Special Issue "Measuring or Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Land Use"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 September 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Matt Bell
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
The University of Nottingham, School of Biosciences, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, LE12 5RD, UK
Interests: Agricultural Systems; greenhouse gas emissions; climate impacts; breeding; nutrition; health and welfare; livestock systems
Dr. Matthew Harrison
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, University of Tasmania, 16-20 Mooreville Rd, Burnie,Tasmania, Australia, 7320
Interests: modelling; photosynthesis, dual-purpose crops; climate change; extreme climatic events; pastures; livestock
Prof. Heinz Flessa
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Soil Science of Temperate and Boreal Ecosystems, Georg August University of Göttingen, Büsgenweg 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Interests: Carbon and nitrogen dynamics in soils; Soils as sources and sinks of greenhouse gases; Effects of land use and climate change on; element dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems; Stable isotopes in soil ecological research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue will present current research regarding the measurement and modelling of greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural production, including land used for crops, livestock, grassland and woodland. Considerable research into sources and sinks of emissions from agriculture has been carried out in recent years to improve our ability to quantify emissions and to assess mitigation options at the farm level. Loss of carbon in the form of methane or carbon dioxide, and nitrogen in the form of nitrous oxide, are pollutants associated with global warming and climate change. Agriculture is a notable source of enteric methane emissions from ruminant livestock, as well as methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure and land. Alternatively, grassland or woodland areas can provide an opportunity to sequester atmospheric carbon. Papers exploring these dynamics associated with agricultural land use are welcomed.

Developments in gas monitoring and modelling capabilities now provide new insights into land management options for reduced greenhouse gas emissions for more sustainable food production systems. Papers should cover some aspect of measuring or modelling gas emissions at the farm level.

Dr. Matt Bell
Dr. Matthew Harrison
Prof. Heinz Flessa
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Denitrification Rate and Its Potential to Predict Biogenic N2O Field Emissions in a Mediterranean Maize-Cropped Soil in Southern Italy
Land 2019, 8(6), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8060097 - 17 Jun 2019
Abstract
The denitrification rate in C2H2-amended intact soil cores and soil N2O fluxes in closed static chambers were monitored in a Mediterranean irrigated maize-cropped field. The measurements were carried out during: (i) a standard fertilization management (SFM) activity [...] Read more.
The denitrification rate in C2H2-amended intact soil cores and soil N2O fluxes in closed static chambers were monitored in a Mediterranean irrigated maize-cropped field. The measurements were carried out during: (i) a standard fertilization management (SFM) activity and (ii) a manipulation experimental (ME) test on the effects of increased and reduced application rates of urea at the late fertilization. In the course of the SFM, the irrigations following early and late nitrogen fertilization led to pulses of denitrification rates (up to 1300 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1) and N2O fluxes (up to 320 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1), thanks to the combined action of high soil temperatures and not limiting nitrates and water filled pore space (WFPS). During the ME, high soil nitrates were noted in all the treatments in the first one month after the late fertilization, which promoted marked N-losses by microbial denitrification (from 500 to 1800 μg N2O-N m−2 h−1) every time the soil WFPS was not limiting. At similar maize yield responses to fertilizer treatments, this result suggested no competition for N between plant roots and soil microbial community and indicated a probable surplus of nitrogen fertilizer input at the investigated farm. Correlation and regression analyses (CRA) on the whole set of data showed significant relations between both the denitrification rates and the N2O fluxes with three soil physical-chemical parameters: nitrate concentration, WFPS and temperature. Specifically, the response functions of denitrification rate to soil nitrates, WFPS and temperature could be satisfactorily modelled according to simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic, exponential and linear functions, respectively. Furthermore, the CRA demonstrated a significant exponential relationship between N2O fluxes and denitrification and simple empirical functions to predict N2O emissions from the denitrification rate appeared more fitting (higher concordance correlation coefficient) than the predictive empirical algorithm based on soil nitrates, WFPS and temperature. In this regard, the empirically established relationships between the denitrification rate on intact soil cores under field conditions and the soil variables provided local-specific threshold values and coefficients which may effectively work to calibrate and adapt existing N2O process-based simulation models to the local pedo-climatic conditions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Net Global Warming Potential of Spring Wheat Cropping Systems in a Semiarid Region
Land 2019, 8(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/land8020032 - 08 Feb 2019
Abstract
Investigations of global warming potential (GWP) of semiarid cropping systems are needed to ascertain agriculture’s contributions to climate regulation services. This study sought to determine net GWP for three semiarid cropping systems under no-tillage management in the northern Great Plains of North America: [...] Read more.
Investigations of global warming potential (GWP) of semiarid cropping systems are needed to ascertain agriculture’s contributions to climate regulation services. This study sought to determine net GWP for three semiarid cropping systems under no-tillage management in the northern Great Plains of North America: spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)—fallow (SW-F), continuous spring wheat (CSW) and spring wheat—safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)—rye (Secale cereale L.) (SW-S-R). Management records, coupled with published carbon dioxide (CO2) emission estimates, were used to determine emissions from production inputs and field operations. Static chamber methodology was used to measure soil-atmosphere methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes over a 3-year period and changes in profile soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks were determined over 18 years. Carbon dioxide emissions associated with production inputs and field operations were greatest for CSW, intermediate for SW-S-R and lowest for SW-F. All cropping systems were minor CH4 sinks (≤0.5 kg CH4-C ha−1 yr−1) and moderate N2O sources (1.0 to 2.8 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1). No differences in SOC stocks were observed among cropping systems (P = 0.78), nor did SOC stocks change significantly from baseline conditions (P = 0.82). Summing across factors, net GWP was positive for SW-F and CSW, implying net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission to the atmosphere, while net GWP for SW-S-R was negative, implying net GHG uptake. Net GWP, however, did not differ among cropping systems (P = 0.17). Management practices that concurrently improve N use efficiency and increase SOC stocks are needed for semiarid cropping systems to be net GHG sinks. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Model Based Regional Estimates of Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration and Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Potentials from Rice Croplands in Bangladesh
Land 2018, 7(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7030082 - 05 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated as a major crop in most Asian countries and its production is expected to increase to meet the demands of a growing population. This is expected to increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice ecosystems, [...] Read more.
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is cultivated as a major crop in most Asian countries and its production is expected to increase to meet the demands of a growing population. This is expected to increase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy rice ecosystems, unless mitigation measures are in place. It is therefore important to assess GHG mitigation potential whilst maintaining yield. Using the process-based ecosystem model DayCent, a spatial analysis was carried out in a rice harvested area in Bangladesh for the period 1996 to 2015, considering the impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration, GHG emissions and yield under various mitigation options. An integrated management (IM, a best management practice) considering reduced water, tillage with residue management, reduced mineral nitrogen fertilizer and manure, led to a net offset by, on average, −2.43 t carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-eq.) ha−1 year−1 (GHG removal) and a reduction in yield-scaled emissions intensity by −0.55 to −0.65 t CO2-eq. t−1 yield. Under integrated management, it is possible to increase SOC stocks on average by 1.7% per year in rice paddies in Bangladesh, which is nearly 4 times the rate of change targeted by the “4 per mille” initiative arising from the Paris Climate Agreement. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of Feeding System on Enteric Methane Emissions from Individual Dairy Cows on Commercial Farms
Land 2018, 7(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/land7010026 - 24 Feb 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This study investigated the effects of feeding system on diurnal enteric methane (CH4) emissions from individual cows on commercial farms. Data were obtained from 830 cows across 12 farms, and data collated included production records, CH4 measurements (in the breath [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effects of feeding system on diurnal enteric methane (CH4) emissions from individual cows on commercial farms. Data were obtained from 830 cows across 12 farms, and data collated included production records, CH4 measurements (in the breath of cows using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations for at least seven days) and diet composition. Cows received either a partial mixed ration (PMR) or a PMR with grazing. A linear mixed model was used to describe variation in CH4 emissions per individual cow and assess the effect of feeding system. Methane emissions followed a consistent diurnal pattern across both feeding systems, with emissions lowest between 05:00 and 08:59, and with a peak concentration between 17:00 and 20:59. No overall difference in emissions was found between feeding systems studied; however, differences were found in the diurnal pattern of CH4 emissions between feeding systems. The response in emissions to increasing dry matter intake was higher for cows fed PMR with grazing. This study showed that repeated spot measurements of CH4 emissions whilst cows are milked can be used to assess the effects of feeding system and potentially benchmark farms on level of emissions. Full article
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