensis in 2004 but were certified clear of infection after no further brucellosis cases were detected following repeated serological tests and culling over a five-year period. Recrudescence occurred in 2013 (7 of 187 brucellosis positives) and in 2014 (one positive), with persistent, latent infection being the most reasonable explanation. In a second case study, linked to the first one through a common vendor, 15 of 80 sable tested positive in 2016, some five years after the acquisition of the animals from a putative source. Brucella melitensis biovar 1 and/or 3 were isolated from each outbreak on both ranches. Both outbreaks resulted in substantial losses for the owners, arising from testing and culling and significant resource expenditure by the state. The study identified the diagnostic challenges for identifying and resolving disease outbreaks in wildlife, the persistence of B. melitensis in sable, the risks associated with animal movements, and the need for a wildlife-sensitive disease control scheme. Although the actual source of infection could not be identified, the investigation points away from local livestock as a source of ongoing infection while the persistent infection is consistent with the disease circulating within small, ranched populations and being spread through the keeping and trading of high-value animals. The implications of the study findings to disease control in wildlife are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
A Proof of Principle for the Detection of Viable Brucella spp. in Raw Milk by qPCR Targeting Bacteriophages
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091326 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Brucellosis is still a global health issue, and surveillance and control of this zoonotic disease in livestock remains a challenge. Human outbreaks are mainly linked to the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The detection of human pathogenic Brucella species in food of animal [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is still a global health issue, and surveillance and control of this zoonotic disease in livestock remains a challenge. Human outbreaks are mainly linked to the consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. The detection of human pathogenic Brucella species in food of animal origin is time-consuming and laborious. Bacteriophages are broadly applied to the typing of Brucella isolates from pure culture. Since phages intracellularly replicate to very high numbers, they can also be used as specific indicator organisms of their host bacteria. We developed a novel real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting the highly conserved helicase sequence harbored in all currently known Brucella-specific lytic phages. Quality and performance tests determined a limit of detection of <1 genomic copy/µL. In raw milk artificially contaminated with Brucella microti, Izv phages were reliably detected after 39 h of incubation, indicating the presence of viable bacteria. The qPCR assay showed high stability in the milk matrix and significantly shortened the time to diagnosis when compared to traditional culture-based techniques. Hence, our molecular assay is a reliable and sensitive method to analyze phage titers, may help to reduce the hands-on time needed for the screening of potentially contaminated food, and reveals infection risks without bacterial isolation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Article
Seroprevalence and Molecular Identification of Brucella spp. in Camels in Egypt
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1035; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071035 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Brucellosis is one of the most important worldwide zoonoses of many countries including Egypt. Camel brucellosis has not gained much attention in Egypt yet. This study is focused on the three governorates with the highest camel populations and the largest camel markets in [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is one of the most important worldwide zoonoses of many countries including Egypt. Camel brucellosis has not gained much attention in Egypt yet. This study is focused on the three governorates with the highest camel populations and the largest camel markets in the country to determine the disease seroprevalence and identify the Brucella species in local camel holdings. In total, 381 serum samples were collected from male and female camels from Giza, Aswan, and Al-Bahr Al-Ahmar (the Red Sea) governorates. Samples were serologically examined using the Rose–Bengal plate test (RBPT), indirect ELISA (i-ELISA), competitive ELISA (c-ELISA) and complement fixation test (CFT). Brucella antibodies were detected in 59 (15.5%), 87 (22.8%), 77 (20.2%) and 118 (31.0%) of sera by RBPT, i-ELISA, c-ELISA and CFT, respectively. Using real-time PCR, Brucella DNA was amplified in 32 (8.4%) seropositive samples including Brucella abortus (25/32), Brucella suis (5/32) and Brucella melitensis (2/32), defining a complex epidemiological status. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting Brucella suis DNA in camel serum. The risk-associated factors including age, sex, breed and geographical distribution were statistically analyzed, showing non-significant association with seroprevalence. The results of this study will raise awareness for camel brucellosis and help develop effective control strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research

Perspective
Proteomics of Brucella: Technologies and Their Applications for Basic Research and Medical Microbiology
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 766; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050766 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Brucellosis is a global zoonosis caused by Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria of the genus Brucella (B.). Proteomics has been used to investigate a few B. melitensis and B. abortus strains, but data for other species and biovars are limited. Hence, a [...] Read more.
Brucellosis is a global zoonosis caused by Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria of the genus Brucella (B.). Proteomics has been used to investigate a few B. melitensis and B. abortus strains, but data for other species and biovars are limited. Hence, a comprehensive analysis of proteomes will significantly contribute to understanding the enigmatic biology of brucellae. For direct identification and typing of Brucella, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization—time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI—TOF MS) has become a reliable tool for routine diagnosis due to its ease of handling, price and sensitivity highlighting the potential of proteome-based techniques. Proteome analysis will also help to overcome the historic but still notorious Brucella obstacles of infection medicine, the lack of safe and protective vaccines and sensitive serologic diagnostic tools by identifying the most efficient protein antigens. This perspective summarizes past and recent developments in Brucella proteomics with a focus on species identification and serodiagnosis. Future applications of proteomics in these fields are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Updates on Brucellosis)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop