Special Issue "Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems"

A special issue of Medicines (ISSN 2305-6320).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pio Maria Furneri

Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences (BIOMETEC), University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: drug delivery systems; solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and other supramolecular carriers; intracellular distribution of antibiotics; enhancement of antibiotic spectrum of activity; probiotics
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Rosario Pignatello

Department of Drug Sciences, University of Catania, 95125 Catania, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: nanomedicine; lipid- and polymer-based nanoparticles; liposomes; prodrugs; controlled drug release; biomaterials; ocular drug delivery; brain drug delivery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

"Drug delivery" is understood as the development of alternative systems for controlled and/or targeted distribution of drugs in the body.  It can provide the opportunity to narrow the biological effects of a molecule directly to the target cell/tissue, by decreasing both the side effects and increasing its therapeutic efficacy, and, therefore, the intrinsic activity of a biomolecule.

Many studies in the literature have shown how both inefficiency and bioavailability can be addressed by improving one or the other, and in some cases both, through the use of specific colloidal (nanosized) carriers.

The purpose of this Special Issue will be to publish a series of original articles on sopramolecular drug delivery systems, with particular attention to new techniques of preparation and to all those new carrier systems used in modern pharmacotherapy of infectious and non-infectious diseases.

Technological aspects and proof-of-principle experimental findings will be accepted for this issue; however, papers dealing with in vivo data and pre-clinical or clinical transcriptional results will be highly welcomed.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Pio Maria Furneri
Prof. Dr. Rosario Pignatello
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Medicines is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 350 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nanomedicine
  • solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN)
  • nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC)
  • liposomes
  • lipid nanocarriers
  • nanoparticles
  • polymeric nanoparticles
  • intracellular distribution
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacodynamics

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Knockdown of Gene Expression in Macrophages by microRNA Mimic-Containing Poly (Lactic-co-glycolic Acid) Microparticles
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040133
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 10 December 2018 / Accepted: 14 December 2018 / Published: 15 December 2018
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Abstract
Background: microRNA (miRNA) regulate target gene expression through translational repression and/or mRNA degradation and are involved in the regulation of inflammation. Macrophages are key inflammatory cells that are important in chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Macrophage-expressed miRNA represent therapeutic [...] Read more.
Background: microRNA (miRNA) regulate target gene expression through translational repression and/or mRNA degradation and are involved in the regulation of inflammation. Macrophages are key inflammatory cells that are important in chronic inflammatory lung diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). Macrophage-expressed miRNA represent therapeutic drug targets, yet delivery of nucleic acids to macrophages has proved challenging. Methods: miRNAs were encapsulated in poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based microparticles using double emulsion solvent evaporation and characterised for physicochemical features. Phorbol myristic acetate (PMA)-differentiated U937 macrophages were transfected with empty PLGA microparticles or those encapsulating a premiR-19b-3p or scrambled control miRNA mimic. miRNA internalisation and knockdown of a miR-19b-3p target gene, secretory leucoprotease inhibitor (SLPI), were determined by qRT-PCR. Results: Microparticle formulations were consistently found to be 2–3μm and all had a negative ζ potential (−5 mV to −14 mV). Encapsulation efficiency of premiR-19b-3p was 37.6 ± 13.4%. Levels of mature miR-19b-3p were higher in macrophages after delivery of premiR-19b-3p microparticles compared to empty or scrambled control miRNA-containing microparticles. Significant SLPI knockdown was achieved 72 hours post-delivery of premiR-19b-3p microparticles compared to controls. Conclusions: miRNA-encapsulating PLGA microparticles offer a new treatment paradigm for delivery to macrophages that could potentially be administered to CF lungs via inhalation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Citrus limon Extract Loaded in Vesicular Systems for the Protection of Oral Cavity
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040108
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
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Abstract
Background: The nanoincorporation of the extract of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia into liposomes was aimed at improving its antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Methods: The extract of the rind of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia was obtained by maceration in ethanol, [...] Read more.
Background: The nanoincorporation of the extract of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia into liposomes was aimed at improving its antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Methods: The extract of the rind of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia was obtained by maceration in ethanol, evaporation, and freeze-drying. The extract phytochemical fingerprint was obtained by HPLC and mass spectrometry, and it was determined that gallic acid, neohesperidin, eriocitrin, and neoeriocitrin were the most abundant components. The freeze-dried extract was loaded in liposomes, glycerosomes, and penetration-enhancer-containing vesicles prepared with propylene glycol (PG-PEVs). Results: Capability of the vesicles of improving efficacy of the extract in counteracting oxidative stress was studied in vitro in keratinocytes, along with antimicrobial activity against planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis. Conclusion: Results showed that the vesicles, especially glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, prevented oxidative damage and cell death, and inhibited bacterial proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Oleic Acid Nanovesicles of Minoxidil for Enhanced Follicular Delivery
Medicines 2018, 5(3), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5030103
Received: 23 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current topical minoxidil (MXD) formulations involve an unpleasant organic solvent which causes patient incompliance in addition to side effects in some cases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop an MXD formulation providing enhanced follicular delivery and reduced side effects. Oleic [...] Read more.
Current topical minoxidil (MXD) formulations involve an unpleasant organic solvent which causes patient incompliance in addition to side effects in some cases. Therefore, the objective of this work was to develop an MXD formulation providing enhanced follicular delivery and reduced side effects. Oleic acid, being a safer material, was utilized to prepare the nanovesicles, which were characterized for size, entrapment efficiency, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, and morphology. The nanovesicles were incorporated into the emugel Sepineo® P 600 (2% w/v) to provide better longer contact time with the scalp and improve physical stability. The formulation was evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, and drug deposition studies. Follicular deposition of the vesicles was also evaluated using a differential tape stripping technique and elucidated using confocal microscopy. The optimum oleic acid vesicles measured particle size was 317 ± 4 nm, with high entrapment efficiency (69.08 ± 3.07%), narrow PDI (0.203 ± 0.01), and a negative zeta potential of −13.97 ± 0.451. The in vitro drug release showed the sustained release of MXD from vesicular gel. The skin permeation and deposition studies revealed superiority of the prepared MXD vesicular gel (0.2%) in terms of MXD deposition in the stratum corneum (SC) and remaining skin over MXD lotion (2%), with enhancement ratios of 3.0 and 4.0, respectively. The follicular deposition of MXD was 10-fold higher for vesicular gel than the control. Confocal microscopy also confirmed the higher absorption of rhodamine via vesicular gel into hair follicles as compared to the control. Overall, the current findings demonstrate the potential of oleic acid vesicles for effective targeted skin and follicular delivery of MXD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Green Nanotechnology: Advancement in Phytoformulation Research
Received: 30 November 2018 / Revised: 12 February 2019 / Accepted: 2 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1006 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ultimate goal of any scientific development is to increase well-being and human health. Novel strategies are required for the achievement of safe and effective therapeutic treatments beyond the conventional ones, and society needs new requirements for new technologies, moving towards clean and [...] Read more.
The ultimate goal of any scientific development is to increase well-being and human health. Novel strategies are required for the achievement of safe and effective therapeutic treatments beyond the conventional ones, and society needs new requirements for new technologies, moving towards clean and green technology development. Green nanotechnology is a branch of green technology that utilizes the concepts of green chemistry and green engineering. It reduces the use of energy and fuel by using less material and renewable inputs wherever possible. Green nanotechnology, in phytoformulations, significantly contributes to environmental sustainability through the production of nanomaterials and nanoproducts, without causing harm to human health or the environment. The rationale behind the utilization of plants in nanoparticle formulations is that they are easily available and possess a broad variability of metabolites, such as vitamins, antioxidants, and nucleotides. For instance, gold (Au) nanoparticles have attracted substantial attention for their controllable size, shape, and surface properties. A variety of copper (Cu) and copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles have also been synthesized from plant extracts. Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles are also important metal oxide nanomaterials that have been synthesized from a number of plant extracts. International and domestic laws, government and private-party programs, regulations and policies are being carefully reviewed and revised to increase their utility and nurture these nanoscale materials for commercialization. Inspiring debates and government initiatives are required to promote the sustainable use of nanoscale products. In this review, we will discuss the potential of the utilization of plant extracts in the advancement of nanotechnology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Promising Recent Strategies with Potential Clinical Translational Value to Combat Antibacterial Resistant Surge
Received: 6 December 2018 / Revised: 10 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 31 January 2019
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1411 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) for the treatment of bacterial infection has been a significant challenge since the beginning of the 21st century. Many of the small molecule-based antibiotic treatments have failed on numerous occasions due to a surge in MDR, which has claimed [...] Read more.
Multiple drug resistance (MDR) for the treatment of bacterial infection has been a significant challenge since the beginning of the 21st century. Many of the small molecule-based antibiotic treatments have failed on numerous occasions due to a surge in MDR, which has claimed millions of lives worldwide. Small particles (SPs) consisting of metal, polymer or carbon nanoparticles (NPs) of different sizes, shapes and forms have shown considerable antibacterial effect over the past two decades. Unlike the classical small-molecule antibiotics, the small particles are less exposed so far to the bacteria to trigger a resistance mechanism, and hence have higher chances of fighting the challenge of the MDR process. Until recently, there has been limited progress of clinical treatments using NPs, despite ample reports of in vitro antibacterial efficacy. In this review, we discuss some recent and unconventional strategies that have explored the antibacterial efficacy of these small particles, alone and in combination with classical small molecules in vivo, and demonstrate possibilities that are favorable for clinical translations in near future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Drug-Loaded Biocompatible Nanocarriers Embedded in Poloxamer 407 Hydrogels as Therapeutic Formulations
Received: 3 December 2018 / Revised: 19 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
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Abstract
Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers able to absorb and retain a considerable amount of water or biological fluid while maintaining their structure. Among these, thermo-sensitive hydrogels, characterized by a temperature-dependent sol–gel transition, have been massively used as drug delivery systems for [...] Read more.
Hydrogels are three-dimensional networks of hydrophilic polymers able to absorb and retain a considerable amount of water or biological fluid while maintaining their structure. Among these, thermo-sensitive hydrogels, characterized by a temperature-dependent sol–gel transition, have been massively used as drug delivery systems for the controlled release of various bioactives. Poloxamer 407 (P407) is an ABA-type triblock copolymer with a center block of hydrophobic polypropylene oxide (PPO) between two hydrophilic polyethyleneoxide (PEO) lateral chains. Due to its unique thermo-reversible gelation properties, P407 has been widely investigated as a temperature-responsive material. The gelation phenomenon of P407 aqueous solutions is reversible and characterized by a sol–gel transition temperature. The nanoencapsulation of drugs within biocompatible delivery systems dispersed in P407 hydrogels is a strategy used to increase the local residence time of various bioactives at the injection site. In this mini-review, the state of the art of the most important mixed systems made up of colloidal carriers localized within a P407 hydrogel will be provided in order to illustrate the possibility of obtaining a controlled release of the entrapped drugs and an increase in their therapeutic efficacy as a function of the biomaterial used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Amphiphilic Nanocarrier Systems for Curcumin Delivery in Neurodegenerative Disorders
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040126
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 23 November 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases have become a major challenge for public health because of their incurable status. Soft nanotechnology provides potential for slowing down the progression of neurodegenerative disorders by using innovative formulations of neuroprotective antioxidants like curcumin, resveratrol, vitamin E, rosmarinic acid, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, coenzyme [...] Read more.
Neurodegenerative diseases have become a major challenge for public health because of their incurable status. Soft nanotechnology provides potential for slowing down the progression of neurodegenerative disorders by using innovative formulations of neuroprotective antioxidants like curcumin, resveratrol, vitamin E, rosmarinic acid, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, coenzyme Q10, and fish oil. Curcumin is a natural, liposoluble compound, which is of considerable interest for nanomedicine development in combination therapies. The neuroprotective effects of combination treatments can involve restorative mechanisms against oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and protein aggregation. Despite the anti-amyloid and anti-tau potential of curcumin and its neurogenesis-stimulating properties, the utilization of this antioxidant as a drug in neuroregenerative therapies has huge limitations due to its poor water solubility, physico-chemical instability, and low oral bioavailability. We highlight the developments of soft lipid- and polymer-based delivery carriers of curcumin, which help improve the drug solubility and stability. We specifically focus on amphiphilic liquid crystalline nanocarriers (cubosome, hexosome, spongosome, and liposome particles) for the encapsulation of curcumin with the purpose of halting the progressive neuronal loss in Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Open AccessReview
Checkpoint Inhibition: Will Combination with Radiotherapy and Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery Improve Efficacy?
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040114
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (935 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Checkpoint inhibition (CPI) has been a rare success story in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Knowledge gleaned from preclinical studies and patients that do not respond to these therapies suggest that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and establishment of immunostimulatory conditions, prior to [...] Read more.
Checkpoint inhibition (CPI) has been a rare success story in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Knowledge gleaned from preclinical studies and patients that do not respond to these therapies suggest that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and establishment of immunostimulatory conditions, prior to CPI treatment, are required for efficacy of CPI. To this end, radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to promote immunogenic cell-death-mediated tumor-antigen release, increase infiltration and cross-priming of T cells, and decreasing immunosuppressive milieu in the tumor microenvironment, hence allowing CPI to take effect. Preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the combination of RT with CPI have been shown to overcome the resistance to either therapy alone. Additionally, nanoparticle and liposome-mediated delivery of checkpoint inhibitors has been shown to overcome toxicities and improve therapeutic efficacy, providing a rationale for clinical investigations of nanoparticle, microparticle, and liposomal delivery of checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the preclinical and clinical studies of combined RT and CPI therapies in various cancers, and review findings from studies that evaluated nanoparticle and liposomal delivery of checkpoint inhibitors for cancer treatments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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