Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business

A special issue of Journal of Risk and Financial Management (ISSN 1911-8074). This special issue belongs to the section "Economics and Finance".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2024) | Viewed by 19768

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Department of Banking and Finance, Faculty of Financial Sciences, Ankara Hacı Bayram Veli University, Ankara, Turkiye
Interests: economics; business; finance
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The main topics of the special issue are focused on, but not limited to, the following titles:

Accounting, Behavioral Finance, Corporate Finance/Governance, Econometrics, Economics of Innovation, Education/Education Economics, Environmental Economics, Emerging Economies, Energy Studies, Entrepreneurship, Financial Economics, Gender Economics, Health Economics, Human Resources, Industrial Organization, International Economics and Trade, International Finance. Investment, Islamic Economics/Finance, Knowledge Economics, Labor Economics, Growth & Development, Macroeconomics, Management, Microeconomics, Marketing, Monetary Economics, Political Economy, Public Economics, Regional Studies, Risk Management, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME), Tax Policies, Tourism/Tourism Economics.

Prof. Dr. M. Veysel Kaya
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • economics
  • finance
  • business

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Research

27 pages, 369 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Knowledge Capital and Organization Capital on Stock Performance during Economic Crises: The Moderating Role of a Generalist CEO
by Chaeho Chase Lee, Hohyun Kim and Erdal Atukeren
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(5), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17050192 - 7 May 2024
Viewed by 643
Abstract
This study examines the relationship between intangible capital (IC) and stock performance during the two recent crisis periods, the GFC and COVID-19. By categorizing IC into Knowledge Capital (KC) and Organizational Capital (OC), we analyze the impact of each capital on the crisis [...] Read more.
This study examines the relationship between intangible capital (IC) and stock performance during the two recent crisis periods, the GFC and COVID-19. By categorizing IC into Knowledge Capital (KC) and Organizational Capital (OC), we analyze the impact of each capital on the crisis return in the manufacturing sector. The results show that a greater KC and OC are significantly associated with higher crisis returns during both periods. In addition, we find evidence that generalist CEOs strengthen this relationship while specialist CEOs do not. Within firms led by a generalist CEO, the CEO’s tenure positively moderates the association between each factor of intangible capital and crisis period returns. This study emphasizes the pivotal role of KC and OC as a protective buffer against external shocks, particularly when the market pays more attention to corporate sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
24 pages, 1443 KiB  
Article
The Index of the Cycle of Money: The Case of Switzerland
by Constantinos Challoumis
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(4), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17040135 - 22 Mar 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1139
Abstract
This article focuses on the study of issues related to the functionality and structure of an economy. To achieve this, the theory of the cycle of money is used. The structural features of an economy are reflected in its operational characteristics, and vice [...] Read more.
This article focuses on the study of issues related to the functionality and structure of an economy. To achieve this, the theory of the cycle of money is used. The structural features of an economy are reflected in its operational characteristics, and vice versa. The index of the cycle of money indexes how well an economic system can counteract a financial crisis and characterizes how well structured a country’s economy is. Calculations of the index of the cycle of money in Switzerland were compared with the global average index. The results showed that Switzerland is close to the global average; therefore, it has an excellent economy and is equipped to face any economic crisis. The applied methodology abides by theoretical, mathematical, statistical, and econometrical outcomes. This work is significant as it demonstrates the strength of Switzerland’s economy in response to a potential crisis. Prior case studies were reviewed from Latvia, Bulgaria, Serbia, Thailand, Greece, Montenegro, and many other countries. This study postulates that companies with high capital should invest in manufacturing and high technology sectors that should be subject to fewer taxes; this approach facilitates a better distribution of money to the economy by allowing small companies to service the remaining economic activities. The period used for compilations in this study was the global recession of 2007–2017. The reviewed case study results are from a project studying multiple countries, and at present, this article presents the only study about Switzerland’s index of the cycle of money. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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15 pages, 1072 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Long-Term Bond Yields Using Deviations from Covered Interest Rate Parity
by Gab-Je Jo
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17030117 - 13 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1227
Abstract
In this study, the impact of arbitrage resulting from Covered Interest Parity (CIP) deviations on Korea’s long-term interest rates was analyzed, utilizing Vector Error Correction (VEC) models for Granger Causality and Impulse Response Function analyses. This analysis covered the period from February 2002 [...] Read more.
In this study, the impact of arbitrage resulting from Covered Interest Parity (CIP) deviations on Korea’s long-term interest rates was analyzed, utilizing Vector Error Correction (VEC) models for Granger Causality and Impulse Response Function analyses. This analysis covered the period from February 2002 to September 2023, with a comparative analysis of the periods before and after the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). The Granger Causality analysis indicated that changes in the swap basis reflecting CIP deviation presented a significant Granger causal relationship with the variations in domestic long-term interest rates. Notably, in the post-GFC period, when CIP deviations were relatively pronounced, the incentives for arbitrage trading exhibited a stronger leading effect in terms of inducing changes in domestic long-term interest rates. The Impulse Response Function analysis showed that domestic long-term interest rates significantly and negatively responded to the positive shocks in the swap basis. This response was even more pronounced during the period following the GFC. Additionally, foreign long-term interest rates and monetary policy variables also demonstrated a significant impact on domestic long-term interest rates. These findings imply that the adjustment path back to equilibrium from CIP deviations, driven by arbitrage, was developed more through changes in domestic interest rates rather than exchange rate fluctuations, especially after the GFC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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22 pages, 2274 KiB  
Article
Unveiling the Influencing Factors of Cryptocurrency Return Volatility
by Andromahi Kufo, Ardit Gjeci and Artemisa Pilkati
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17010012 - 25 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2824
Abstract
The blossoming of cryptocurrencies during the last decade has largely influenced both the financial and the technological world. Bitcoin emerged on the edge of the financial crisis in 2008, signaling the very beginning of a financial and technological innovation, which in continuance would [...] Read more.
The blossoming of cryptocurrencies during the last decade has largely influenced both the financial and the technological world. Bitcoin emerged on the edge of the financial crisis in 2008, signaling the very beginning of a financial and technological innovation, which in continuance would eventually create a lot of questions and debate previously unforeseeable. This paper aims to explore the impact of factors such as trading volume, information demand, stock returns, and exchange rates on the volatility of returns for decentralized and unbacked cryptocurrencies from 2016 to 2022 by employing the GARCH model. Based on each coin’s innate functional characteristics and market performance quantified by their respective market capitalization, the selection included Bitcoin, Ether, and XRP as representative crypto coins for the category of decentralized and unbacked cryptocurrencies. The implementation of correlation analysis and the use of the GARCH model on influencing factors for each coin revealed that decentralized and unbacked cryptocurrencies are positively related to trading volume, information demand, and exchange rates while being indifferent to a certain extent to the stock market returns of the world stock index MSCI ACWI. The results of this study provide further insight into the behavior of cryptocurrency return volatility in the new, ever-changing, and highly unpredictable crypto market as well as aid investors in their decision-making process concerning portfolio optimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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17 pages, 657 KiB  
Article
Post-Acquisition Changes in Agency Cost of Acquirers: Effect of Target Companies
by Prateek Nanda and Arun Kumar Gopalaswamy
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17010011 - 25 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Acquisitions constitute substantial corporate investments, often leading to changes in ownership and top management giving rise to possible conflicts of interest. The impacts of such conflicts following an acquisition are absorbed by the acquirer and are referred to as agency costs. This study [...] Read more.
Acquisitions constitute substantial corporate investments, often leading to changes in ownership and top management giving rise to possible conflicts of interest. The impacts of such conflicts following an acquisition are absorbed by the acquirer and are referred to as agency costs. This study focuses on exploring the influence of the target companies on changes in the post-acquisition agency costs of acquiring companies. A panel fixed effects model is used to analyze acquisitions that took place between 2008–09 and 2019–20. The study’s findings indicate that post-acquisition changes in the agency costs of acquirers significantly vary based on the presence of domestic and foreign promoters in the target company. Further promoter groups such as domestic promoters and foreign promoters contribute to conflicting interests, exacerbating post-acquisition agency costs. The monitoring role assumed by foreign promoters of target companies plays a pivotal part in reducing the post-acquisition agency costs of acquirers. Foreign promoters also positively influence post-acquisition profitability by adversely affecting operating expenses, suggesting that they mitigate agency costs by exerting control over management through the monitoring of debt, cash, and profitability. The post-acquisition utilization of the target’s cash reserves positively correlates with the operating expenses of the acquirer. It is observed that the acquisition of larger targets magnifies agency costs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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20 pages, 1095 KiB  
Article
Does FDI Impact the Economic Growth of BRICS Economies? Evidence from Bayesian VAR
by Avisha Malik and Ash Narayan Sah
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2024, 17(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm17010010 - 25 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2914
Abstract
This paper examines the dynamic relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth, and trade openness in BRICS countries. Our research aims to address a significant gap in the literature by focusing on this crucial group of emerging nations, given their substantial contribution [...] Read more.
This paper examines the dynamic relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI), economic growth, and trade openness in BRICS countries. Our research aims to address a significant gap in the literature by focusing on this crucial group of emerging nations, given their substantial contribution to the global economy. Annual data for these economies from 1991 to 2020 were collected from various secondary sources. This study employed the Bayesian VAR framework to investigate the panel data. The Pedroni residual cointegration test was used to check the existence of a long-run relationship between FDI and economic growth. The results provided evidence that foreign direct investment (FDI) does exhibit a substantial correlation with economic growth in the short run. However, no long-run relationship was found in the case of BRICS economies. This research contributes to methodological innovation by introducing the Bayesian VAR framework, offering a deeper understanding of the dynamic interactions among these key variables. The incorporation of this framework yields estimates that are both stable and reliable, which is certainly a novelty of this paper. The findings of this study have implications suggesting that policymakers from these emerging economies should establish mechanisms that will monitor the short-term impacts of FDI and adjust policies accordingly to maximize economic gains. The government should tailor policies to the specific circumstances of each country for sustainable economic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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29 pages, 1772 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Access to Bank Financing in SMEs in Mexico
by Artemio Jiménez-Rico, Claudia Susana Gómez-López and Johanan Zamilpa
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(11), 477; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16110477 - 9 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Several empirical studies indicate that the lack of financing is one of the main barriers that affects the economic growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The main objective of this investigation was to determine to what extent the economic sector, the enterprise [...] Read more.
Several empirical studies indicate that the lack of financing is one of the main barriers that affects the economic growth of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). The main objective of this investigation was to determine to what extent the economic sector, the enterprise size, the characteristics inherent to the enterprise, the legal status, the variables linked to the performance of the enterprise, and the attributes of the owner influence the access to the bank financing of SMEs in Mexico. Using a discrete-response probit regression model, the impact of enterprise characteristics on the probability of obtaining a bank loan was determined. The data collected are from the Enterprise Surveys of Mexico, carried out by the World Bank. The sample of 1480 enterprises is representative by enterprise size, by economic sector, and by region. The research has a quantitative approach with a correlational scope, and a nonexperimental and transectional design. One of the main results highlights that the determinants with the greatest influence on access to bank financing are: the age, the small size, foreign participation, and the manufacturing sector. These results are consistent with other empirical studies, as well as with the pecking-order theory and the financial life-cycle theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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13 pages, 712 KiB  
Article
How Does Market Cap Play Its Role in Returns during COVID-19? The Case of Norway
by Minh Thi Hong Dinh
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(9), 414; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16090414 - 19 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
This research investigates the role of the large, medium, and small market cap portfolios in returns during the COVID-19 pandemic, around the ‘lockdown’ policy in March 2020 based on the Norwegian market. The main results suggest that during the event window, the medium [...] Read more.
This research investigates the role of the large, medium, and small market cap portfolios in returns during the COVID-19 pandemic, around the ‘lockdown’ policy in March 2020 based on the Norwegian market. The main results suggest that during the event window, the medium and small portfolios are impacted more negatively than the large. During the before-event days, the large portfolio is slightly negatively affected, but it tends to be better after the event. The medium and small portfolios are not adversely affected during before the event, but they are considerably negatively affected after the event. The small portfolio is affected more severely negatively than the medium. The small portfolio is the most volatile of the three during the event window. In addition, there are opportunities to earn extremely positive abnormal returns (from 2.5%) after the event by holding the small and medium portfolios, but not for the large. It seems that more opportunities to earn extremely positive abnormal returns for the small portfolio than the medium. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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18 pages, 919 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Performance of Private Pension Companies in Türkiye by Gray Relational Analysis Method
by Muharrem Umut
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(9), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16090396 - 6 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
The private pension is a system designed to maintain an income level during passive periods by utilizing the income earned during active working years. It complements the mandatory retirement systems of the public sector and is based on a voluntary participation structure. Additionally, [...] Read more.
The private pension is a system designed to maintain an income level during passive periods by utilizing the income earned during active working years. It complements the mandatory retirement systems of the public sector and is based on a voluntary participation structure. Additionally, it serves as an investment and savings tool with the ability to provide long-term funds. The legislation for the private pension system was enacted in Türkiye in 2001, and it was implemented in 2003. In addition, a government contribution program was initiated to promote the system in 2013. An automatic enrollment system was introduced in 2017. The effectiveness and performance of individual pension companies play significant roles in the system. This study aims to measure the performance of individual pension companies operating in Türkiye using the gray relational analysis method, which is an effective measurement method, for the years 2016–2022. Subsequently, based on the measurement results, recommendations will be provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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22 pages, 1345 KiB  
Article
Moored Minds: An Experimental Insight into the Impact of the Anchoring and Disposition Effect on Portfolio Performance
by Riya Arora and Madhumathi Rajendran
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(8), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16080349 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1456
Abstract
This study investigates the anchoring bias and disposition effect in investor trading decisions under different market volatility conditions (stable and volatile markets) and examines their impact on portfolio performance. Employing a quasi-experimental design, participants engage in interactive trading with four securities—two with potential [...] Read more.
This study investigates the anchoring bias and disposition effect in investor trading decisions under different market volatility conditions (stable and volatile markets) and examines their impact on portfolio performance. Employing a quasi-experimental design, participants engage in interactive trading with four securities—two with potential negative returns and two with positive returns—within a simulated asset market. The findings reveal the presence of both the disposition effect and the anchoring bias among individual investors in India. Notably, market volatility influences these behavioral biases, with the disposition effect more pronounced in volatile markets, while the anchoring bias is significant in stable markets. Furthermore, investors exhibiting the disposition effect tend to have lower portfolio performance, while those influenced by the anchoring bias achieve relatively better results. These insights can aid individual investors in recognizing their behavioral biases and making informed trading decisions to enhance portfolio performance. Additionally, this study presents valuable suggestions to financial institutions and regulatory government agencies engaged in similar experiments, with the goal of improving financial decision-making and investment behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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20 pages, 332 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Integrated Reporting on the Cost of Capital: Evidence from an Emerging Market
by Burak Pirgaip and Lamija Rizvić
J. Risk Financial Manag. 2023, 16(7), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm16070311 - 27 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2144
Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of integrated reporting (IR) on the cost of financing within the Turkish capital market. Specifically, we analyze the effects of IR on the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), cost of equity (COE), [...] Read more.
The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of integrated reporting (IR) on the cost of financing within the Turkish capital market. Specifically, we analyze the effects of IR on the weighted average cost of capital (WACC), cost of equity (COE), and cost of debt (COD) for companies listed on Borsa Istanbul. Additionally, we explore how IR moderates the relationship between environmental, social, and governance (ESG) scores and the cost of financing. Our panel data analysis reveals a positive association between IR and both WACC and COD, while the impact on COE is not statistically significant. However, the findings suggest that the utilization of IR by companies to enhance the communication of their value-creating activities can mitigate WACC and COD, thus indicating a moderating effect on the relationship between ESG factors and the cost of financing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Economics, Finance and Business)
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