Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Applications".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 29965

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Dear Colleagues,

Electrospinning can be used to prepare nanofibrous membranes from diverse polymers. The large surface-to-volume ratio makes them suitable for diverse fields of applications, from filters to catalysts to tissue engineering.

Here, we search for the latest developments dealing with nanofiber mats for biomedicine. From wound healing to slow release, and from tissue engineering to stem cell differentiation, nanofibrous membranes can be found in a broad range of biomedical applications. For these utilizations, their chemical as well as physical properties are important, such as hydrophobicity, fiber morphology, membrane porosity, mechanical strength, etc.

This Special Issue focuses on nanofibrous membranes for biomedical applications, measuring and optimizing the correlated membrane properties. It covers the full range from basic research on new materials and producing novel electrospun structure to drug release to cell growth on nanofiber mats.

Prof. Dr. Andrea Ehrmann
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Nanofibrous wound dressing
  • Antibacterial, fungicide, and other properties
  • Drug release
  • Nanofibers for tissue engineering
  • Intrinsic properties of electrospun biopolymers supporting biomedical applications
  • Polymer–nanoparticle blends for nanofibers with improved properties
  • Supporting stem cell differentiation by physical and chemical means
  • Cell adhesion on nanofibrous mats
  • Optical investigation of cells grown on nanofibrous mats
  • Other examination methods, e.g., AFM
  • Any other investigations related to nanofibrous membranes for biomedical applications

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 5708 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical, Mechanical, and Biological Properties of Polylactide/Portulaca oleracea Extract Electrospun Fibers
by Nikoleta Stoyanova, Mariya Spasova, Nevena Manolova, Iliya Rashkov, Sabina Taneva, Svetlana Momchilova and Ani Georgieva
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 298; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030298 - 2 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1832
Abstract
Electrospinning was used to create fibrous polylactide (PLA) materials loaded with Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) plant extract obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics of the fibers were studied. According to the SEM results, the diameters of smooth [...] Read more.
Electrospinning was used to create fibrous polylactide (PLA) materials loaded with Portulaca oleracea (P. oleracea) plant extract obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical, and biological characteristics of the fibers were studied. According to the SEM results, the diameters of smooth and defect-free fibers fabricated by a one-pot electrospinning method were at micron scale. All the obtained materials possess good mechanical properties. Additionally, it was found that the composite fibers exhibited considerable antioxidant activity. The antimicrobial activity of the fibrous materials against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was determined as well. In vitro studies showed that the electrospun biomaterials had no cytotoxic effects and that the combination of PLA and the P. oleracea extract in the fiber structure promoted cell survival and proliferation of normal mouse fibroblasts. The obtained results reveal that microfibrous mats containing the polyester—PLA and the plant extract—P. oleracea can be suitable for applications in wound healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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20 pages, 4570 KiB  
Article
Electrochemical and Electroconductive Behavior of Silk Fibroin Electrospun Membrane Coated with Gold or Silver Nanoparticles
by Wilson Agudelo, Yuliet Montoya, Alejandra Garcia-Garcia, Adriana Restrepo-Osorio and John Bustamante
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1154; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111154 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1715
Abstract
The surface modification of materials obtained from natural polymers, such as silk fibroin with metal nanoparticles that exhibit intrinsic electrical characteristics, allows the obtaining of biocomposite materials capable of favoring the propagation and conduction of electrical impulses, acting as communicating structures in electrically [...] Read more.
The surface modification of materials obtained from natural polymers, such as silk fibroin with metal nanoparticles that exhibit intrinsic electrical characteristics, allows the obtaining of biocomposite materials capable of favoring the propagation and conduction of electrical impulses, acting as communicating structures in electrically isolated areas. On that basis, this investigation determined the electrochemical and electroconductive behavior through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of a silk fibroin electrospun membrane from silk fibrous waste functionalized with gold or silver nanoparticles synthetized by green chemical reduction methodologies. Based on the results obtained, we found that silk fibroin from silk fibrous waste (SFw) favored the formation of gold (AuNPs-SFw) and silver (AgNPs-SFw) nanoparticles, acting as a reducing agent and surfactant, forming a micellar structure around the individual nanoparticle. Moreover, different electrospinning conditions influenced the morphological properties of the fibers, in the presence or absence of beads and the amount of sample collected. Furthermore, treated SFw electrospun membranes, functionalized with AuNPs-SFw or AgNPS-SFw, allowed the conduction of electrical stimuli, acting as stimulators and modulators of electric current. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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15 pages, 3786 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Hydrophobic Interaction Chromatography (HIC) Membranes for Protein Purification
by Shu-Ting Chen, Sumith Ranil Wickramasinghe and Xianghong Qian
Membranes 2022, 12(7), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12070714 - 18 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1990
Abstract
Responsive membranes for hydrophobic interaction chromatography have been fabricated by functionalizing poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) ligands on the substrate of electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibers. Both static and dynamic binding capacities and product recovery were investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as [...] Read more.
Responsive membranes for hydrophobic interaction chromatography have been fabricated by functionalizing poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PVCL) ligands on the substrate of electrospun regenerated cellulose nanofibers. Both static and dynamic binding capacities and product recovery were investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and Immunoglobulin G (IgG) as model proteins. The effects of ligand chain length and chain density on static binding capacity were also studied. A static binding capacity of ~25 mg/mL of membrane volume (MV) can be achieved in optimal ligand grafting conditions. For dynamic binding studies, protein binding capacity increased with protein concentration from 0.1 to 1.0 g/L. Dynamic binding capacity increased from ~8 mg/mL MV at 0.1 g/L BSA to over 30 mg/mL at 1.0 g/L BSA. However, BSA recovery decreased as protein concentration increased from ~98% at 0.1 g/L BSA to 51% at 1 g/L BSA loading concentration. There is a clear trade-off between binding capacity and recovery rate. The electrospun substrate with thicker fibers and more open pore structures is superior to thinner fibrous membrane substrates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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17 pages, 7214 KiB  
Article
Characterization of Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nano/Micro Fibrous Membrane as Scaffolds in Tissue Engineering: Effects of the Type of Collector Used
by Dianney Clavijo-Grimaldo, Ciro Alfonso Casadiego-Torrado, Juan Villalobos-Elías, Adolfo Ocampo-Páramo and Magreth Torres-Parada
Membranes 2022, 12(6), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12060563 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
Electrospinning is an electrohydrodynamic technique that transforms a polymer solution into nano/microscopic diameter fibers under the influence of a high-voltage electric field. Its use in the fabrication of nano/micro fibrous membranes as scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased rapidly in recent years due [...] Read more.
Electrospinning is an electrohydrodynamic technique that transforms a polymer solution into nano/microscopic diameter fibers under the influence of a high-voltage electric field. Its use in the fabrication of nano/micro fibrous membranes as scaffolds for tissue engineering has increased rapidly in recent years due to its efficiency and reproducibility. The objective of this study is to show how the use of the same polymeric solution (polycaprolactone 9% w/v in chloroform: isopropanol 50:50) and identical electrohydrodynamic deposition parameters produces fibers with different characteristics using a flat collector platform with movements in the X and Y axes vs. a conventional rotary collector. The manufactured nano/microfibers show significant differences in most of their characteristics (morphology, roughness, hydrophilicity, and mechanical properties). Regarding the diameter and porosity of the fibers, the results were similar. Given that scaffolds must be designed to guarantee adequate survival and the proliferation and migration of a certain cell type, in this study we analyze how the variations in the characteristics of the fibers obtained are essential to defining their potential application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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19 pages, 4538 KiB  
Article
Electrospun Biodegradable Nanofibers Coated Homogenously by Cu Magnetron Sputtering Exhibit Fast Ion Release. Computational and Experimental Study
by Anton M. Manakhov, Natalya A. Sitnikova, Alphiya R. Tsygankova, Alexander Yu. Alekseev, Lyubov S. Adamenko, Elizaveta Permyakova, Victor S. Baidyshev, Zakhar I. Popov, Lucie Blahová, Marek Eliáš, Lenka Zajíčková and Anastasiya O. Solovieva
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 965; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120965 - 8 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3629
Abstract
Copper-coated nanofibrous materials are desirable for catalysis, electrochemistry, sensing, and biomedical use. The preparation of copper or copper-coated nanofibers can be pretty challenging, requiring many chemical steps that we eliminated in our robust approach, where for the first time, Cu was deposited by [...] Read more.
Copper-coated nanofibrous materials are desirable for catalysis, electrochemistry, sensing, and biomedical use. The preparation of copper or copper-coated nanofibers can be pretty challenging, requiring many chemical steps that we eliminated in our robust approach, where for the first time, Cu was deposited by magnetron sputtering onto temperature-sensitive polymer nanofibers. For the first time, the large-scale modeling of PCL films irradiation by molecular dynamics simulation was performed and allowed to predict the ions penetration depth and tune the deposition conditions. The Cu-coated polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers were thoroughly characterized and tested as antibacterial agents for various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fast release of Cu2+ ions (concentration up to 3.4 µg/mL) led to significant suppression of E. coli and S. aureus colonies but was insufficient against S. typhimurium and Ps. aeruginosa. The effect of Cu layer oxidation upon contact with liquid media was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealing that, after two hours, 55% of Cu atoms are in form of CuO or Cu(OH)2. The Cu-coated nanofibers will be great candidates for wound dressings thanks to an interesting synergistic effect: on the one hand, the rapid release of copper ions kills bacteria, while on the other hand, it stimulates the regeneration with the activation of immune cells. Indeed, copper ions are necessary for the bacteriostatic action of cells of the immune system. The reactive CO2/C2H4 plasma polymers deposited onto PCL-Cu nanofibers can be applied to grafting of viable proteins, peptides, or drugs, and it further explores the versatility of developed nanofibers for biomedical applications use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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13 pages, 4789 KiB  
Article
Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. Essential Oil-Loaded Electrospun Poly(lactic acid)/Poly(ethylene oxide) Fiber Blend Membrane for Antibacterial Wound Dressing Application
by Pattawika Sinsup, Veerawat Teeranachaideekul, Arthit Makarasen, Laemthong Chuenchom, Pongthep Prajongtat, Supanna Techasakul, Peerada Yingyuad and Decha Dechtrirat
Membranes 2021, 11(9), 648; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11090648 - 24 Aug 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2952
Abstract
The essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Plai) has long been used in Thai herbal remedies to treat inflammation, pains, sprains, and wounds. It was therefore loaded into an electrospun fibrous membrane for use as an analgesic and antibacterial dressing for [...] Read more.
The essential oil from Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. (Plai) has long been used in Thai herbal remedies to treat inflammation, pains, sprains, and wounds. It was therefore loaded into an electrospun fibrous membrane for use as an analgesic and antibacterial dressing for wound care. The polymer blend between poly(lactic acid) and poly(ethylene oxide) was selected as the material of choice because its wettability can be easily tuned by changing the blend ratio. Increasing the hydrophilicity and water uptake ability of the material while retaining its structural integrity and porosity provides moisture balance and removes excess exudates, thereby promoting wound healing. The effect of the blend ratio on the fiber morphology and wettability was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurement, respectively. The structural determination of the prepared membranes was conducted using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The release behavior of (E)-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl) butadiene (DMPBD), a marker molecule with potent anti-inflammatory activity from the fiber blend, showed a controlled release characteristic. The essential oil-loaded electrospun membrane also showed antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. It also exhibited no toxicity to both human fibroblast and keratinocyte cells, suggesting that the prepared material is suitable for wound dressing application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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21 pages, 6629 KiB  
Article
Bacterial Infection-Mimicking Three-Dimensional Phagocytosis and Chemotaxis in Electrospun Poly(ε-caprolactone) Nanofibrous Membrane
by Seung-Jun Lee, Perry Ayn Mayson A Maza, Gyu-Min Sun, Petr Slama, In-Jeong Lee and Jong-Young Kwak
Membranes 2021, 11(8), 569; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11080569 - 28 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2485
Abstract
In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro infection model to investigate the crosstalk between phagocytes and microbes in inflammation using a nanofibrous membrane (NM). Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-NMs (PCL-NMs) were generated via electrospinning of PCL in chloroform. Staphylococcus aureus and phagocytes were [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) in vitro infection model to investigate the crosstalk between phagocytes and microbes in inflammation using a nanofibrous membrane (NM). Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-NMs (PCL-NMs) were generated via electrospinning of PCL in chloroform. Staphylococcus aureus and phagocytes were able to adhere to the nanofibers and phagocytes engulfed S. aureus in the PCL-NM. The migration of phagocytes to S. aureus was evaluated in a two-layer co-culture system using PCL-NM. Neutrophils, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) cultured in the upper PCL-NM layer migrated to the lower PCL-NM layer containing bacteria. DCs migrated to neutrophils that cultured with bacteria and then engulfed neutrophils in two-layer system. In addition, phagocytes in the upper PCL-NM layer migrated to bacteria-infected MLE-12 lung epithelial cells in the lower PCL-NM layer. S. aureus-infected MLE-12 cells stimulated the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-1α in 3D culture conditions, but not in 2D culture conditions. Therefore, the PCL-NM-based 3D culture system with phagocytes and bacteria mimics the inflammatory response to microbes in vivo and is applicable to the biomimetic study of various microbe infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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Review

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23 pages, 10029 KiB  
Review
Measuring Physical Properties of Electrospun Nanofiber Mats for Different Biomedical Applications
by Sarah Vanessa Langwald, Andrea Ehrmann and Lilia Sabantina
Membranes 2023, 13(5), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13050488 - 30 Apr 2023
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 3946
Abstract
Electrospun nanofiber mats are nowadays often used for biotechnological and biomedical applications, such as wound healing or tissue engineering. While most studies concentrate on their chemical and biochemical properties, the physical properties are often measured without long explanations regarding the chosen methods. Here, [...] Read more.
Electrospun nanofiber mats are nowadays often used for biotechnological and biomedical applications, such as wound healing or tissue engineering. While most studies concentrate on their chemical and biochemical properties, the physical properties are often measured without long explanations regarding the chosen methods. Here, we give an overview of typical measurements of topological features such as porosity, pore size, fiber diameter and orientation, hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties and water uptake, mechanical and electrical properties as well as water vapor and air permeability. Besides describing typically used methods with potential modifications, we suggest some low-cost methods as alternatives in cases where special equipment is not available. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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27 pages, 2052 KiB  
Review
An Investigation of the Constructional Design Components Affecting the Mechanical Response and Cellular Activity of Electrospun Vascular Grafts
by Suzan Ozdemir, Ipek Yalcin-Enis, Baturalp Yalcinkaya and Fatma Yalcinkaya
Membranes 2022, 12(10), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12100929 - 25 Sep 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2932
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease is anticipated to remain the leading cause of death globally. Due to the current problems connected with using autologous arteries for bypass surgery, researchers are developing tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). The major goal of vascular tissue engineering is to construct prostheses [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease is anticipated to remain the leading cause of death globally. Due to the current problems connected with using autologous arteries for bypass surgery, researchers are developing tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). The major goal of vascular tissue engineering is to construct prostheses that closely resemble native blood vessels in terms of morphological, mechanical, and biological features so that these scaffolds can satisfy the functional requirements of the native tissue. In this setting, morphology and cellular investigation are usually prioritized, while mechanical qualities are generally addressed superficially. However, producing grafts with good mechanical properties similar to native vessels is crucial for enhancing the clinical performance of vascular grafts, exposing physiological forces, and preventing graft failure caused by intimal hyperplasia, thrombosis, aneurysm, blood leakage, and occlusion. The scaffold’s design and composition play a significant role in determining its mechanical characteristics, including suturability, compliance, tensile strength, burst pressure, and blood permeability. Electrospun prostheses offer various models that can be customized to resemble the extracellular matrix. This review aims to provide a comprehensive and comparative review of recent studies on the mechanical properties of fibrous vascular grafts, emphasizing the influence of structural parameters on mechanical behavior. Additionally, this review provides an overview of permeability and cell growth in electrospun membranes for vascular grafts. This work intends to shed light on the design parameters required to maintain the mechanical stability of vascular grafts placed in the body to produce a temporary backbone and to be biodegraded when necessary, allowing an autologous vessel to take its place. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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21 pages, 686 KiB  
Review
Electrospun Antibacterial Nanomaterials for Wound Dressings Applications
by Aysegul Gul, Izabela Gallus, Akshat Tegginamath, Jiri Maryska and Fatma Yalcinkaya
Membranes 2021, 11(12), 908; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes11120908 - 23 Nov 2021
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 4725
Abstract
Chronic wounds are caused by bacterial infections and create major healthcare discomforts; to overcome this issue, wound dressings with antibacterial properties are to be utilized. The requirements of antibacterial wound dressings cannot be fulfilled by traditional wound dressing materials. Hence, to improve and [...] Read more.
Chronic wounds are caused by bacterial infections and create major healthcare discomforts; to overcome this issue, wound dressings with antibacterial properties are to be utilized. The requirements of antibacterial wound dressings cannot be fulfilled by traditional wound dressing materials. Hence, to improve and accelerate the process of wound healing, an antibacterial wound dressing is to be designed. Electrospun nanofibers offer a promising solution to the management of wound healing, and numerous options are available to load antibacterial compounds onto the nanofiber webs. This review gives us an overview of some recent advances of electrospun antibacterial nanomaterials used in wound dressings. First, we provide a brief overview of the electrospinning process of nanofibers in wound healing and later discuss electrospun fibers that have incorporated various antimicrobial agents to be used in wound dressings. In addition, we highlight the latest research and patents related to electrospun nanofibers in wound dressing. This review also aims to concentrate on the importance of nanofibers for wound dressing applications and discuss functionalized antibacterial nanofibers in wound dressing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanofibrous Membrane for Biomedical Application)
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