Fabrication, Characterization and Application of Organic/Inorganic Film Membranes and Advanced Materials (Volume II)

A special issue of Membranes (ISSN 2077-0375). This special issue belongs to the section "Membrane Surfaces and Interfaces".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2023) | Viewed by 22234

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
1. Laboratory of Complex Electrophysic Investigations, Institute of Electrophysics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg 620016, Russia
2. Department of Physical and Inorganic Chemistry, Institute of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg 620002, Russia
Interests: solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC); thin-film technology; electrophoretic deposition (EPD); stable suspensions; nanoscale materials; electrochemical properties
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your works to a Special Issue “Fabrication, Characterization and Application of Organic/Inorganic Film Membranes and Advanced Materials (Volume II)”. The purpose of this Special Issue is to present the latest experimental and theoretical developments in the application of organic/inorganic membranes based on new functional materials. Authors are invited to submit their latest results; both original research papers and reviews are welcome. Topics of interest include but are not limited to:

Development of methods for producing organic/inorganic membranes, including physical vacuum deposition technologies such as magnetron deposition, pulsed laser deposition, and chemical vapor deposition as well as electrochemical methods, ceramic and solution technologies, etc.

Application of organic/inorganic membranes in devices for energy production, conversion and storage (fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, electrolyzers); chemical sensors; MEMS devices; and catalytic reactors.

3D printing and additive manufacturing for the formation of membrane film structures.

Promising materials for the production of organic/inorganic membranes; ion-conductive materials, proton-conductive materials; and metal, semiconductor, dielectric, and piezo materials.

Methods for obtaining promising nanostructured and composite membrane materials.

Dr. Elena Kalinina
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • thin-film technology
  • organic/inorganic film membranes
  • electrophoretic deposition
  • membranes for energy conversion and storage
  • fuel cells
  • membrane materials
  • membrane fabrication

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 5109 KiB  
Article
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells with Magnetron Sputtered Single-Layer SDC and Multilayer SDC/YSZ/SDC Electrolytes
by Andrey Solovyev, Anna Shipilova and Egor Smolyanskiy
Membranes 2023, 13(6), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13060585 - 5 Jun 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2087
Abstract
Samarium-doped ceria (SDC) is considered as an alternative electrolyte material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) because its conductivity is higher than that of commonly used yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The paper compares the properties of anode-supported SOFCs with magnetron sputtered single-layer SDC [...] Read more.
Samarium-doped ceria (SDC) is considered as an alternative electrolyte material for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs) because its conductivity is higher than that of commonly used yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ). The paper compares the properties of anode-supported SOFCs with magnetron sputtered single-layer SDC and multilayer SDC/YSZ/SDC thin-film electrolyte, with the YSZ blocking layer 0.5, 1, and 1.5 μm thick. The thickness of the upper and lower SDC layers of the multilayer electrolyte are constant and amount to 3 and 1 μm, respectively. The thickness of single-layer SDC electrolyte is 5.5 μm. The SOFC performance is studied by measuring current–voltage characteristics and impedance spectra in the range of 500–800 °C. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy are used to investigate the structure of the deposited electrolyte and other fuel cell layers. SOFCs with the single-layer SDC electrolyte show the best performance at 650 °C. At this temperature, open circuit voltage and maximum power density are 0.8 V and 651 mW/cm2, respectively. The formation of the SDC electrolyte with the YSZ blocking layer improves the open circuit voltage up to 1.1 V and increases the maximum power density at the temperatures over 600 °C. It is shown that the optimal thickness of the YSZ blocking layer is 1 µm. The fuel cell with the multilayer SDC/YSZ/SDC electrolyte, with the layer thicknesses of 3/1/1 µm, has the maximum power density of 2263 and 1132 mW/cm2 at 800 and 650 °C, respectively. Full article
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17 pages, 8302 KiB  
Article
Electrophoretic Deposition and Characterization of Thin-Film Membranes Li7La3Zr2O12
by Efim Lyalin, Evgeniya Il’ina, Elena Kalinina, Boris Antonov, Alexander Pankratov and Danil Pereverzev
Membranes 2023, 13(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13050468 - 27 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1403
Abstract
In the presented study, films from tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12 were obtained by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for the first time. To obtain a continuous and homogeneous coating on Ni and Ti substrates, iodine was added to the Li [...] Read more.
In the presented study, films from tetragonal Li7La3Zr2O12 were obtained by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) for the first time. To obtain a continuous and homogeneous coating on Ni and Ti substrates, iodine was added to the Li7La3Zr2O12 suspension. The EPD regime was developed to carry out the stable process of deposition. The influence of annealing temperature on phase composition, microstructure, and conductivity of membranes obtained was studied. It was established that the phase transition from tetragonal to low-temperature cubic modification of solid electrolyte was observed after its heat treatment at 400 °C. This phase transition was also confirmed by high-temperature X-ray diffraction analysis of Li7La3Zr2O12 powder. Increasing the annealing temperature leads to the formation of additional phases in the form of fibers and their growth from 32 (dried film) to 104 μm (annealed at 500 °C). The formation of this phase occurred due to the chemical reaction of Li7La3Zr2O12 films obtained by electrophoretic deposition with air components during heat treatment. The total conductivity of Li7La3Zr2O12 films obtained has values of ~10−10 and ~10−7 S cm−1 at 100 and 200 °C, respectively. The method of EPD can be used to obtain solid electrolyte membranes based on Li7La3Zr2O12 for all-solid-state batteries. Full article
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12 pages, 2977 KiB  
Article
Mathematical Modeling of the Influence of the Karman Vortex Street on Mass Transfer in Electromembrane Systems
by Aminat Uzdenova, Anna Kovalenko, Evgeniy Prosviryakov and Makhamet Urtenov
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 394; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040394 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1247
Abstract
In electromembrane systems, the transfer of ions near ion-exchange membranes causes concentration polarization, which significantly complicates mass transfer. Spacers are used to reduce the effect of concentration polarization and increase mass transfer. In this article, for the first time, a theoretical study is [...] Read more.
In electromembrane systems, the transfer of ions near ion-exchange membranes causes concentration polarization, which significantly complicates mass transfer. Spacers are used to reduce the effect of concentration polarization and increase mass transfer. In this article, for the first time, a theoretical study is carried out, using a two-dimensional mathematical model, of the effect of spacers on the mass transfer process in the desalination channel formed by anion-exchange and cation-exchange membranes under conditions when they cause a developed Karman vortex street. The main idea is that, when the separation of vortices occurs on both sides in turn from the spacer located in the core of the flow where the concentration is maximum, the developed non-stationary Karman vortex street ensures the flow of the solution from the core of the flow alternately into the depleted diffusion layers near the ion-exchange membranes. This reduces the concentration polarization and, accordingly, increases the transport of salt ions. The mathematical model is a boundary value problem for the coupled system of Nernst–Planck–Poisson and Navier–Stokes equations for the potentiodynamic regime. The comparison of the current–voltage characteristics calculated for the desalination channel with and without a spacer showed a significant increase in the intensity of mass transfer due to the development of the Karman vortex street behind the spacer. Full article
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16 pages, 3940 KiB  
Article
Plasma Enhanced High-Rate Deposition of Advanced Film Materials by Metal Reactive Evaporation in Organosilicon Vapors
by Andrey Menshakov, Yulia Bruhanova, Polina Skorynina and Anatoliy Medvedev
Membranes 2023, 13(4), 374; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13040374 - 24 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1155
Abstract
Dense homogeneous nanocomposite TiSiCN coatings with a thickness of up to 15 microns and a hardness of up to 42 GPa were obtained by the method of reactive titanium evaporation in a hollow cathode arc discharge in an Ar + C2H [...] Read more.
Dense homogeneous nanocomposite TiSiCN coatings with a thickness of up to 15 microns and a hardness of up to 42 GPa were obtained by the method of reactive titanium evaporation in a hollow cathode arc discharge in an Ar + C2H2 + N2-gas mixture with the addition of hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS). An analysis of the plasma composition showed that this method allowed for a wide range of changes in the activation degree of all components of the gas mixture, providing a high (up to 20 mA/cm2) ion current density. It is possible to widely change the chemical composition, microstructure, deposition rate, and properties of coatings obtained by this method, by changing the pressure, composition, and activation degree of the vapor–gas mixture. An increase in the fluxes of C2H2, N2, HMDS, and discharge current leads to an increase in the rate of coating formation. However, the optimal coatings from the point of view of microhardness were obtained at a low discharge current of 10 A and relatively low contents of C2H2 (1 sccm) and HMDS (0.3 g/h), exceeding which leads to a decrease in the hardness of the films and the deterioration of their quality, which can be explained by the excessive ionic exposure and the non-optimal chemical composition of the coatings. Full article
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11 pages, 4190 KiB  
Article
Stability of the Structural and Transport Characteristics of (ZrO2)0.99−x(Sc2O3)x(R2O3)0.01 (R–Yb, Y, Tb, Gd) Electrolytic Membranes to High-Temperature Exposure
by Dmitrii Agarkov, Mikhail Borik, Galina Korableva, Alexey Kulebyakin, Irina Kuritsyna, Nataliya Larina, Elena Lomonova, Filipp Milovich, Valentina Myzina, Polina Ryabochkina, Nataliya Tabachkova, Tatyana Volkova and Denis Zakharov
Membranes 2023, 13(3), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13030312 - 9 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1417
Abstract
The effect of long-term high-temperature annealing on the phase composition, local crystal structure, and oxygen-ion conductivity of SOFC membranes based on zirconium dioxide solid solutions was studied. Crystals with the composition of (ZrO2)0.99−x(Sc2O3)x(R [...] Read more.
The effect of long-term high-temperature annealing on the phase composition, local crystal structure, and oxygen-ion conductivity of SOFC membranes based on zirconium dioxide solid solutions was studied. Crystals with the composition of (ZrO2)0.99−x(Sc2O3)x(R2O3)0.01 (where x = 0.08–0.1; R-Yb, Y, Tb, Gd) were obtained by the method of directed melt crystallization in a cold crucible. The crystals were annealed in air at a temperature of 1000 °C for 400 h. The phase analysis of the crystals before and after annealing was studied by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy. The study of the ionic conductivity of the crystals was carried out by the method of impedance spectroscopy in the temperature range 400–900 °C. It has been shown that when various rare earth cations (Yb, Y, Tb, and Gd) are used, the maximum conductivity is observed for the compositions (ZrO2)0.91(Sc2O3)0.08(Yb2O3)0.01, (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01, (ZrO2)0.90(Sc2O3)0.09(Tb2O3)0.01, and (ZrO2)0.89(Sc2O3)0.1(Gd2O3)0.01. At the same time, these crystals have a highly symmetrical pseudocubic structure, which is retained even after crystal annealing. At comparable concentrations of Sc2O3, the conductivity of crystals decreases with an increase in the ionic radius of the rare earth cation. The high-temperature degradation of the conductivity is also discussed depending on the type of rare earth oxide and the concentration of scandium oxide. Full article
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19 pages, 4777 KiB  
Article
Preparation of a CAB−GO/PES Mixed Matrix Ultrafiltration Membrane and Its Antifouling Performance
by Haiyan Wu, Ling Wang, Wentao Xu, Zehai Xu and Guoliang Zhang
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020241 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1942
Abstract
Serious membrane fouling has limited the development of ultrafiltration membrane technology for water purification. Synthesis of an ultrafiltration membrane with prominent anti-fouling ability is of vital importance. In this study, CAB−GO composite nanosheets were prepared by grafting graphene oxide (GO) with a zwitterionic [...] Read more.
Serious membrane fouling has limited the development of ultrafiltration membrane technology for water purification. Synthesis of an ultrafiltration membrane with prominent anti-fouling ability is of vital importance. In this study, CAB−GO composite nanosheets were prepared by grafting graphene oxide (GO) with a zwitterionic material cocamidopropyl betaine (CAB) with strong antifouling properties. Anti-fouling CAB−GO/PES mixed matrix ultrafiltration membrane (CGM) was prepared by the phase inversion method with polyethersulfone (PES). Due to its electrostatic interaction, the interlayer distance between CAB−GO nanosheets was increased, and the dispersibility of GO was improved to large extent, thereby effectively avoiding the phenomenon of GO agglomeration in organic solvents. Based on the improvement of the surface porosity and surface hydrophilicity of the CAB−GO/PES mixed matrix membrane, the pure water flux of CGM−1.0 can reach 461 L/(m2·h), which was 2.5 times higher than that of the original PES membrane, and the rejection rates toward BSA and HA were above 96%. Moreover, when the content of CAB−GO was 0.1 wt%, the prepared CAB−GO/PES membrane exhibited very high BSA (99.1%) and HA (98.1%) rejection during long-term operation, indicating excellent anti-fouling ability. Full article
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15 pages, 4656 KiB  
Article
Novel Design of Co-Poly(Hydrazide Imide) and Its Complex with Cu(I) for Membrane Separation of Methanol/Dimethyl Carbonate Mixture
by Galina Polotskaya, Nadezhda Tian, Ilya Faykov, Mikhail Goikhman, Irina Podeshvo, Nairi Loretsyan, Iosif Gofman, Konstantin Zolotovsky and Alexandra Pulyalina
Membranes 2023, 13(2), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13020160 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1833
Abstract
Poly(2,2′-biquinoline-6,6′-dicarbohydrazide)-co-(bistrimelliteimide)methylene-bisanthranylide (PHI) and its metal–polymer complex PHI-Cu(I) containing several types of functional groups (hydrazide, carboxyl, amide, and imide fragments) were synthesized to prepare two types of dense nonporous membranes. The study on morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurements of mechanical, thermal, and [...] Read more.
Poly(2,2′-biquinoline-6,6′-dicarbohydrazide)-co-(bistrimelliteimide)methylene-bisanthranylide (PHI) and its metal–polymer complex PHI-Cu(I) containing several types of functional groups (hydrazide, carboxyl, amide, and imide fragments) were synthesized to prepare two types of dense nonporous membranes. The study on morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurements of mechanical, thermal, and transport properties of the membrane samples was carried out. The main mechanical properties of both membranes do not differ significantly, but the values of ultimate deformation differ palpably as a result of a non-uniform character of the deformation process for the PHI membrane. The thermal analysis based on the curves of thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermal (DTA) analyses of the PHI and PHI-Cu(I) membranes revealed peculiarities of the membrane structure. Transport properties were studied in pervaporation (PV) of methanol (MeOH) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) mixtures including an azeotropic point. Intrinsic properties of the penetrant–membrane system were also determined. It was found that the total flux is higher through the PHI membrane, but the PHI-Cu(I) membrane exhibits a higher separation factor. Calculation of the pervaporation separation index (PSI) allowed to conclude that the PHI-Cu(I) membrane exhibits better transport properties as compared with the PHI membrane. Full article
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15 pages, 4616 KiB  
Article
Delayed Solvent–Nonsolvent Demixing Preparation and Performance of a Highly Permeable Polyethersulfone Ultrafiltration Membrane
by Pfano Tshindane, Bhekie B. Mamba, Machawe M. Motsa and Thabo T. I. Nkambule
Membranes 2023, 13(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes13010039 - 28 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Membrane performance optimization is a critical preparation step that ensures optimum separation and fouling resistance. Several studies have employed additives such as carbon and inorganic nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance. These particles provide excellent results but are rather costly, unstable and toxic to [...] Read more.
Membrane performance optimization is a critical preparation step that ensures optimum separation and fouling resistance. Several studies have employed additives such as carbon and inorganic nanomaterials to optimize membrane performance. These particles provide excellent results but are rather costly, unstable and toxic to several biological organs. This study demonstrated that performance enhancement can also be achieved through delayed solvent–nonsolvent demixing during phase inversion membrane preparation. The rate of solvent–nonsolvent demixing was delayed by increasing the concentration of the solvent in the coagulation bath. This study employed synthetic and real water samples and several analytical techniques to compare optimized performances and properties of membranes prepared in this study with that of nanoparticle-embedded membranes in the literature. Pure water flux and BSA rejection of the membranes prepared in this study were comparable to those of nanoparticle embedded membranes. This study also shows the influence of delayed solvent–nonsolvent demixing on membrane properties such as morphology, wettability, surface roughness and porosity, thereby showing the suitability of the technique in membrane optimization. Furthermore, fouling studies showed that membranes prepared in this study have high flux recovery when fouled by humic acid feed water (>95%) and above 50% flux recovery with real water samples. Full article
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14 pages, 4384 KiB  
Article
Solid Electrolyte Membranes Based on Li2O–Al2O3–GeO2–SiO2–P2O5 Glasses for All-Solid State Batteries
by Svetlana V. Pershina, Tamara A. Kuznetsova, Emma G. Vovkotrub, Semyon A. Belyakov and Elena S. Kuznetsova
Membranes 2022, 12(12), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12121245 - 8 Dec 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1651
Abstract
Rechargeable Li-metal/Li-ion all-solid-state batteries due to their high safety levels and high energy densities are in great demand for different applications ranging from portable electronic devices to energy storage systems, especially for the production of electric vehicles. The Li1.5Al0.5Ge [...] Read more.
Rechargeable Li-metal/Li-ion all-solid-state batteries due to their high safety levels and high energy densities are in great demand for different applications ranging from portable electronic devices to energy storage systems, especially for the production of electric vehicles. The Li1.5Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 (LAGP) solid electrolyte remains highly attractive because of its high ionic conductivity at room temperature, and thermal stability and chemical compatibility with electrode materials. The possibility of LAGP production by the glass-ceramic method makes it possible to achieve higher total lithium-ion conductivity and a compact microstructure of the electrolyte membrane compared to the ceramic one. Therefore, the crystallization kinetics investigations of the initial glass are of great practical importance. The present study is devoted to the parent glasses for the production of Li1.5+xAl0.5Ge1.5SixP3−xO12 glass-ceramics. The glass transition temperature Tg is determined by DSC and dilatometry. It is found that Tg decreases from 523.4 (x = 0) to 460 °C (x = 0.5). The thermal stability of glasses increases from 111.1 (x = 0) to 188.9 °C (x = 0.3). The crystallization activation energy of Si-doped glasses calculated by the Kissinger model is lower compared to that of Si-free glasses, so glass-ceramics can be produced at lower temperatures. The conductivity of the glasses increases with the growth of x content. Full article
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17 pages, 5000 KiB  
Article
Influence of Dispersed TiO2 Nanoparticles via Steric Interaction on the Antifouling Performance of PVDF/TiO2 Composite Membranes
by Jie Zhang, Zicong Jian, Minmin Jiang, Bo Peng, Yuanyuan Zhang, Zhichao Wu and Junjian Zheng
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111118 - 9 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1310
Abstract
Herein, the influence of various contents of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles and the comprehensive properties of PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes via the steric hindrance interaction was systematically explored. Hydrophilic PEG was employed as a dispersing surfactant of [...] Read more.
Herein, the influence of various contents of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on the dispersion of TiO2 nanoparticles and the comprehensive properties of PVDF/TiO2 composite membranes via the steric hindrance interaction was systematically explored. Hydrophilic PEG was employed as a dispersing surfactant of TiO2 nanoparticles in the pre-dispersion process and as a pore-forming additive in the following membrane preparation process. The slight overlap shown in the TEM image and low TSI value (<1) of the composite casting solution indicated the effective dispersion and stabilization under the steric interaction with a PEG content of 6 wt.%. Properties such as the surface pore size, the development of finger-like structures, permeability, hydrophilicity and Zeta potential were obviously enhanced. The improved antifouling performance between the membrane surface and foulants was corroborated by less negative free energy of adhesion (about −42.87 mJ/m2), a higher interaction energy barrier (0.65 KT) and low flux declination during the filtration process. The high critical flux and low fouling rate both in winter and summer as well as the long-term running operation in A/O-MBR firmly supported the elevated antifouling performance, which implies a promising application in the municipal sewage treatment field. Full article
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15 pages, 5529 KiB  
Article
Dense Electrode Layers-Supported Microtubular Oxygen Pump
by Alexey Nikonov, Nikita Pavzderin and Vladimir Khrustov
Membranes 2022, 12(11), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12111114 - 8 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1252
Abstract
An oxygen pump is an electrochemical device that extracts oxygen from the air and has the potential to be used in medicine. The development and test results of a microtubular solid oxide oxygen pump with Ce0.76Gd0.24O2−δ (GDC) electrolyte [...] Read more.
An oxygen pump is an electrochemical device that extracts oxygen from the air and has the potential to be used in medicine. The development and test results of a microtubular solid oxide oxygen pump with Ce0.76Gd0.24O2−δ (GDC) electrolyte are presented. The supporting components of the oxygen pump are symmetrical dense electrode layers made of the La0.8Sr0.2Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ (LSCF)–GDC composite. Studies carried out by impedance spectroscopy on planar samples showed that the polarization resistance of the dense electrodes was greatly lower (by 2.5–5 times) than that of standard porous LSCF electrodes. Microtubular oxygen pumps were fabricated by the isostatic pressing of a stack of tapes rolled into a tube and subsequent co-sintering. The use of a nanosized GDC powder as the initial material for the tapes allowed their co-sintering at 1200 °C. In such a way, the chemical interaction between GDC and LSCF was prevented. Samples of the prepared cells had an outer diameter of 1.9 and 3.5 mm, and the thickness of the electrolyte and of the dense supporting electrodes was 20 and 130 µm, respectively. The specific oxygen productivity of the cells was 0.29 L∙h−1∙cm−2 at 800 °C and a current density of 1.26 A·cm−2 (0.53 V). Thus, the energy consumption with the developed design for the production of 1 L of oxygen was 2.3 W∙h. The microtubular oxygen pumps appeared highly resistant to thermal shock. Full article
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15 pages, 6943 KiB  
Article
High-Pressure-Resistant Flexible Seven-in-One Microsensor Embedded in High-Pressure Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolyzer for Real-Time Microscopic Measurement
by Chi-Yuan Lee, Chia-Hung Chen, Shan-Yu Chen and Hsiao-Te Hsieh
Membranes 2022, 12(10), 919; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12100919 - 22 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
The high-pressure proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer (PEMWE) used for hydrogen production requires a high-operating voltage, which easily accelerates the decomposition of hydrogen molecules, resulting in the aging or failure of the high-pressure PEMWE. As the high-pressure PEMWE ages internally, uneven flow distribution [...] Read more.
The high-pressure proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer (PEMWE) used for hydrogen production requires a high-operating voltage, which easily accelerates the decomposition of hydrogen molecules, resulting in the aging or failure of the high-pressure PEMWE. As the high-pressure PEMWE ages internally, uneven flow distribution can lead to large temperature differences, reduced current density, flow plate corrosion, and carbon paper cracking. In this study, a new type of micro hydrogen sensor is developed with integrated flexible seven-in-one (voltage; current; temperature; humidity; flow; pressure; and hydrogen) microsensors. Full article
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13 pages, 2761 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Evaporation and Condensation Architectures for Solar-Driven Interfacial Evaporation Desalination
by Cheng Pan, Yawei Yang, Mingze Xie, Qingyuan Deng, Xiang Cheng, Xianlei Wang, Shihan Zhao, Yumeng Wei and Wenxiu Que
Membranes 2022, 12(9), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12090899 - 18 Sep 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2540
Abstract
Solar-driven interfacial evaporation is an ideal technology for seawater desalination, and the corresponding system is mainly composed of a solar evaporator and a condensing collector. The traditional scheme focuses on the evaporation efficiency of the evaporator. Still, it ignores the influence of condensing [...] Read more.
Solar-driven interfacial evaporation is an ideal technology for seawater desalination, and the corresponding system is mainly composed of a solar evaporator and a condensing collector. The traditional scheme focuses on the evaporation efficiency of the evaporator. Still, it ignores the influence of condensing collection scheme on the overall efficiency, which is one of the obstacles to the practical use of solar seawater desalination. Here, we reported a new solar-driven interfacial evaporation seawater desalination system by studying the influence of the condensation architecture, i.e., vapor flow by a fan and an air pump, sidewall material, transparent cover shape and material, evaporation level, and transparent cover heating, on the apparent collection efficiency of the system. The apparent collection efficiency was up to over 90% after optimization. This study is expected to promote the practical application of solar evaporation desalination technology. Full article
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