Special Issue "Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2020) | Viewed by 11514

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. You-Jin Jeon
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Department of Marine Life Sciences, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
2. Marine Science Institute, Jeju National University, Jeju 63333, Korea
Interests: marine organism; natural products; metabolic diseases; prevention or improvement of disorders; signaling pathways; diabetes; obesity; hypertension; inflammation; isulin resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. BoMi Ryu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Marine Life Science, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
Interests: metabolic diseases; peptide; anti-obesity; anti-diabetic; inflammation; isulin resistance
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,                

Metabolism is the process in the body to get nutrition and bioenergy from the food you eat by breaking it down into smaller molecules such as amino acids, sugars, and acids. When an abnormal processing to the digestive reaction is exposed, metabolic diseases occur, leading to disorders of certain organs such as the liver, pancreas, and blood vessels. Some examples of metabolic diseases are diabetes, hypertension, obesity, high cholesterols, fatty lipids, and cardiovascular disease. Marine natural products, including polyphenols, terpenoids, polyketides, alkaloids, sterols, and pigments, as well as carbohydrates, poly unsaturated fatty acids, and peptides, can prevent these metabolic diseases or improve patients’ condition.    

This Special Issue is aimed at introducing the bioactivities of marine natural products to prevent metabolic diseases or improve patients’ condition.

As the guest Editor, I would like to invite scientists to submit their latest research findings in this area, especially marine natural products that target metabolic diseases.

Prof. Dr. You-Jin Jeon
Prof. Dr. BoMi Ryu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • marine natural products
  • antidiabetes
  • antihypertension
  • antiobesity
  • anti-inflammation
  • antioxidant
  • anti-
  • antimicrobial
  • immunomodulation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Shrimp Oil Extracted from Shrimp Processing By-Product Is a Rich Source of Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin-Esters, and Reveals Potential Anti-Adipogenic Effects in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(5), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19050259 - 30 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2386
Abstract
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, generates tons of shrimp processing by-product every year. Shrimp contains omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and astaxanthin (Astx), a potent antioxidant that exists in either free or esterified form (Astx-E). In this study, shrimp oil [...] Read more.
The province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, generates tons of shrimp processing by-product every year. Shrimp contains omega (n)-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and astaxanthin (Astx), a potent antioxidant that exists in either free or esterified form (Astx-E). In this study, shrimp oil (SO) was extracted from the shrimp processing by-product using the Soxhlet method (hexane:acetone 2:3). The extracted SO was rich in phospholipids, n-3 PUFA, and Astx-E. The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated to mature adipocytes in the presence or absence of various treatments for 8 days. The effects of SO were then investigated on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. The effects of fish oil (FO), in combination with Astx-E, on fat accumulation, and the mRNA expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis were also investigated. The SO decreased fat accumulation, compared to untreated cells, which coincided with lower mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes. However, FO and FO + Astx-E increased fat accumulation, along with increased mRNA expression of adipogenic and lipogenic genes, and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut-4), compared to untreated cells. These findings have demonstrated that the SO is a rich source of n-3 PUFA and Astx-E, and has the potential to elicit anti-adipogenic effects. Moreover, the SO and FO appear to regulate adipogenesis and lipogenesis via independent pathways in 3T3-L1 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases)
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Article
Lipid Inhibitory Effect of (−)-loliolide Isolated from Sargassum horneri in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes: Inhibitory Mechanism of Adipose-Specific Proteins
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19020096 - 08 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) is a well-known brown seaweed widely distributed worldwide. Several biological activities of S. horneri have been reported. However, its effects on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory [...] Read more.
Sargassum horneri (S. horneri) is a well-known brown seaweed widely distributed worldwide. Several biological activities of S. horneri have been reported. However, its effects on lipid metabolism and the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effect of the active compound “(−)-loliolide ((6S,7aR)-6-hydroxy-4,4,7a-trimethyl-5,6,7,7a-tetrahydro-1-benzofuran-2(4H)-one (HTT))” from S. horneri extract on lipid accumulation in differentiated adipocytes. MTT assays demonstrated that (−)-loliolide is not toxic to 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a range of concentrations. (−)-loliolide significantly reduced intracellular lipid accumulation in the differentiated phase of 3T3-L1 adipocytes as shown by Oil Red O staining. Western blot analysis revealed that (−)-loliolide increased the expression of lipolytic protein phospho-hormone-sensitive lipase (p-HSL) and thermogenic protein peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1). Additionally, (−)-loliolide decreased expression of adipogenic and lipogenic proteins, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), and fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. These results indicate that (−)-loliolide from S. horneri could suppress lipid accumulation via regulation of antiadipogenic and prolipolytic mechanisms in 3T3-L1 cells. Considering the multifunctional effect of (−)-loliolide, it can be useful as a lipid-lowering agent in the management of patients who suffer from obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases)
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Article
Herring Milt and Herring Milt Protein Hydrolysate Are Equally Effective in Improving Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Beta-Cell Function in Diet-Induced Obese- and Insulin-Resistant Mice
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(12), 635; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120635 - 11 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1572
Abstract
Although genetic predisposition influences the onset and progression of insulin resistance and diabetes, dietary nutrients are critical. In general, protein is beneficial relative to carbohydrate and fat but dependent on protein source. Our recent study demonstrated that 70% replacement of dietary casein protein [...] Read more.
Although genetic predisposition influences the onset and progression of insulin resistance and diabetes, dietary nutrients are critical. In general, protein is beneficial relative to carbohydrate and fat but dependent on protein source. Our recent study demonstrated that 70% replacement of dietary casein protein with the equivalent quantity of protein derived from herring milt protein hydrolysate (HMPH; herring milt with proteins being enzymatically hydrolyzed) significantly improved insulin resistance and glucose homeostasis in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. As production of protein hydrolysate increases the cost of the product, it is important to determine whether a simply dried and ground herring milt product possesses similar benefits. Therefore, the current study was conducted to investigate the effect of herring milt dry powder (HMDP) on glucose control and the associated metabolic phenotypes and further to compare its efficacy with HMPH. Male C57BL/6J mice on a high-fat diet for 7 weeks were randomized based on body weight and blood glucose into three groups. One group continued on the high-fat diet and was used as the insulin-resistant/diabetic control and the other two groups were given the high-fat diet modified to have 70% of casein protein being replaced with the same amount of protein from HMDP or HMPH. A group of mice on a low-fat diet all the time was used as the normal control. The results demonstrated that mice on the high-fat diet increased weight gain and showed higher blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, and leptin, as well as impaired glucose tolerance and pancreatic β-cell function relative to those on the normal control diet. In comparison with the high-fat diet, the replacement of 70% dietary casein protein with the same amount of HMDP or HMPH protein decreased weight gain and significantly improved the aforementioned biomarkers, insulin sensitivity or resistance, and β-cell function. The HMDP and HMPH showed similar effects on every parameter except blood lipids where HMDP decreased total cholesterol and non-HDL-cholesterol levels while the effect of HMPH was not significant. The results demonstrate that substituting 70% of dietary casein protein with the equivalent amount of HMDP or HMPH protein protects against obesity and diabetes, and HMDP is also beneficial to cholesterol homeostasis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases)
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Review

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Review
Seaweeds and Their Natural Products for Preventing Cardiovascular Associated Dysfunction
Mar. Drugs 2021, 19(9), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/md19090507 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2107
Abstract
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the onset and exacerbation of various conditions including dyslipidemia, activation of the renin–angiotensin system, vascular endothelial cell damage, and oxidative stress, is a leading cause of high mortality rates and accounts for one-third of deaths worldwide. Accordingly, as [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), which involves the onset and exacerbation of various conditions including dyslipidemia, activation of the renin–angiotensin system, vascular endothelial cell damage, and oxidative stress, is a leading cause of high mortality rates and accounts for one-third of deaths worldwide. Accordingly, as dietary changes in daily life are thought to greatly reduce the prevalence of CVD, numerous studies have been conducted to examine the potential use of foods and their bioactive components for preventing and treating CVD. In particular, seaweeds contain unique bioactive metabolites that are not found in terrestrial plants because of the harsh environment in which they survive, leading to in vitro and in vivo studies of their prevention and treatment effects. This review summarizes studies that focused on the beneficial effects of seaweeds and their natural products targeting markers involved in a cascade of mechanisms related to CVD pathogenesis. The purpose of this review is to describe the potential of seaweeds and their natural products for preventing and treating CVD based on in vivo and in vitro studies. This review provides a basis for future research in the field of marine drugs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases)
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Review
Are There Any Beneficial Effects of Spirulina Supplementation for Metabolic Syndrome Components in Postmenopausal Women?
Mar. Drugs 2020, 18(12), 651; https://doi.org/10.3390/md18120651 - 17 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3032
Abstract
Spirulina is a phytosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium with microscopic dimensions, which naturally grows in the highly-salted alkaline lakes of Africa, Mexico, America, and Asia. Several bioactive peptides extracted from Spirulina were demonstrated to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiallergic and antihypertensive properties. It has [...] Read more.
Spirulina is a phytosynthetic filamentous cyanobacterium with microscopic dimensions, which naturally grows in the highly-salted alkaline lakes of Africa, Mexico, America, and Asia. Several bioactive peptides extracted from Spirulina were demonstrated to possess antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, immunomodulatory, antiallergic and antihypertensive properties. It has been reported that the consumption of Spirulina could prevent or manage metabolic syndrome components. In women, metabolic disorders are more prevalent during menopause. Postmenopausal women present higher waist circumference, increased blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and decreased HDL-cholesterol values, leading to an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases, it is essential to manage the components of the metabolic syndrome during the postmenopausal period. As recent reports indicated the efficiency of Spirulina supplementation in the management of the metabolic syndrome components, our study aims to review all the clinical trials conducted on this topic. Our main objective is to have a better understanding of whether and how this cyanobacterium could manage the abnormalities included in the metabolic syndrome and if it could be used as a therapeutic approach in postmenopausal women with this condition. We selected relevant articles from PubMed, Google Scholar and CrossRef databases, and a total number of 20 studies met our criteria. All included clinical trials indicated that Spirulina has positive effects in managing metabolic syndrome components. Spirulina is a valuable cyanobacterium that can be used as a food supplement for the management of metabolic syndrome, and it is able to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events. The optimal dose and period of administration remain a debated subject, and future investigations are required. Considering the beneficial effects reported against each component of the metabolic syndrome, Spirulina could also be effective in the postmenopausal period, when this syndrome is the most prevalent, but there is a strong need for human clinical trials in order to sustain this observation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Natural Products That Target Metabolic Diseases)
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