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Checkpoint Inhibition: Will Combination with Radiotherapy and Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery Improve Efficacy?

1
LECOM School of Dental Medicine, 4800 Lakewood Ranch Blvd, Bradenton, FL 34211, USA
2
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2018, 5(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/medicines5040114
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 17 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticle and Liposome based Novel Drug Delivery Systems)
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Abstract

Checkpoint inhibition (CPI) has been a rare success story in the field of cancer immunotherapy. Knowledge gleaned from preclinical studies and patients that do not respond to these therapies suggest that the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and establishment of immunostimulatory conditions, prior to CPI treatment, are required for efficacy of CPI. To this end, radiation therapy (RT) has been shown to promote immunogenic cell-death-mediated tumor-antigen release, increase infiltration and cross-priming of T cells, and decreasing immunosuppressive milieu in the tumor microenvironment, hence allowing CPI to take effect. Preclinical and clinical studies evaluating the combination of RT with CPI have been shown to overcome the resistance to either therapy alone. Additionally, nanoparticle and liposome-mediated delivery of checkpoint inhibitors has been shown to overcome toxicities and improve therapeutic efficacy, providing a rationale for clinical investigations of nanoparticle, microparticle, and liposomal delivery of checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the preclinical and clinical studies of combined RT and CPI therapies in various cancers, and review findings from studies that evaluated nanoparticle and liposomal delivery of checkpoint inhibitors for cancer treatments. View Full-Text
Keywords: checkpoint inhibition; radiation therapy; resistance to therapy; biomarkers; combination therapy; liposomes; nanoparticles; PD-1; CTLA-4 checkpoint inhibition; radiation therapy; resistance to therapy; biomarkers; combination therapy; liposomes; nanoparticles; PD-1; CTLA-4
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Lamichhane, P.; Amin, N.P.; Agarwal, M.; Lamichhane, N. Checkpoint Inhibition: Will Combination with Radiotherapy and Nanoparticle-Mediated Delivery Improve Efficacy? Medicines 2018, 5, 114.

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