Tribology in Metal Forming

A special issue of Lubricants (ISSN 2075-4442).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2018) | Viewed by 27482

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronic and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia
Interests: numerical simulation of metal forming; tribology in metal forming; multi-scale materials processing; advanced rolling technology; microforming; manufacturing of composites; contact mechanics; friction and wear in manufacturing; lubrication technology; development of novel lubricants
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo, NSW 2007, Australia
Interests: micro forming; numerical modeling of material processing; tribology in metal forming; advanced materials testing technology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metal forming is the metalworking process of fashioning metal parts and objects through mechanical deformation. The workpiece is reshaped without adding or removing material, and its mass remains unchanged. Forming operates on the materials science principle of plastic deformation, where the physical shape of a material is permanently deformed. The ability to produce a variety of shapes from a block of metal at high rates of production has been one of the real technological advances of the current century. With these forming processes, it is possible to mechanically deform metal into a final shape with minimal material removal. The use of metal forming processes is widely spread over many different industries.

Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction, lubrication and wear. Tribology plays an important role in metal forming operations. Friction between metal and forming tools has essential influence on the process performance and on the final product properties. Friction increases tool wear and the power required to work a piece. This results in increased costs due to more frequent tool replacement, loss of tolerance as tool dimensions shift, and greater forces required to shape a piece. The use of lubricants which minimise direct surface contact reduces tool wear and power requirements.

This Special Issue aims the latest research on tribology in metal forming. Contributions are welcome from both academic researchers and their industrial peers dealing with various issues of tribology in metal forming including bulk forming, sheet forming, micro forming, powder process, etc.

Prof. Zhengyi Jiang
Dr. Dongbin Wei
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Tribology
  • Metal Forming
  • Rolling
  • Forging
  • Extrusion
  • Wire and Bar Drawing
  • Sheet Forming
  • Micro Forming
  • Powder Process

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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15 pages, 6360 KiB  
Article
Performance Evaluation and Lubrication Mechanism of Water-Based Nanolubricants Containing Nano-TiO2 in Hot Steel Rolling
by Hui Wu, Jingwei Zhao, Liang Luo, Shuiquan Huang, Lianzhou Wang, Suoquan Zhang, Sihai Jiao, Han Huang and Zhengyi Jiang
Lubricants 2018, 6(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants6030057 - 2 Jul 2018
Cited by 29 | Viewed by 8031
Abstract
Hot rolling tests of a low-alloy steel were conducted at a rolling temperature of 850 °C under different lubrication conditions, including benchmarks (dry condition and water) and water-based nanolubricants containing different concentrations of nano-TiO2 from 1.0 to 8.0 wt%. The effects of [...] Read more.
Hot rolling tests of a low-alloy steel were conducted at a rolling temperature of 850 °C under different lubrication conditions, including benchmarks (dry condition and water) and water-based nanolubricants containing different concentrations of nano-TiO2 from 1.0 to 8.0 wt%. The effects of nanolubricants on rolling force, surface roughness, thickness of oxide scale, and microstructure were systematically investigated through varying nano-TiO2 concentrations. The results show that the application of nanolubricants can decrease the rolling force, surface roughness and oxide scale thickness of rolled steels, and refine ferrite grains. In particular, the nanolubricant containing an optimal concentration (4.0 wt%) of nano-TiO2 demonstrates the best lubrication performance, owing to the synergistic effect of lubricating film, rolling, polishing, and mending generated by nano-TiO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Metal Forming)
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12 pages, 3362 KiB  
Article
Development of a Constitutive Model for Friction in Bulk Metal Forming
by Marco Lüchinger, Igor Velkavrh, Kerstin Kern, Michael Baumgartner, Stefan Klien, Alexander Diem, Michael Schreiner and Wolfgang Tillmann
Lubricants 2018, 6(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants6020042 - 28 Apr 2018
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 4504
Abstract
This paper presents a systematic procedure for the development of a constitutive model of friction with focus on the application in bulk metal forming simulations. The empirically based friction model describes friction as a function of sliding distance and the most relevant friction [...] Read more.
This paper presents a systematic procedure for the development of a constitutive model of friction with focus on the application in bulk metal forming simulations. The empirically based friction model describes friction as a function of sliding distance and the most relevant friction influencing parameters. The latter were determined by means of designed experiments. An optimal friction model is obtained as a trade-off between model accuracy and complexity by using stepwise nonlinear regression and a modified version of the Akaike information criterion. Within this study, the procedure is applied to determine a friction model for tube drawing. However, the same approach can also be used for modeling friction of any other bulk metal forming process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Metal Forming)
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13 pages, 6291 KiB  
Article
Influence of Test Stand and Contact Size Sensitivity on the Friction Coefficient in Sheet Metal Forming
by Viktor Recklin, Florian Dietrich and Peter Groche
Lubricants 2018, 6(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants6020041 - 27 Apr 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 5847
Abstract
The precise knowledge of frictional behavior is highly relevant for accurate modelling in sheet metal forming simulations. This allows e.g., the precise prediction of restraining forces which, in turn, determines an optimal draw bead strategy and blank-texture-development for automotive components. As a result, [...] Read more.
The precise knowledge of frictional behavior is highly relevant for accurate modelling in sheet metal forming simulations. This allows e.g., the precise prediction of restraining forces which, in turn, determines an optimal draw bead strategy and blank-texture-development for automotive components. As a result, tryout loops can be avoided and thus production costs can be reduced. Nevertheless, the benefit of this detailed friction description is often ignored by the use of a constant friction coefficient. Finding a practical solution has motivated numerous research projects in recent decades. In this context, many efforts have been made to develop test stands to gain a better understanding of friction and to determine load-dependent friction coefficients for simulations. However, different test stands for friction investigation show a big quantitative difference in friction value which makes the direct use of the values in finite element simulation questionable. Therefore, the focus of this paper is to compare two different common strip drawing tests and detect the sources of deviation. In particular, the influence of the contact area between tool and blank is investigated. The results indicate that while the effect of the different test stands is negligible, a high dependency of the friction coefficient on the contact area was shown. This phenomenon is caused by macroscopic lubricant distribution over the contact area, which varies according to the size of the tools. The results show a potential field of research in categorizing different friction test stands and resolving the issue of quantitative non-comparable coefficients of friction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Metal Forming)
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Review

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19 pages, 7606 KiB  
Review
Electron Microscopy and Spectroscopy in the Analysis of Friction and Wear Mechanisms
by Quanshun Luo
Lubricants 2018, 6(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/lubricants6030058 - 4 Jul 2018
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 7323
Abstract
Friction and wear take place on two solid surfaces in sliding contact as a result of the mechanical, thermal, and chemical interactions with the participation of environmental species. These interactions lead to the formation of a tribo-layer or tribofilm, which attaches on the [...] Read more.
Friction and wear take place on two solid surfaces in sliding contact as a result of the mechanical, thermal, and chemical interactions with the participation of environmental species. These interactions lead to the formation of a tribo-layer or tribofilm, which attaches on the worn surfaces, and consequently, contributes to the variation of the friction and wear behaviour. Electron microscopy and the associated spectroscopic analyses are powerful in probing these matters in spatial resolutions from micro to atomic scale. This article provides a review of the author’s work in the wear and friction mechanisms of physical vapour deposition (PVD) hard coatings, in which various scanning electron microscope (SEM)- and transmission electron microscope (TEM)-based microscopic and spectroscopic techniques were employed. Understanding on the failure mechanisms and the origin of self-adaptive friction has been improved to the nano-scale. Other related issues are also discussed, such as sample preparation techniques for cross-sectional electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tribology in Metal Forming)
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