Special Issue "Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (8 October 2021) | Viewed by 11131

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Natalia P Mishchenko
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
G. B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
Interests: natural product chemistry; chromatography; extraction; bioactivity; natural product drug discovery; drug development
Dr. Elena A. Vasileva
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
G. B. Elyakov Pacific Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russian Federation
Interests: natural product chemistry; chromatography; natural product isolation; phytochemicals; bioactivity; antioxidant activity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Diverse quinonoid compounds are widespread in nature and have been found in plants, lichens, fungi and bacteria, as well as in members of the animal kingdom—in particular, in representatives of Echinodermata phylum. Around forty naphthoquinone pigments called spinochromes have been found in echinoderms, mainly in sea urchins, but occasionally in holothuroids, ophiuroids and sea stars. Although the biochemistry of echinoderms quinonoid pigments has been studied for more than 100 years, many questions still remain. Nowadays, with the appearance of advanced, rapid and accurate methodologies, investigations of echinoderms pigments have increased, as is clear from the growth in publications in the last decade.

In this Special Issue of Marine Drugs, we aim to present the latest research on the quinones of sea urchins. Authors are invited to submit papers detailing their latest discoveries and to settle controversies in existing data on the structures, biosynthesis, distribution, functions, stability, bioactivity and biomedical applications of echinoderm quinonoid metabolites.

Dr. Natalia P Mishchenko
Dr. Elena A. Vasileva
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Echinodermata
  • quinones
  • spinochromes
  • identification
  • structure elucidation
  • biosynthesis
  • biological function
  • biological activity

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Article
Echinochrome A Treatment Alleviates Atopic Dermatitis-like Skin Lesions in NC/Nga Mice via IL-4 and IL-13 Suppression
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(11), 622; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19110622 - 01 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1654
Abstract
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which skin barrier dysfunction leads to dryness, pruritus, and erythematous lesions. AD is triggered by immune imbalance and oxidative stress. Echinochrome A (Ech A), a natural pigment isolated from sea urchins, exerts antioxidant [...] Read more.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease in which skin barrier dysfunction leads to dryness, pruritus, and erythematous lesions. AD is triggered by immune imbalance and oxidative stress. Echinochrome A (Ech A), a natural pigment isolated from sea urchins, exerts antioxidant and beneficial effects in various inflammatory disease models. In the present study, we tested whether Ech A treatment alleviated AD-like skin lesions. We examined the anti-inflammatory effect of Ech A on 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like lesions in an NC/Nga mouse model. AD-like skin symptoms were induced by treatment with 1% DNCB for 1 week and 0.4% DNCB for 5 weeks in NC/Nga mice. The results showed that Ech A alleviated AD clinical symptoms, such as edema, erythema, and dryness. Treatment with Ech A induced the recovery of epidermis skin lesions as observed histologically. Tewameter® and Corneometer® measurements indicated that Ech A treatment reduced transepidermal water loss and improved stratum corneum hydration, respectively. Ech A treatment also inhibited inflammatory-response-induced mast cell infiltration in AD-like skin lesions and suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ, interleukin-4, and interleukin-13. Collectively, these results suggest that Ech A may be beneficial for treating AD owing to its anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Article
Echinochrome A Protects against Ultraviolet B-induced Photoaging by Lowering Collagen Degradation and Inflammatory Cell Infiltration in Hairless Mice
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(10), 550; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19100550 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
Echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has been carried out on the efficacy of Ech A against skin photoaging; this process is largely mediated by oxidative stress. Six-week-old male SKH-1 hairless mice [...] Read more.
Echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) has been known to exhibit anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. However, no study has been carried out on the efficacy of Ech A against skin photoaging; this process is largely mediated by oxidative stress. Six-week-old male SKH-1 hairless mice (n = 36) were divided into five groups. Except for a group that were not treated (n = 4), all mice underwent ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure for 8 weeks while applying phosphate-buffered saline or Ech A through intraperitoneal injection. UVB impaired skin barrier function, showing increased transepidermal water loss and decreased stratum corneum hydration. UVB induced dermal collagen degeneration and mast cell infiltration. Ech A injection was found to significantly lower transepidermal water loss while attenuating tissue inflammatory changes and collagen degeneration compared to the control. Furthermore, Ech A was found to decrease the relative expression of matrix metalloproteinase, tryptase, and chymase. Taken together, these results suggest that Ech A protects against UVB-induced photoaging in both functional and histologic aspects, causing a lowering of collagen degradation and inflammatory cell infiltration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Article
Echinochrome A Treatment Alleviates Fibrosis and Inflammation in Bleomycin-Induced Scleroderma
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050237 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease caused by the abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis and is activated by non-regulated inflammatory cells and cytokines. Echinochrome A (EchA), a natural pigment isolated from sea urchins, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant activities and beneficial effects [...] Read more.
Scleroderma is an autoimmune disease caused by the abnormal regulation of extracellular matrix synthesis and is activated by non-regulated inflammatory cells and cytokines. Echinochrome A (EchA), a natural pigment isolated from sea urchins, has been demonstrated to have antioxidant activities and beneficial effects in various disease models. The present study demonstrates for the first time that EchA treatment alleviates bleomycin-induced scleroderma by normalizing dermal thickness and suppressing collagen deposition in vivo. EchA treatment reduces the number of activated myofibroblasts expressing α-SMA, vimentin, and phosphorylated Smad3 in bleomycin-induced scleroderma. In addition, it decreased the number of macrophages, including M1 and M2 types in the affected skin, suggesting the induction of an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, EchA treatment markedly attenuated serum levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, in a murine scleroderma model. Taken together, these results suggest that EchA is highly useful for the treatment of scleroderma, exerting anti-fibrosis and anti-inflammatory effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Article
Spinochrome Identification and Quantification in Pacific Sea Urchin Shells, Coelomic Fluid and Eggs Using HPLC-DAD-MS
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19010021 - 06 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1772
Abstract
The high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detector (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for quinonoid pigment identification and quantification in sea urchin samples was developed and validated. The composition and quantitative ratio of the quinonoid pigments of the shells of 16 [...] Read more.
The high-performance liquid chromatography method coupled with diode array and mass spectrometric detector (HPLC-DAD-MS) method for quinonoid pigment identification and quantification in sea urchin samples was developed and validated. The composition and quantitative ratio of the quinonoid pigments of the shells of 16 species of sea urchins, collected in the temperate (Sea of Japan) and tropical (South-China Sea) climatic zones of the Pacific Ocean over several years, were studied. The compositions of the quinonoid pigments of sea urchins Maretia planulata, Scaphechinus griseus, Laganum decagonale and Phyllacanthus imperialis were studied for the first time. A study of the composition of the quinonoid pigments of the coelomic fluid of ten species of sea urchins was conducted. The composition of quinonoid pigments of Echinarachnius parma jelly-like egg membrane, of Scaphechinus mirabilis developing embryos and pluteus, was reported for the first time. In the case of Scaphechinus mirabilis, we have shown that the compositions of pigment granules of the shell epidermis, coelomic fluid, egg membrane, developing embryos and pluteus are different, which should enable a fuller understanding of the functions of pigments at different stages of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Review

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Review
Multifaceted Clinical Effects of Echinochrome
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(8), 412; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19080412 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1693
Abstract
The marine drug histochrome is a special natural antioxidant. The active substance of the drug is echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), the most abundant quinonoid pigment in sea urchins. The medicine is clinically used in cardiology and ophthalmology based on the unique properties [...] Read more.
The marine drug histochrome is a special natural antioxidant. The active substance of the drug is echinochrome A (Ech A, 7-ethyl-2,3,5,6,8-pentahydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone), the most abundant quinonoid pigment in sea urchins. The medicine is clinically used in cardiology and ophthalmology based on the unique properties of Ech A, which simultaneously block various links of free radical reactions. In the last decade, numerous studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of histochrome in various disease models without adverse effects. Here, we review the data on the various clinical effects and modes of action of Ech A in ophthalmic, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, inflammatory, metabolic, and malignant diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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Review
Sea Urchin Pigments: Echinochrome A and Its Potential Implication in the Cytokine Storm Syndrome
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050267 - 11 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1954
Abstract
Background: Echinochrome A (EchA) is a pigment from sea urchins. EchA is a polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinone that contains several hydroxyl groups appropriate for free-radical scavenging and preventing redox imbalance. EchA is the most studied molecule of this family and is an active principle [...] Read more.
Background: Echinochrome A (EchA) is a pigment from sea urchins. EchA is a polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinone that contains several hydroxyl groups appropriate for free-radical scavenging and preventing redox imbalance. EchA is the most studied molecule of this family and is an active principle approved to be used in humans, usually for cardiopathies and glaucoma. EchA is used as a pharmaceutical drug. Methods: A comprehensive literature and patent search review was undertaken using PubMed, as well as Google Scholar and Espacenet search engines to review these areas. Conclusions: In the bloodstream, EchA can mediate cellular responses, act as a radical scavenger, and activate the glutathione pathway. It decreases ROS imbalance, prevents and limits lipid peroxidation, and enhances mitochondrial functions. Most importantly, EchA contributes to the modulation of the immune system. EchA can regulate the generation of regulatory T cells, inhibit pro-inflammatory IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine production, while slightly reducing IL-8, TNF-α, INF-α, and NKT, thus correcting immune imbalance. These characteristics suggest that EchA is a candidate drug to alleviate the cytokine storm syndrome (CSS). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quinonoid Pigments of Echinoderms)
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