Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control

A special issue of Journal of Fungi (ISSN 2309-608X). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental and Ecological Interactions of Fungi".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 November 2021) | Viewed by 37940

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Sri Paramakalyani Centre for Excellence in Environmental Sciences, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Alwarkurichi 627 412, Tamil Nadu, India
Interests: pest science; medical entomology; insect–plant interactions; bioactive compounds
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Guest Editor
Insect Microbiology and Biotechnology Lab, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju city, Korea
Interests: entomopathogenic fungi; biopesticide; pest management; transcriptome; gene diversity

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The use of fungi in controlling pest and disease is a unique technique. Even though there are many species of fungi that are pathogenic to pest and disease, only a limited number have been studied, and only six have been registered for pest and disease. Hence, extensive research must be carried out. Some attempts have been made to utilize fungi in controlling insects and disease, but with the development of insecticides and disease killers, the search for potent biocontrol agents has decreased since synthetic chemical sprays are comparatively low-priced and effective. However, in the last three decades, problems such as insect resistance and resurgence and their limited biodegradability in the ecosystem have brought about a regeneration in biocontrol agents such as entomopathogenic fungi. Most species of fungi that have been studied belong to the Entomophthorales (Zygomycota). This order contains a great number of species of fungi that are parasitic on insects. The quantity of species of fungi, pathogenic to the plant disease and insects, are not only huge, but also characterized in almost all taxonomic groups with the omission of some Basidiomycota and Deuteromycota. The pathogenicity of these species is fairly variable, ranging all the way to species which are obligate pathogens.

This Special Issue intends to gather the most recent and original research and review papers on the identification, development, and exploitation of fungal pathogen against insect pests and plant disease through their mode action, including but not limited to molecular characterization, biology, physiology, and biochemistry.

Prof. Dr. Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan
Prof. Dr. Jae Su Kim
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • entomopathogenic fungi
  • Entomophthorales–Zygomycota
  • secondary metabolites
  • mycotoxin
  • Metarhizium
  • dextrin
  • Beauveria
  • fungal antagonists

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 3462 KiB  
Article
Characterization and Evaluation of Metarhizium spp. (Metsch.) Sorokin Isolates for Their Temperature Tolerance
by Viswakethu Velavan, Rajendran Dhanapal, Govindaraju Ramkumar, Sengodan Karthi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Osmund A. Ndomba and Eliningaya J. Kweka
J. Fungi 2022, 8(1), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof8010068 - 10 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2630
Abstract
A field survey was done in teak (Tectona grandis F.) forests in South India to explore the entomopathogenic effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) against teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). About 300 soils and infected insect samples were collected during the [...] Read more.
A field survey was done in teak (Tectona grandis F.) forests in South India to explore the entomopathogenic effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes) against teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera (Lepidoptera: Hyblaeidae). About 300 soils and infected insect samples were collected during the survey and thirty-six fungal isolates were isolated from soil and insect samples and characterized. The fungi were cultured on PDAY with dodine and antibiotics. Generally, the EPF culture was incubated at 27 °C in darkness for 15 days. Virulence of the Entomopathogenic Fungi (EPF) ability to germinate under cold and heat temperatures was assessed in a culture impregnated with conidia. In the experiment, it was found that for the first time Metarhizium quizhouense, Metarhizium robertsii, and Metarhizium majus species caused significantly higher mortality to hosts. These isolates of M. anisopliae, M. robertsii, M. majus, and M. quizhouense were all considered to be effective virulent and environmentally adaptive. The Metarhizium isolates were recommended as effective bio-control agents through the field investigation of teak defoliator Hyblaea puera from South India forest. This study paves the way to utilize the indigenous isolates of EPF for the control of teak defoliator and to combat the pests thatare resistant to insecticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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16 pages, 1234 KiB  
Article
Biochemical Profile by GC–MS of Fungal Biomass Produced from the Ascospores of Tirmania nivea as a Natural Renewable Resource
by Jamal M. Khaled, Naiyf S. Alharbi, Ramzi A. Mothana, Shine Kadaikunnan and Ahmed S. Alobaidi
J. Fungi 2021, 7(12), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121083 - 17 Dec 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2394
Abstract
The edible fruiting bodies of desert truffles are seasonally collected and consumed in many regions of the world. Although they are very expensive, they are bought and sold as a result of considerable scientific reports confirming their health and nutritional benefits. This study [...] Read more.
The edible fruiting bodies of desert truffles are seasonally collected and consumed in many regions of the world. Although they are very expensive, they are bought and sold as a result of considerable scientific reports confirming their health and nutritional benefits. This study aimed to conduct laboratory production of the fungal biomass of Tirmania nivea as a natural renewable resource of many active biological compounds using an artificial growth medium. The T. nivea collected from Hafar Al-Batin, which is north of Saudi Arabia, and their ascospores were harvested and used to produce fungal biomass in potato dextrose broth. The cultivation was conducted using a shaking incubator at 25 °C for two weeks at 200 rpm. The crud extracts of the fungal biomass and mycelium-free broth were prepared using ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane. Preliminary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis and their biological activity as antimicrobial agents were investigated. The results showed that the crude extracts have biological activity against mold, yeast and bacteria. The preliminary GC–MS analysis reported that the fungal biomass and extracellular metabolites in the growth medium are industrial renewable resources of several biological compounds that could be used as antifungal, antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer, antioxidant, anti-trypanosomal and anti-inflammatory agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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14 pages, 26866 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Native Entomopathogenic Fungi for the Control of Fall Armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) in Thailand: A Sustainable Way for Eco-Friendly Agriculture
by Julius Rajula, Sarayut Pittarate, Nakarin Suwannarach, Jaturong Kumla, Aneta A. Ptaszynska, Malee Thungrabeab, Supamit Mekchay and Patcharin Krutmuang
J. Fungi 2021, 7(12), 1073; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7121073 - 13 Dec 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3893
Abstract
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, entered Thailand in late 2018 and has now spread in several regions, with devastating effects in maize and rice production, which are some of the most important cereals in the world. Since then, farmers have utilized the available [...] Read more.
Fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, entered Thailand in late 2018 and has now spread in several regions, with devastating effects in maize and rice production, which are some of the most important cereals in the world. Since then, farmers have utilized the available chemical insecticides to try to control it, but their efforts have been futile. Instead, they have ended up using extraordinary dosages, hence threatening non-target species and other fauna and flora, as well as being costly. In this regard, research has been ongoing, aiming to come up with eco-friendly solutions for this insect. We surveyed and collected various isolates of native entomopathogenic fungi intending to test their efficacy against fall armyworm. Six isolates of entomopathogenic fungi were obtained and identified to Beauveria bassiana based on morphological characteristics and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses. Thereafter, the six isolates of B. bassiana were used to perform efficacy experiments against fall armyworm. Additionally, the glycosyl transferase-like protein 1 (GAS1) gene was analyzed. Consequently, all the isolates showed efficacy against S. frugiperda, with isolate BCMU6 causing up to 91.67% mortality. Further, molecular analysis revealed that all the isolates possess the GAS1 gene, which contributed to their virulence against the insect. This is the first report of utilizing native entomopathogenic B. bassiana to manage S. frugiperda in Thailand, with the revelation of GAS1 as a factor in inducing virulence and cuticle penetration. This study has provided valuable information on the potential development of Beauveria bassiana as an eco-friendly bioinsecticide for the management of fall armyworm in Thailand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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13 pages, 1840 KiB  
Article
Entomopathogenic Potential of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Native Strain in Suppressing Invasive Whitefly, Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), Infesting Coconut
by Maruthakasi Sujithra, Hanumanthappa Veerappa Prathibha, Manikappa Rajkumar, Govindharaj Guru-Pirasanna-Pandi, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan and Vinayaka Hegde
J. Fungi 2021, 7(11), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7110964 - 12 Nov 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2798
Abstract
In 2016, infestation of an exotic polyphagous pest, the rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was documented on coconut for the first time in India. Instantaneously, RSW has garnered wide attention owing to its damage severity and rapid spread across [...] Read more.
In 2016, infestation of an exotic polyphagous pest, the rugose spiraling whitefly (RSW), Aleurodicus rugioperculatus Martin (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), was documented on coconut for the first time in India. Instantaneously, RSW has garnered wide attention owing to its damage severity and rapid spread across the coconut-growing regions of the country. Hence, an attempt was made to devise a sustainable integrated pest management (IPM) module using biological control agents as a mainstay component. The present study documented the identification and characterization of a potential entomopathogenic fungal isolate for the management of RSW. An entomopathogenic fungus isolated from nymphal cadavers of RSW was identified as Simplicillium lanosoniveum based on morphological and phylogenetic analyses. A gradient of five conidial concentrations (1 × 104, 1 × 105, 1 × 106, 1 × 107 and 1 × 108 conidia/mL) of the S.lanosoniveum were tested against eggs, first instars, second to third instars and pupae of RSW. Results revealed that S.lanosoniveum is highly virulent to all developmental stages of RSW by causing mortality rates of 95.20%, 87.33%, 85.38% and 72.85%, in eggs, initial, middle and later instar nymphs of RSW, respectively, at the highest tested concentration (1 × 108 conidia/mL) at seven days after exposure. The LC50 and LT50 values of S.lanosoniveum were 4.72 × 104, 4.94 × 104, 5.11 × 105, 5.92 × 105 conidia/mL and 4.27, 4.86, 4.56, 5.89 days against eggs, initial, middle and later instar nymphs of RSW, respectively. Further, preliminary field trials with S.lanosoniveum strain at 1 × 108 conidia/mL exhibited a significant reduction in the egg and nymphal population by 57.8% and 56.3%, respectively. This report thus demonstrated that the newly isolated S.lanosoniveum is an effective pathogen at suppressing all the developmental stages of RSW. This is the first record of S.lanosoniveum infecting RSW, and it has a great potential to be developed as a mycoinsecticide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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15 pages, 17014 KiB  
Article
Identification and Characterization of Downy Mildew-Responsive microRNAs in Indian Vitis vinifera by High-Throughput Sequencing
by Milan V. Kamble, Abhishek B. Shahapurkar, Shivakantkumar Adhikari, Nagaraja Geetha, Asad Syed, Bilal Ahmed and Sudisha Jogaiah
J. Fungi 2021, 7(11), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7110899 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1795
Abstract
Downy mildew (DM) is one of the most devastating diseases disturbing viticulture, mainly during temperate and humid climates. The DM pathogen can attack grapevine leaves and berries differentially, and the disease is managed with recurring applications of fungicides that direct pathogen pressure, develop [...] Read more.
Downy mildew (DM) is one of the most devastating diseases disturbing viticulture, mainly during temperate and humid climates. The DM pathogen can attack grapevine leaves and berries differentially, and the disease is managed with recurring applications of fungicides that direct pathogen pressure, develop of resistant strains, and lead to residual soil toxicity and increased pollution effects. Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are important candidates in physiological regulatory roles in response to biotic stress in plants. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and MiRDeep-P were employed to identify miRNAs in Vitis vinifera. Altogether, 22,492,910, 25,476,471, and 22,448,438 clean reads from the sterile distilled water (SDW)-control, bio-pesticide Trichoderma harzianum (TriH_JSB36)-treated, and downy mildew Plasmopara viticola pathogen libraries, respectively, were obtained. On the basis of the sequencing results and analysis (differential expression analysis), we observed significant differences in 15 miRNAs (5 novel upregulated, and 10 known downregulated) in the pathogen-infected sample (Test) in comparison to the SDW-control sample, with majority of the reads beingin the range of 20–24 bp. This study involves the identification and characterization of vvi-miRNAs that are involved in resistance against downy mildew disease in grapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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16 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
Structure–Activity Relationship of Phytotoxic Natural 10-Membered Lactones and Their Semisynthetic Derivatives
by Anna Dalinova, Anatoly Fedorov, Vsevolod Dubovik, Olga Voitsekhovskaja, Elena Tyutereva, Sergey Smirnov, Dmitry Kochura, Leonid Chisty, Igor Senderskiy and Alexander Berestetskiy
J. Fungi 2021, 7(10), 829; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7100829 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2344
Abstract
Ten-membered lactones (nonenolides) demonstrate phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and fungicidal activity promising for the development of natural product-derived pesticides. The fungus Stagonospora cirsii is able to produce phytotoxic stagonolides A (1), J (2), K (3) and herbarumin I ( [...] Read more.
Ten-membered lactones (nonenolides) demonstrate phytotoxic, antimicrobial, and fungicidal activity promising for the development of natural product-derived pesticides. The fungus Stagonospora cirsii is able to produce phytotoxic stagonolides A (1), J (2), K (3) and herbarumin I (4) with high yield. The aim of this study was to create a set of structurally related nonenolides and to reveal the structural features that affect their biological activity. Stagonolide A (1) and C-7 oxidized stagonolide K (11) showed the highest phytotoxicity in leaf puncture assay and agar seedlings assay. The oxidation of C-7 hydroxyl group (as in 1, acetylstagonolide A (10) and (11) led to the manifestation of toxicity to microalgae, Bacillus subtilis and Sf9 cells regardless of the configuration of C-9 propyl chains (R in 1 and 10, S in 11). C-7 non-oxidized nonenolides displayed none or little non-target activity. Notably, 7S compounds were more phytotoxic than their 7R analogues. Due to the high inhibitory activity against seedling growth and the lack of side toxicity, mono- and bis(acetyl)- derivatives of herbarumin I were shown to be potent for the development of pre-emergent herbicides. The identified structural features can be used for the rational design of new herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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17 pages, 3319 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Effects of Leaf Extracts from Brassica rapa on the Growth of Two Entomopathogenic Fungi
by Daniel G. Cerritos-Garcia, Pasco B. Avery, Xavier Martini, Valentina Candian, Liliana M. Cano and Ronald D. Cave
J. Fungi 2021, 7(9), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090779 - 19 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2764
Abstract
This study aimed to determine the inhibitive or stimulatory effects of leaf extracts from two Brassica rapa subspecies on the hyphal growth of two well-known entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana. Extract concentrations of 50, 25, and 10% w/v based [...] Read more.
This study aimed to determine the inhibitive or stimulatory effects of leaf extracts from two Brassica rapa subspecies on the hyphal growth of two well-known entomopathogenic fungi, Cordyceps fumosorosea and Beauveria bassiana. Extract concentrations of 50, 25, and 10% w/v based on leaf fresh weight were prepared from turnip (B. rapa subspecies rapa) and bok choy (B. rapa subspecies chinensis) leaves. Each concentration was individually incorporated into potato dextrose agar plates for in vitro bioassays. The center of each plate was inoculated with 20 µL of a fungal suspension that was allowed 24 h to soak into the agar before sealing the plates and incubating them at 25 °C under a 14-h photophase. The fungal colony perimeter was marked 5 days after inoculation on two perpendicular lines drawn on the bottom of each plate. Radial colony growth was measured from 4 marks per plate 5, 10, and 15 days later. Radial growth rates for both fungi were 1.3–2.0 and 0.9–1.4 times faster with bok choy and turnip extracts, respectively, at the 25% and 50% concentrations compared to the no-extract control treatment. Therefore, bok choy and turnip leaf extracts can stimulate entomopathogenic fungus growth within 15 days. Biochemical compounds in the extracts include sesquiterpenes, α-copaene, β-selinene, γ-gurjunene, calamenene, cubenene, and α-calacorene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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22 pages, 3981 KiB  
Article
Entomotoxic Activity of the Extracts from the Fungus, Alternaria tenuissima and Its Major Metabolite, Tenuazonic Acid
by Dilara Salimova, Anna Dalinova, Vsevolod Dubovik, Igor Senderskiy, Elena Stepanycheva, Oksana Tomilova, Qiongbo Hu and Alexander Berestetskiy
J. Fungi 2021, 7(9), 774; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7090774 - 18 Sep 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2483
Abstract
The study of fungal antibiotics in their competitive interactions with arthropods may lead to the development of novel biorational insecticides. Extracts of Alternaria tenuissima MFP253011 obtained using various methods showed a wide range of biological activities, including entomotoxic properties. Analysis of their composition [...] Read more.
The study of fungal antibiotics in their competitive interactions with arthropods may lead to the development of novel biorational insecticides. Extracts of Alternaria tenuissima MFP253011 obtained using various methods showed a wide range of biological activities, including entomotoxic properties. Analysis of their composition and bioactivity allowed us to reveal several known mycotoxins and unidentified compounds that may be involved in the entomotoxic activity of the extracts. Among them, tenuazonic acid (TeA), which was the major component of the A. tenuissima extracts, was found the most likely to have larvicidal activity against Galleria mellonella. In the intrahaemocoel injection bioassay, TeA was toxic to G. mellonella and of Zophobas morio with an LT50 of 6 and 2 days, respectively, at the level of 50 µg/larva. Administered orally, TeA inhibited the growth of G. mellonella larvae and caused mortality of Acheta domesticus adults (LT50 7 days) at a concentration of 250 µg/g of feed. TeA showed weak contact intestinal activity against the two phytophages, Tetranychus urticae and Schizaphis graminum, causing 15% and 27% mortality at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, respectively. TeA was cytotoxic to the Sf9 cell line (IC50 25 µg/mL). Thus, model insects such as G. mellonella could be used for further toxicological characterization of TeA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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16 pages, 5476 KiB  
Article
Paecilomyces formosus MD12, a Biocontrol Agent to Treat Meloidogyne incognita on Brinjal in Green House
by Alaa Baazeem, Mohammed Alorabi, Palanisamy Manikandan, Saqer S. Alotaibi, Abdulaziz Almanea, Ahmed Abdel-Hadi, Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan, Subhanandharaj Russalamma Flanet Raj, Young Ock Kim and Hak-Jae Kim
J. Fungi 2021, 7(8), 632; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7080632 - 03 Aug 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2071
Abstract
The present study was carried out to analyze the potential of fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of soybean, brinjal, tomato, and potato plants. The density of fungi varied in the pot soil and rhizosphere after Paecilomyces formosus MD12 treatment. The P. formosus MD12 [...] Read more.
The present study was carried out to analyze the potential of fungi isolated from the rhizosphere of soybean, brinjal, tomato, and potato plants. The density of fungi varied in the pot soil and rhizosphere after Paecilomyces formosus MD12 treatment. The P. formosus MD12 population was 6.3 ± 0.13 × 104 CFU g−1 in the pot planted with brinjal, and the population increased in the rhizosphere (6.72 ± 0.41 × 104 CFU g−1). P. formosus MD12 was cultured in the production medium, and the supernatant was used for egg inhibition studies on a root-knot nematode parasite, Meloidogyne incognita. It was revealed that maximum egg inhibition (94.7 ± 6.2%) was obtained at 100% concentration of extract. The culture supernatant from P. formosus MD12 affected the development of M. incognita juvenile, and the mortality rate was maximum after 96 h (95 ± 6%). Mortality was reduced when treated with 25%, 50%, and 75% supernatant. At 1 × 107 mL−1 of spore suspension, we found reductions of 71.6 ± 3.3% nematode populations in the soil, 60.7 ± 2.2% from the root, and 63.6 ± 2.4% egg mass compared with the control in the pot experiment. The culture supernatant applied at the 10% level showed a maximum mean reduction of the nematode population in roots (72.4 ± 2.2%), soil (77.9 ± 2.5%), and egg masses (73.2 ± 1.5%), respectively. The presence of P. formosus MD12 in a soil environment could antagonize nematode parasites and improve soil amendment. The P. formosus MD12 strain showed good biocontrol ability against the root-knot nematode, M. incognita, under in vitro and green house experimental condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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21 pages, 2721 KiB  
Article
Not Only a Formulation: The Effects of Pickering Emulsion on the Entomopathogenic Action of Metarhizium brunneum
by Nitsan Birnbaum, Victoria Reingold, Sabina Matveev, Chandrasekhar Kottakota, Michael Davidovitz, Karthik Ananth Mani, Reut Feldbaum, Noga Yaakov, Guy Mechrez and Dana Ment
J. Fungi 2021, 7(7), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7070499 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2305
Abstract
Growing global population and environmental concerns necessitate the transition from chemical to eco-friendly pest management. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are rising candidates for this task due to their ease of growing, broad host range and unique disease process, allowing EPF to infect hosts directly [...] Read more.
Growing global population and environmental concerns necessitate the transition from chemical to eco-friendly pest management. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are rising candidates for this task due to their ease of growing, broad host range and unique disease process, allowing EPF to infect hosts directly through its cuticle. However, EPF’s requirement for high humidity negates their integration into conventional agriculture. To mitigate this problem, we formulated Metarhizium brunneum conidia in an oil-in-water Pickering emulsion. Conidia in aqueous and emulsion formulations were sprayed on Ricinus communis leaves, and Spodoptera littoralis larvae were introduced under low or high humidity. The following were examined: conidial dispersion on leaf, larval mortality, conidial acquisition by larvae, effects on larval growth and feeding, and dynamic of disease progression. Emulsion was found to disperse conidia more efficiently and caused two-fold more adhesion of conidia to host cuticle. Mortality from conidia in emulsion was significantly higher than other treatments reaching 86.5% under high humidity. Emulsion was also found to significantly reduce larval growth and feeding, while conferring faster fungal growth in-host. Results suggest that a Pickering emulsion is able to improve physical interactions between the conidia and their surroundings, while weakening the host through a plethora of mechanisms, increasing the chance of an acute infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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7 pages, 1685 KiB  
Article
The Metarhizium anisopliae Toxin, Destruxin A, Interacts with the SEC23A and TEME214 Proteins of Bombyx mori
by Fei Yin, Miaomiao Xiao, Alexander Berestetskiy and Qiongbo Hu
J. Fungi 2021, 7(6), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7060460 - 08 Jun 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2148
Abstract
Destruxin A (DA), a mycotoxin isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, has good insecticidal and immune-inhibitory activity, but the action mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In order to identify the DA-binding proteins, we conducted drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) [...] Read more.
Destruxin A (DA), a mycotoxin isolated from the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, has good insecticidal and immune-inhibitory activity, but the action mechanism has not yet been elucidated. In order to identify the DA-binding proteins, we conducted drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) experiments, which indicated that the silkworm’s (Bombyx mori) transmembrane protein 214 (BmTEME214) and protein transport protein SEC23A isoform X2 (BmSEC23) are the potential DA-binding proteins. The current research was focused on validation of the interaction between DA and these two proteins via bio-layer interferometry (BLI) in vitro, insect two-hybrid (I2H) in Sf9 cells, and RNAi in the insect. The results of the BLI tests showed that DA has strong affinity to bind BmTEME214 and BmSEC23 proteins with a KD value of 0.286 and 0.291 µM, respectively. In the I2H experiments, DA inhibited (at 0.02 µg/mL) and activated (at 0.002–0.0002 µg/mL) the protein interactions of BmSEC23–BmSEC13, but it only inhibited the BmTMEM214–BmSEC13L interaction. Furthermore, in the RNAi tests, an apparent increase in the silkworm’s mortality was recorded in the joint treatment of DA with dsBmSEC23 or dsBmTMEM214 when compared with the single treatment of DA (1.5 µg/g body), 40 µg/g body dsBmSEC23, or dsBmTMEM214. This research confirmed that BmSEC23 and BmTMEM214 are the DA-binding proteins and provided new insights to understand the action mechanism of DA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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17 pages, 7068 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Analysis of the Japanese Pine Sawyer Beetle, Monochamus alternatus, Infected with the Entomopathogenic Fungus Metarhizium anisopliae JEF-197
by Jong-Cheol Kim, Mi-Rong Lee, Sihyeon Kim, So-Eun Park, Se-Jin Lee, Tae-Young Shin, Woo-Jin Kim and Jaesu Kim
J. Fungi 2021, 7(5), 373; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050373 - 10 May 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
The Japanese pine sawyer (JPS) beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), damages pine trees and transmits the pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Nickle. Chemical agents have been used to control JPS beetle, but due to various issues, efforts are being made to replace [...] Read more.
The Japanese pine sawyer (JPS) beetle, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), damages pine trees and transmits the pine wilt nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Nickle. Chemical agents have been used to control JPS beetle, but due to various issues, efforts are being made to replace these chemical agents with entomopathogenic fungi. We investigated the expression of immune-related genes in JPS beetle in response to infection with JEF-197, a Metarhizium anisopliae isolate, using RNA-seq. RNA samples were obtained from JEF-197, JPS adults treated with JEF-197, and non-treated JPS adults on the 8th day after fungal treatment, and RNA-seq was performed using Illumina sequencing. JPS beetle transcriptome was assembled de novo and differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis was performed. There were 719 and 1953 up- and downregulated unigenes upon JEF-197 infection, respectively. Upregulated contigs included genes involved in RNA transport, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, spliceosome-related genes, and genes involved in immune-related signaling pathways such as the Toll and Imd pathways. Forty-two fungal DEGs related to energy and protein metabolism were upregulated, and genes involved in the stress response were also upregulated in the infected JPS beetles. Together, our results indicate that infection of JPS beetles by JEF-197 induces the expression of immune-related genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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15 pages, 1031 KiB  
Article
Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana and a Plant Secondary Metabolite: A Novel Modeling Approach to Invade Host Defense for Effective Control of Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) on Date Palms
by Abid Hussain
J. Fungi 2021, 7(5), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050334 - 26 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1653
Abstract
Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) is an important pest causing substantial economic losses to date palm fruits (dates). The application of mycopathogens with plant secondary metabolites, which may proceed synergistically is thus essential to augment sustainable management strategy for O. afrasiaticus. In this regard, [...] Read more.
Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) is an important pest causing substantial economic losses to date palm fruits (dates). The application of mycopathogens with plant secondary metabolites, which may proceed synergistically is thus essential to augment sustainable management strategy for O. afrasiaticus. In this regard, extensive laboratory experimentation involving compatibility, synergism, and host defense was performed to develop stable pest management option. The toxin-pathogen compatibility assay results revealed compatible interaction (biological index = 79–95) of B. bassiana ARSEF 8465 against each tested concentration of commercially available (+)-α-Pinene that provide the opportunity to further explore the time and concentration dependent mortality and defense related enzymatic regulation analysis. The time-mortality response assays that mainly comprised of various proportions of B. bassiana ARSEF 8465 and (+)-α-Pinene revealed that the sole application of B. bassiana ARSEF 8465 (LC50 = 19.16 mg/mL), and (+)-α-Pinene (3.41 mg/mL) found to be least lethal compared with joint applications (LC50 ranged from 1.32–7.06 mg/mL). The treatments complied under Scheme IV (80% (+)-α-Pinene: 20% B. bassiana ARSEF 8465 Conidia) led to strong synergistic interaction (joint toxicity = 755). In addition, synergistic interactions greatly induced enzymatic activities of the studied antioxidants (CAT and SOD), and defense-related enzymes (GST and AchE). We concluded that join application of B. bassiana ARSEF 8465 and (+)-α-Pinene is a promising option for controlling Oligonychus afrasiaticus populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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13 pages, 2708 KiB  
Article
In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Nematocidal and Growth Promoting Activities of Trichoderma hamatum FB10 and Its Secondary Metabolites
by Alaa Baazeem, Abdulaziz Almanea, Palanisamy Manikandan, Mohammed Alorabi, Ponnuswamy Vijayaraghavan and Ahmed Abdel-Hadi
J. Fungi 2021, 7(5), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof7050331 - 24 Apr 2021
Cited by 34 | Viewed by 3740
Abstract
Microbial natural biocides have attracted much more attention in recent years in order to avoid the unrestricted use of chemical biocides in the environment. The aim of this study is to analyze the antibacterial and antifungal activities of secondary metabolites and growth promoting, [...] Read more.
Microbial natural biocides have attracted much more attention in recent years in order to avoid the unrestricted use of chemical biocides in the environment. The aim of this study is to analyze the antibacterial and antifungal activities of secondary metabolites and growth promoting, nematicidal, and soil enzyme activity mediated by Trichoderma hamatum FB10. The bactericidal and fungicidal activities were performed using cell-free extract. Results revealed that the selected strain exert antibacterial activity against Acidovorax avenae, Erutimacarafavora, and Xanthomonas campestris. The selected fungal strain FB10 showed antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens such as, S. sclerotiorum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria radicina, Alternaria citri, and Alternaria dauci. Among the bacterial pathogens, A. avenae showed least MIC (30 ± 2.5 µg/mL) and MBC (70 ± 1.25 µg/mL) values. T. hamatum FB10 strain synthesized bioactive volatile secondary metabolite, which effectively inhibited the growth of bacteria and fungi and indicated the presence of 6-pentyl-alpha-pyrone as the major compound (67.05%). The secondary metabolite synthesized by T. hamatum FB10 showed nematicidal activity against M. incognita eggs. Egg hatch inhibition was 78 ± 2.6% and juvenile stage mortality rate was 89 ± 2.5% when the strain FB10 was treated with nematode. The cell free extract of T. hamatum FB10 showed protease, amylase, cellulase, chitinase, glucanase activities. T. hamatum FB10 inoculated with green gram increased 11% plant height, compared to the control. The fresh weight of the experimental group inoculated with T. hamatum FB10 increased 33.6% more compared to the control group. The green gram seedlings inoculated with T. hamatum FB10 increased 18% more dry weight than control group. Soil enzymes such as, urease, phosphatase, catalase and saccharase were improved in the soil inoculated with T. hamatum FB10. These biochemical components play potent role in soil fertility, energy conversion, and in soil organic matter conversion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Pathogen as Potent Toxin for Pest and Disease Control)
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