Special Issue "The Ice-Ocean Boundary"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 10 October 2022 | Viewed by 3940

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Mark D. Orzech
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ocean Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7322, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
Interests: wave modeling and measurement; rogue waves; wave-ice interaction; data assimilation; nearshore processes; sediment transport
Dr. Jie Yu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Ocean Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7322, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
Interests: wave-topography interaction; wave-current interaction; wave-ice interaction; nearshore processes; sediment transport; instability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As climate change continues to reshape the polar environment, it is increasingly important that we fully understand the range of physical processes by which the ocean and the ice interact and the roles these processes will play in defining the future of the Arctic and Antarctic.  Ocean currents and waves exert significant force on surface ice through drag and pressure variations. Fluctuations in temperature and salinity affect sea-ice-associated biota, ocean circulation, and the distribution, rheology, and material properties of the ice.  Surface ice insulates the ocean beneath from atmospheric processes like solar radiation and wind forcing.  The ice-ocean boundary is the primary interface at which these phenomena can be measured and modeled, and yet much about it remains unknown. 

In this Special Issue, we welcome contributions from a broad range of theoretical, modeling, field and laboratory research into processes that affect the ice-ocean boundary region, including but not limited to:

  • Theoretical or numerical representations of boundary layers associated with currents and/or waves at the ice-ocean interface
  • Theory/modeling of shear and form drag on ice
  • Field or lab measurements of ice-ocean boundary processes
  • Lagrangian drift of sea ice forced by waves
  • Temperature and salinity exchanges between ice and ocean
  • The effects of algae, plankton, and other cold region biota on sea ice material properties and the boundary layer
  • The role of sea ice as a mediating buffer between the atmosphere and ocean
  • Alternative representations of surface ice and its boundary processes (e.g., viscous or viscoelastic layer, discrete element modeling, thin elastic plates)

Dr. Mark D. Orzech
Dr. Jie Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sea ice
  • Polar regions (Arctic & Antarctic)
  • Ice-ocean drag force
  • Wave-ice interaction
  • Boundary-layer processes
  • Lagrangian drift
  • Climate change
  • Sea-ice biota
  • Ocean temperature and salinity
  • Ocean currents and circulation
  • Marginal ice zone
  • Field and lab measurements.

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Article
A Modified Approach of Extracting Landfast Ice Edge Based on Sentinel-1A InSAR Coherence Image in the Gulf of Bothnia
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101076 - 01 Oct 2021
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Abstract
Landfast ice is an integral component of the coastal ecosystem. Extracting the edge and mapping the extent of landfast ice are one of the main methods for studying ice changes. In this work, a standardized process for extracting landfast ice edge in the [...] Read more.
Landfast ice is an integral component of the coastal ecosystem. Extracting the edge and mapping the extent of landfast ice are one of the main methods for studying ice changes. In this work, a standardized process for extracting landfast ice edge in the Baltic Sea using the InSAR coherence image is established with Sentinel-1 radar data and InSAR technology. A modified approach combining multiscale segmentation and morphological erosion is then proposed to provide a reliable way to extract landfast ice edge. Firstly, the coherence image is obtained using InSAR technology. Then, the edge is separated and extracted with the modified approach. The modified approach is essentially a four-step procedure involving image segmentation, median filter, morphological erosion, and rejection of small patches. Finally, the full extent of landfast ice can be obtained using floodfill algorithm. Multiple InSAR image pairs of Sentinel-1A acquired from 2018 to 2019 are utilized to successfully extract the landfast ice edge in the Gulf of Bothnia. The results show that the landfast ice edge and the extents obtained by the proposed approach are visually consistent with those shown in the ice chart issued by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) over a coastline length of 345 km. The mean distance between land–water boundary and the coastline issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is 109.1 m. The modified approach obviously preserves more details in local edge than the reference method. The experimental results show that the modified approach proposed in this paper can extract the edge and map the extent of landfast ice more accurately and quickly, and is therefore expected to contribute to the further understanding and analyzing the changes of landfast ice in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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Article
Observing Wind-Forced Flexural-Gravity Waves in the Beaufort Sea and Their Relationship to Sea Ice Mechanics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050471 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
We developed and deployed two inertial measurement units on mobile pack ice during a U.S. Navy drifting ice campaign in the Beaufort Sea. The ice camp was more than 1000 km from the nearest open water. The sensors were stationed on thick (>1 [...] Read more.
We developed and deployed two inertial measurement units on mobile pack ice during a U.S. Navy drifting ice campaign in the Beaufort Sea. The ice camp was more than 1000 km from the nearest open water. The sensors were stationed on thick (>1 m) first- and multi–year ice to record 3-D accelerations at 10 Hz for one week during March 2020. During this time, gale-force winds exceeded 21 m per second for several hours during two separate wind events and reached a maximum of 25 m per second. Our observations show similar sets of wave bands were excited during both wind events. One band was centered on a period of ~14 s. Another band arrived several hours later and was centered on ~3.5-s. We find that the observed wave bands match a model dispersion curve for flexural gravity waves in ~1.2-m ice with a Young’s modulus of 3.5 GPa under compressive stresses of ~0.3 MPa. We further evaluate the bending stress and load cycles of the individual wave bands and their potential role in break-up of sea ice. This work demonstrates how observations of waves in sea ice using these and similar sensors can potentially be a valuable field-based tool for evaluating ice mechanics. In particular, this approach can be used to observe and describe the combined mechanical behavior of consolidated floes relevant for understanding sea ice mechanical processes and model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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Article
Effects of Wave-Induced Sea Ice Break-Up and Mixing in a High-Resolution Coupled Ice-Ocean Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040365 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1123
Abstract
Arctic sea ice plays a vital role in modulating the global climate. In the most recent decades, the rapid decline of the Arctic summer sea ice cover has exposed increasing areas of ice-free ocean, with sufficient fetch for waves to develop. This has [...] Read more.
Arctic sea ice plays a vital role in modulating the global climate. In the most recent decades, the rapid decline of the Arctic summer sea ice cover has exposed increasing areas of ice-free ocean, with sufficient fetch for waves to develop. This has highlighted the complex and not well-understood nature of wave-ice interactions, requiring modeling effort. Here, we introduce two independent parameterizations in a high-resolution coupled ice-ocean model to investigate the effects of wave-induced sea ice break-up (through albedo change) and mixing on the Arctic sea ice simulation. Our results show that wave-induced sea ice break-up leads to increases in sea ice concentration and thickness in the Bering Sea, the Baffin Sea and the Barents Sea during the ice growth season, but accelerates the sea ice melt in the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea in summer. Further, wave-induced mixing can decelerate the sea ice formation in winter and the sea ice melt in summer by exchanging the heat fluxes between the surface and subsurface layer. As our baseline model underestimates sea ice cover in winter and produces more sea ice in summer, wave-induced sea ice break-up plays a positive role in improving the sea ice simulation. This study provides two independent parameterizations to directly include the wave effects into the sea ice models, with important implications for the future sea ice model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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