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Citrus limon Extract Loaded in Vesicular Systems for the Protection of Oral Cavity

Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Cagliari, 09123 Cagliari, Italy
Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgical Sciences, University of Sassari, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Institute of Science of Food Production UOS Sassari–CNR, 07100 Sassari, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 108;
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 14 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Background: The nanoincorporation of the extract of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia into liposomes was aimed at improving its antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Methods: The extract of the rind of Citrus limon (L.) Osbeck var. pompia was obtained by maceration in ethanol, evaporation, and freeze-drying. The extract phytochemical fingerprint was obtained by HPLC and mass spectrometry, and it was determined that gallic acid, neohesperidin, eriocitrin, and neoeriocitrin were the most abundant components. The freeze-dried extract was loaded in liposomes, glycerosomes, and penetration-enhancer-containing vesicles prepared with propylene glycol (PG-PEVs). Results: Capability of the vesicles of improving efficacy of the extract in counteracting oxidative stress was studied in vitro in keratinocytes, along with antimicrobial activity against planktonic cultures of Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Streptococcus sanguinis. Conclusion: Results showed that the vesicles, especially glycerosomes and PG-PEVs, prevented oxidative damage and cell death, and inhibited bacterial proliferation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus extract; antioxidant; antimicrobial; phospholipid vesicles; oxidative stress Citrus extract; antioxidant; antimicrobial; phospholipid vesicles; oxidative stress

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Manconi, M.; Manca, M.L.; Caddeo, C.; Sarais, G.; Palmieri, A.; D’Hallewin, G.; Fadda, A.M. Citrus limon Extract Loaded in Vesicular Systems for the Protection of Oral Cavity. Medicines 2018, 5, 108.

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