Special Issue "Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors"

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications in Water Treatment".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Maria Cristina Annesini

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Materiali Ambiente, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrogen production from renewable sources; membrane reactors; xenobiotic removal from contaminated water and soil
Guest Editor
Dr. Maria Anna Murmura

Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica Materiali Ambiente, Sapienza Università di Roma, Via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Roma, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: hydrogen production from renewable sources; chemical reactors; transport phenomena

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Membrane reactors are attracting increasing interest because of the opportunity they represent in increasing the efficiency of small-scale systems. Their use in gas phase reactions has been proposed for a variety of applications, where they may act either as selective extractors or as distributors. In particular, membrane reactors are generally employed for the selective permeation of hydrogen. For instance, they have been proposed for hydrogen production through reactions, such as steam reforming of hydrocarbons, water gas shift, propane and ethane dehydrogenation, and ammonia decomposition. Such applications require the use of Pd-based membranes, through which hydrogen permeates selectively, enhancing conversion and allowing the production of pure hydrogen. Perovskite-based membranes, which present a high selectivity towards oxygen permeation, are instead used as distributors for reactions, such as the partial oxidation of methane or ammonia, autothermal reforming, and oxidative dehy-drogenation of alkanes. In this case, the use of the membranes allows the achievement of uniform species concentrations along reactors, leading to a higher product selectivity; however, they may also be used as extractors to enhance conversion. Processes that take advantage of oxygen extraction include the coupling of oxygen-consuming reactions with water splitting, thermal decomposition of CO2, and NOx decomposition. In other applications, the reaction is localized on the membrane, which acts as the catalyst and separator at the same time.

The modeling of membrane reactors is essential to exploit all the benefits that can be derived from their optimal design, but it represents an ongoing challenge because of the complexity of describing systems in which the transport of mass, momentum, and energy are strongly coupled. With reference to mass transport, the effects of convection, dispersion, reaction, and permeation should, in principle, be simultaneously accounted for. Gas composition may affect membrane permeance and the coupling of the rates of permeation and reaction can result in multiple steady states. The reaction and permeation may cause a change in density that affects momentum transport. Furthermore, temperature gradients may be formed as a consequence of the heat of reaction, energy transport associated with the permeation, and the potential presence of a heating system.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to publish research papers on advances in membrane reactor modeling and design, as well as review papers. Potential topics include the modeling of:

  • Membrane reactors for enhanced conversion/product selectivity
  • Membrane reactors for controlled feed distribution
  • Membrane reactors for coupled reactor systems
  • Catalytic membrane reactors

Prof. Maria Cristina Annesini
Dr. Maria Anna Murmura
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Membranes is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • membrane reactors
  • selectivity
  • yield
  • permeation
  • feed distribution
  • catalytic membrane
  • perovskite membrane
  • palladium membrane
  • modeling
  • CFD

Published Papers (5 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-5
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Open AccessArticle Integrated Design and Control of Various Hydrogen Production Flowsheet Configurations via Membrane Based Methane Steam Reforming
Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 29 December 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
PDF Full-text (2372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work focuses on the development and implementation of an integrated process design and control framework for a membrane-based hydrogen production system based on low temperature methane steam reforming. Several alternative flowsheet configurations consisted of either integrated membrane reactor modules or successive reactor [...] Read more.
This work focuses on the development and implementation of an integrated process design and control framework for a membrane-based hydrogen production system based on low temperature methane steam reforming. Several alternative flowsheet configurations consisted of either integrated membrane reactor modules or successive reactor and membrane separation modules are designed and assessed by considering economic and controller dynamic performance criteria simultaneously. The design problem is expressed as a non-linear dynamic optimization problem incorporating a nonlinear dynamic model for the process system and a linear model predictive controller aiming to maintain the process targets despite the effect of disturbances. The large dimensionality of the disturbance space is effectively addressed by focusing on disturbances along the direction that causes the maximum process variability revealed by the analysis of local sensitivity information for the process system. Design results from a multi-objective optimization study, where only the annualized equipment and operational costs are minimized, are used as reference case in order to evaluate the proposed design framework. Optimization results demonstrate the controller’s ability to track the imposed setpoint changes and alleviate the effects of multiple simultaneous disturbances. Also, significant economic improvements are observed by the implementation of the integrated design and control framework compared to the traditional design methodology, where process and controller design are performed sequentially. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Mass Transfer Coefficient in Multi-Stage Reformer/Membrane Modules for Hydrogen Production
Membranes 2018, 8(4), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes8040109
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 7 November 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, and is exploitable to extract energy from fossil fuels, biomasses, and intermittent renewable energy sources and its generation from fossil fuels, with CO2 separation at the source being one of the most promising pathways for fossil [...] Read more.
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier, and is exploitable to extract energy from fossil fuels, biomasses, and intermittent renewable energy sources and its generation from fossil fuels, with CO2 separation at the source being one of the most promising pathways for fossil fuels’ utilization. This work focuses on a particular configuration called the Reformer and Membrane Module (RMM), which alternates between stages of Steam Reforming (SR) reactions with H2 separation stages to overcome the thermodynamic limit of the conventional SR. The configuration has numerous advantages with respect to the more widely studied and tested membrane reactors, and has been tested during a pilot-scale research project. Although numerous modelling works appeared in the literature, the design features of the material exchanger (in the so-called RMM architecture) of different geometrical configurations have not been developed, and the mass transfer correlations, capable of providing design tools useful for such membrane modules, are not available. The purpose of this work is therefore to apply a physical-mathematical model of the mass transfer, in three different geometries, considering both concentration polarization and membrane permeation, in order to: (i) simulate the cited experimental results; (ii) estimate the scaling-up correlations for the “material exchange modules”; and (iii) identify the mass transfer limiting regime in relation to the gas mass flow rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Membrane Processes for the Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle
Received: 13 September 2018 / Revised: 4 October 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 12 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper reviews the membrane processes for the nuclear fusion fuel cycle—namely, the treatment of the plasma exhaust gases and the extraction of tritium from the breeding blankets. With respect to the traditional processes, the application of membrane reactors to the fusion fuel [...] Read more.
This paper reviews the membrane processes for the nuclear fusion fuel cycle—namely, the treatment of the plasma exhaust gases and the extraction of tritium from the breeding blankets. With respect to the traditional processes, the application of membrane reactors to the fusion fuel cycle reduces the tritium inventory and processing time, thus increasing the safety and availability of the system. As an example, self-supported Pd-alloy membrane tubes have been studied for the separation of hydrogen and its isotopes from both gas- and liquid-tritiated streams through water-gas shift and isotopic swamping reactions. Furthermore, this paper describes an innovative membrane system (Membrane Gas–Liquid Contactor) for the extraction of hydrogen isotopes from liquid LiPb blankets. Porous membranes are exposed to the liquid metal that penetrates the pores without passing through them, then realizing a gas–liquid interface through which the mass transfer of hydrogen isotopes takes place. Compared to the conventional hydrogen isotope extraction processes from LiPb that use the “permeator against vacuum” concept, the proposed process significantly reduces mass-transfer resistance by improving the efficiency of the tritium recovery system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Submerged Osmotic Processes: Design and Operation to Mitigate Mass Transfer Limitations
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Submerged forward osmosis (FO) is of high interest for bioreactors, such as osmotic membrane bioreactor, microalgae photobioreactor, food or bioproduct concentration where pumping through pressurized modules is a limitation due to viscosity or breakage of fragile components. However, so far, most FO efforts [...] Read more.
Submerged forward osmosis (FO) is of high interest for bioreactors, such as osmotic membrane bioreactor, microalgae photobioreactor, food or bioproduct concentration where pumping through pressurized modules is a limitation due to viscosity or breakage of fragile components. However, so far, most FO efforts have been put towards cross flow configurations. This study provides, for the first time, insights on mass transfer limitations in the operation of submerged osmotic systems and offer recommendations for optimized design and operation. It is demonstrated that operation of the submerged plate and frame FO module requires draw circulation in the vacuum mode (vacuum assisted osmosis) that is in favor of the permeation flux. However, high pressure drops and dead zones occurring in classical U-shape FO draw channel strongly disadvantage this design; straight channel design proves to be more effective. External concentration polarization (ECP) is also a crucial element in the submerged FO process since mixing of the feed solution is not as optimized as in the cross flow module unless applying intense stirring. Among the mitigation techniques tested, air scouring proves to be more efficient than feed solution circulation. However, ECP mitigation methodology has to be adapted to application specificities with regards to combined/synergetic effects with fouling mitigation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Modeling Fixed Bed Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production through Steam Reforming Reactions: A Critical Analysis
Received: 30 April 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 12 June 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Membrane reactors for hydrogen production have been extensively studied in the past years due to the interest in developing systems that are adequate for the decentralized production of high-purity hydrogen. Research in this field has been both experimental and theoretical. The aim of [...] Read more.
Membrane reactors for hydrogen production have been extensively studied in the past years due to the interest in developing systems that are adequate for the decentralized production of high-purity hydrogen. Research in this field has been both experimental and theoretical. The aim of this work is two-fold. On the one hand, modeling work on membrane reactors that has been carried out in the past is presented and discussed, along with the constitutive equations used to describe the different phenomena characterizing the behavior of the system. On the other hand, an attempt is made to shed some light on the meaning and usefulness of models developed with different degrees of complexity. The motivation has been that, given the different ways and degrees in which transport models can be simplified, the process is not always straightforward and, in some cases, leads to conceptual inconsistencies that are not easily identifiable or identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Design of Membrane Reactors)
Figures

Figure 1

Membranes EISSN 2077-0375 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top