The Ice-Ocean Boundary

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Oceanography".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2023) | Viewed by 31457

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Naval Research Laboratory, Ocean Sciences Division, Code 7322, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
Interests: wave modeling and measurement; rogue waves; wave-ice interaction; data assimilation; nearshore processes; sediment transport
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Ocean Sciences Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Code 7322, Stennis Space Center, MS 39529, USA
Interests: wave-topography interaction; wave-current interaction; wave-ice interaction; nearshore processes; sediment transport; instability

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

As climate change continues to reshape the polar environment, it is increasingly important that we fully understand the range of physical processes by which the ocean and the ice interact and the roles these processes will play in defining the future of the Arctic and Antarctic.  Ocean currents and waves exert significant force on surface ice through drag and pressure variations. Fluctuations in temperature and salinity affect sea-ice-associated biota, ocean circulation, and the distribution, rheology, and material properties of the ice.  Surface ice insulates the ocean beneath from atmospheric processes like solar radiation and wind forcing.  The ice-ocean boundary is the primary interface at which these phenomena can be measured and modeled, and yet much about it remains unknown. 

In this Special Issue, we welcome contributions from a broad range of theoretical, modeling, field and laboratory research into processes that affect the ice-ocean boundary region, including but not limited to:

  • Theoretical or numerical representations of boundary layers associated with currents and/or waves at the ice-ocean interface
  • Theory/modeling of shear and form drag on ice
  • Field or lab measurements of ice-ocean boundary processes
  • Lagrangian drift of sea ice forced by waves
  • Temperature and salinity exchanges between ice and ocean
  • The effects of algae, plankton, and other cold region biota on sea ice material properties and the boundary layer
  • The role of sea ice as a mediating buffer between the atmosphere and ocean
  • Alternative representations of surface ice and its boundary processes (e.g., viscous or viscoelastic layer, discrete element modeling, thin elastic plates)

Dr. Mark D. Orzech
Dr. Jie Yu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sea ice
  • Polar regions (Arctic & Antarctic)
  • Ice-ocean drag force
  • Wave-ice interaction
  • Boundary-layer processes
  • Lagrangian drift
  • Climate change
  • Sea-ice biota
  • Ocean temperature and salinity
  • Ocean currents and circulation
  • Marginal ice zone
  • Field and lab measurements.

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 172 KiB  
Editorial
The Ice–Ocean Boundary
by Mark Orzech
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(4), 760; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11040760 - 31 Mar 2023
Viewed by 842
Abstract
The ocean ice layer in polar regions is impacted by a complex and varying range of physical and thermodynamic processes [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)

Research

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13 pages, 3709 KiB  
Article
Wind Drift, Breakdown, and Pile Up of the Ice Field
by Vadim K. Goncharov
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(6), 1227; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11061227 - 14 Jun 2023
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
This article contains the analytical model of the drift of a separate ice field under the action of wind and current, in which velocities and directions can vary over time. The model takes into account the mass of ice, added mass of seawater, [...] Read more.
This article contains the analytical model of the drift of a separate ice field under the action of wind and current, in which velocities and directions can vary over time. The model takes into account the mass of ice, added mass of seawater, and the effects of the wind and current on the ice field in forming the friction on its upper and underwater surfaces and the frontal resistance on its end (forward and backward) surfaces. Simulation of the wind drift of the ice field showed the drift velocity exceeds the considerable known velocity of a compact ice cover drift. A drifting ice field has a certain kinetic energy that should be released when a collision occurs with an unmovable obstacle, and spent on brittle breakdown of a quantity of the ice field. The volume of formed small ice pieces (fragments of ice field) was estimated by comparison of the specific energy of the sea ice brittle destruction and the kinetic energy of the drifting ice field. The article presents the results of the estimation of the possible volume of the ice pieces and the scales of formed piles as a result of a collision with an obstacle, depending on the initial dimensions of the ice field and wind speed. Developed models and the results of computer modeling can be used to estimate the ice pile sizes near the stationary platforms and terminals on the Arctic seas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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22 pages, 4824 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Thermodynamic Consolidation of Sea Ice Ridges Drifting in the Water with Changing Temperature
by Aleksey Marchenko
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1858; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121858 - 2 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1254
Abstract
Oceanographic and ice conditions in the region of Spitsbergen Bank in the Barents Sea were investigated in research cruises of the “Polarsyssel” in 2017–2019. Trajectories of ice drift were constructed using GPS data of the buoys deployed on the floes in the research [...] Read more.
Oceanographic and ice conditions in the region of Spitsbergen Bank in the Barents Sea were investigated in research cruises of the “Polarsyssel” in 2017–2019. Trajectories of ice drift were constructed using GPS data of the buoys deployed on the floes in the research cruises. The duration of the ice season in the region was analyzed using ice charts. The air temperature and wind velocities were analyzed using the data of meteorological stations on Bear Island and Hopen Island. Fieldwork on drifting ice showed the existence of thick consolidated floes with drafts up to 8 m, which were identified as completely consolidated sea ice ridges. The presence of such floes is dangerous for winter navigation along Spitsbergen Bank. A model of thermodynamic consolidation of ice ridges was formulated to investigate the thermodynamic evolution of ice ridges. The observed air and sea water temperatures were used in the boundary conditions on top and bottom surfaces of sea ice rubble. It was shown that the regular interaction of sea ice rubble with Atlantic and Arctic waters in the region of Spitsbergen Bank leads to almost complete consolidation of the ice rubble with an initial macro-porosity 0.2 for 150 days. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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22 pages, 543 KiB  
Article
An Econometric Analysis of Sea Surface Temperatures, Sea Ice Concentrations and Ocean Surface Current Velocities
by Alok Bhargava and Juan A. Echenique
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(12), 1854; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10121854 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1909
Abstract
This paper analyzed quarterly longitudinal data for 64,800 1 × 1 degree grids during 2000–2019 on sea surface temperatures, sea ice concentrations, and ocean surface current zonal and meridional velocities in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The methodological framework addressed the processing of [...] Read more.
This paper analyzed quarterly longitudinal data for 64,800 1 × 1 degree grids during 2000–2019 on sea surface temperatures, sea ice concentrations, and ocean surface current zonal and meridional velocities in the Northern and Southern hemispheres. The methodological framework addressed the processing of remote sensing signals, interdependence between sea surface temperatures and sea ice concentrations, and combining zonal and meridional velocities as the eddy kinetic energy. Dynamic and static random effects models were estimated by maximum likelihood and stepwise methods, respectively, taking into account the unobserved heterogeneity across grids. The main findings were that quarterly sea surface temperatures increased steadily in the Northern hemisphere, whereas cyclical patterns were apparent in Southern hemisphere; sea ice concentrations declined in both hemispheres. Second, sea surface temperatures were estimated with large negative coefficients in the models for sea ice concentrations for the hemispheres; previous sea ice concentrations were negatively associated with sea surface temperatures, indicating feedback loops. Third, sea surface temperatures were positively and significantly associated with eddy kinetic energy in Northern hemisphere. Overall, the results indicated the importance of reducing sea surface temperatures via reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and the dumping of pollutants into oceans for maintaining sea ice concentrations and enhancing global sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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16 pages, 3888 KiB  
Article
Broken Ice Photogrammetry in Model-Scale Experiments with Sloped Structure
by Petr Zvyagin, Ilia Pavlov and Tatiana Zvyagina
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(11), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10111590 - 27 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1610
Abstract
Testing a physical model of an ice-resistant marine structure in an ice tank is one of the methods used for design validation. For a stationary structure design, not only is the possible global ice load of interest but also the processes of creation [...] Read more.
Testing a physical model of an ice-resistant marine structure in an ice tank is one of the methods used for design validation. For a stationary structure design, not only is the possible global ice load of interest but also the processes of creation and evolution of ice rubble in front of the contacting surface. While the load registering technique in model-scale experiments is very well-developed, the photogrammetric analysis of broken ice morphometry and locomotion is not. The photographs taken to illustrate the breaking process do not usually accompany the information necessary for the photogrammetric reconstruction of the scene. This paper outlines a systematic approach to the photogrammetric analysis of the scenes in model-scale conditions. Using this approach, the broken ice dimensions were measured in seven model-scale experiments for which the model of a sloped marine structure was reconstructed. In these experiments, a 700 mm wide slope with an inclination angle of 53° caused an upward flexural failure of the model’s granular ice. Reference global load histories for these experiments are provided. For the first contact episodes, the successful reconstruction of the broken ice mosaic in the polynya showed the insignificant contribution of compressive failure. In continual ice–structure interaction, the morphometry of the ice blocks visible on the slope of the rubble pile and on the surface of the surrounding ice sheet was retrieved from orthorectified video frames. The results were compared with the after-test nadir drone view of the polynya. The error in estimating the top-side area and the maximum linear dimension of the ice block fell into the interval of 0–10%. The morphometric information of the broken ice floes obtained in ice tank experiments with physical models can be used for the improvement of the mechanical models of ice fracture and failure against inclined offshore ice-resistant structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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18 pages, 5586 KiB  
Article
Laboratory Measurements of Surface Wave Propagation through Ice Floes in Salt Water
by Mark Orzech, Jie Yu, David Wang, Blake Landry, Carlo Zuniga-Zamalloa, Edward Braithwaite, Kathryn Trubac and Callum Gray
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1483; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101483 - 12 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1727
Abstract
Surface waves traversing polar marginal ice zones (MIZs) generate a boundary layer immediately below the ice, similar in some respects to the wave boundary layer created at the seabed in shallow water. The wave–ice boundary layer has not yet been thoroughly measured, but [...] Read more.
Surface waves traversing polar marginal ice zones (MIZs) generate a boundary layer immediately below the ice, similar in some respects to the wave boundary layer created at the seabed in shallow water. The wave–ice boundary layer has not yet been thoroughly measured, but it can significantly affect wave attenuation rates. In December 2021, we conducted a laboratory experiment designed to measure such a boundary layer and the associated attenuation, in which monochromatic waves propagated through broken surface ice in a salt water tank. A particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) instrument array was submerged in the tank and used to visualize the fluid motion under the moving ice. The surface was tracked at multiple locations with acoustic sensors and cameras mounted over the tank. A total of 64 trials were completed, each producing 3–6 s of highly resolved velocity time series and 30–40 s of surface elevation data. Preliminary analysis of the data has provided strong evidence of a boundary layer at the water–ice interface. The wave attenuation rates compare well with existing datasets. The vertical profiles of RMS velocities and wave-induced Reynolds stress have trends similar to the theoretical predictions, while the quantitative discrepancies in terms of numerical values are discussed. This is the first of two such experiments; the second is tentatively scheduled for early 2023. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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19 pages, 1054 KiB  
Article
Wave Boundary Layer at the Ice–Water Interface
by Jie Yu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(10), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10101472 - 11 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1324
Abstract
On re-examining the problem of linear gravity waves in two layers of fluids with a viscous ice layer overlaying water of deep depth, we give a detailed analysis of the fluid velocities, velocity shear, and Reynolds stress associated with wave fluctuations in both [...] Read more.
On re-examining the problem of linear gravity waves in two layers of fluids with a viscous ice layer overlaying water of deep depth, we give a detailed analysis of the fluid velocities, velocity shear, and Reynolds stress associated with wave fluctuations in both the ice layer and the wave boundary layer just beneath it. For the turbulent wave boundary layer, water eddy viscosity is used. Comprehensive discussions on various aspects of the velocity fields are made in terms of a Reynolds number based on the ice-layer thickness and viscosity, and the ice-to-water viscosity ratio. Speculation of the wave-induced steady streaming is made based on the Reynolds stress distribution, offering a preliminary insight into the mean flows in both the ice layer and wave boundary layer in the water. For wave attenuation, the results using a typical ice viscosity and a reasonable water eddy viscosity show good agreement with data over the range of frequencies for field and lab waves, significantly outperforming those assuming an inviscid water. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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26 pages, 7850 KiB  
Article
Viscoelastic Wave–Ice Interactions: A Computational Fluid–Solid Dynamic Approach
by Sasan Tavakoli, Luofeng Huang, Fatemeh Azhari and Alexander V. Babanin
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(9), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10091220 - 1 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2051
Abstract
A computational fluid–solid dynamic model is employed to simulate the interaction between water waves and a consolidated ice cover. The model solves the Navier–Stokes equations for the ocean-wave flow around a solid body, and the solid behavior is formalized by the Maxwell viscoelastic [...] Read more.
A computational fluid–solid dynamic model is employed to simulate the interaction between water waves and a consolidated ice cover. The model solves the Navier–Stokes equations for the ocean-wave flow around a solid body, and the solid behavior is formalized by the Maxwell viscoelastic model. Model predictions are compared against experimental flume tests of waves interacting with viscoelastic plates. The decay rate and wave dispersion predicted by the model are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results. Furthermore, the model is scaled, by simulating the wave interaction with an actual sea ice cover formed in the ocean. The scaled decay and dispersion results are found to be still valid in full scale. It is shown that the decay rate of waves in a viscoelastic cover is proportional to the quadratic of wave frequency in long waves, whilst biquadrate for short waves. The former is likely to be a viscoelastic effect, and the latter is likely to be related to the energy damping caused by the fluid motion. Overall, the modeling approach and results of the present paper are expected to provide new insights into wave–ice interactions and help researchers to dynamically simulate similar fluid–structure interactions with high fidelity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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19 pages, 15675 KiB  
Article
A Modified Approach of Extracting Landfast Ice Edge Based on Sentinel-1A InSAR Coherence Image in the Gulf of Bothnia
by Zhiyong Wang, Zihao Wang, Hao Li, Ping Ni and Jian Liu
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(10), 1076; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9101076 - 1 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
Landfast ice is an integral component of the coastal ecosystem. Extracting the edge and mapping the extent of landfast ice are one of the main methods for studying ice changes. In this work, a standardized process for extracting landfast ice edge in the [...] Read more.
Landfast ice is an integral component of the coastal ecosystem. Extracting the edge and mapping the extent of landfast ice are one of the main methods for studying ice changes. In this work, a standardized process for extracting landfast ice edge in the Baltic Sea using the InSAR coherence image is established with Sentinel-1 radar data and InSAR technology. A modified approach combining multiscale segmentation and morphological erosion is then proposed to provide a reliable way to extract landfast ice edge. Firstly, the coherence image is obtained using InSAR technology. Then, the edge is separated and extracted with the modified approach. The modified approach is essentially a four-step procedure involving image segmentation, median filter, morphological erosion, and rejection of small patches. Finally, the full extent of landfast ice can be obtained using floodfill algorithm. Multiple InSAR image pairs of Sentinel-1A acquired from 2018 to 2019 are utilized to successfully extract the landfast ice edge in the Gulf of Bothnia. The results show that the landfast ice edge and the extents obtained by the proposed approach are visually consistent with those shown in the ice chart issued by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) over a coastline length of 345 km. The mean distance between land–water boundary and the coastline issued by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is 109.1 m. The modified approach obviously preserves more details in local edge than the reference method. The experimental results show that the modified approach proposed in this paper can extract the edge and map the extent of landfast ice more accurately and quickly, and is therefore expected to contribute to the further understanding and analyzing the changes of landfast ice in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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16 pages, 3612 KiB  
Article
Observing Wind-Forced Flexural-Gravity Waves in the Beaufort Sea and Their Relationship to Sea Ice Mechanics
by Mark A. Johnson, Aleksey V. Marchenko, Dyre O. Dammann and Andrew R. Mahoney
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 471; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050471 - 27 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3371
Abstract
We developed and deployed two inertial measurement units on mobile pack ice during a U.S. Navy drifting ice campaign in the Beaufort Sea. The ice camp was more than 1000 km from the nearest open water. The sensors were stationed on thick (>1 [...] Read more.
We developed and deployed two inertial measurement units on mobile pack ice during a U.S. Navy drifting ice campaign in the Beaufort Sea. The ice camp was more than 1000 km from the nearest open water. The sensors were stationed on thick (>1 m) first- and multi–year ice to record 3-D accelerations at 10 Hz for one week during March 2020. During this time, gale-force winds exceeded 21 m per second for several hours during two separate wind events and reached a maximum of 25 m per second. Our observations show similar sets of wave bands were excited during both wind events. One band was centered on a period of ~14 s. Another band arrived several hours later and was centered on ~3.5-s. We find that the observed wave bands match a model dispersion curve for flexural gravity waves in ~1.2-m ice with a Young’s modulus of 3.5 GPa under compressive stresses of ~0.3 MPa. We further evaluate the bending stress and load cycles of the individual wave bands and their potential role in break-up of sea ice. This work demonstrates how observations of waves in sea ice using these and similar sensors can potentially be a valuable field-based tool for evaluating ice mechanics. In particular, this approach can be used to observe and describe the combined mechanical behavior of consolidated floes relevant for understanding sea ice mechanical processes and model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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23 pages, 8485 KiB  
Article
Effects of Wave-Induced Sea Ice Break-Up and Mixing in a High-Resolution Coupled Ice-Ocean Model
by Junde Li, Alexander V. Babanin, Qingxiang Liu, Joey J. Voermans, Petra Heil and Youmin Tang
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(4), 365; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9040365 - 29 Mar 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4089
Abstract
Arctic sea ice plays a vital role in modulating the global climate. In the most recent decades, the rapid decline of the Arctic summer sea ice cover has exposed increasing areas of ice-free ocean, with sufficient fetch for waves to develop. This has [...] Read more.
Arctic sea ice plays a vital role in modulating the global climate. In the most recent decades, the rapid decline of the Arctic summer sea ice cover has exposed increasing areas of ice-free ocean, with sufficient fetch for waves to develop. This has highlighted the complex and not well-understood nature of wave-ice interactions, requiring modeling effort. Here, we introduce two independent parameterizations in a high-resolution coupled ice-ocean model to investigate the effects of wave-induced sea ice break-up (through albedo change) and mixing on the Arctic sea ice simulation. Our results show that wave-induced sea ice break-up leads to increases in sea ice concentration and thickness in the Bering Sea, the Baffin Sea and the Barents Sea during the ice growth season, but accelerates the sea ice melt in the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea in summer. Further, wave-induced mixing can decelerate the sea ice formation in winter and the sea ice melt in summer by exchanging the heat fluxes between the surface and subsurface layer. As our baseline model underestimates sea ice cover in winter and produces more sea ice in summer, wave-induced sea ice break-up plays a positive role in improving the sea ice simulation. This study provides two independent parameterizations to directly include the wave effects into the sea ice models, with important implications for the future sea ice model development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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Review

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39 pages, 2936 KiB  
Review
Laboratory Experiments on Ice Melting: A Need for Understanding Dynamics at the Ice-Water Interface
by Aubrey Lynn McCutchan and Blair Anne Johnson
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10(8), 1008; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10081008 - 23 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 5670 | Correction
Abstract
The ice-ocean interface is a dynamic zone characterized by the transfer of heat, salinity, and energy. Complex thermodynamics and fluid dynamics drive fascinating physics as ice is formed and lost under variable conditions. Observations and data from polar regions have shed light on [...] Read more.
The ice-ocean interface is a dynamic zone characterized by the transfer of heat, salinity, and energy. Complex thermodynamics and fluid dynamics drive fascinating physics as ice is formed and lost under variable conditions. Observations and data from polar regions have shed light on the contributions that oceanic currents, meltwater plumes, subglacial hydrology, and other features of the ice-ocean boundary region can make on melting and transport. However, the complicated interaction of mechanisms related to ice loss remain difficult to discern, necessitating laboratory experiments to explore fundamental features of melting dynamics via controlled testing with rigorous measurement techniques. Here, we put forward a review of literature on laboratory experiments that explore ice loss in response to free and forced convective flows, considering melting based on laminar or turbulent flow conditions, ice geometries representing a range of idealized scenarios to those modeling glaciers found in nature, and features such as salinity and stratification. We present successful measurement techniques and highlight findings useful to understanding polar ice dynamics, and we aim to identify future directions and needs for experimental research to complement ongoing field investigations and numerical simulations to ultimately improve predictions of ice loss in our current and evolving climate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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Other

2 pages, 179 KiB  
Correction
Correction: McCutchan, A.L.; Johnson, B.A. Laboratory Experiments on Ice Melting: A Need for Understanding Dynamics at the Ice-Water Interface. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2022, 10, 1008
by Aubrey Lynn McCutchan and Blair Anne Johnson
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 523; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030523 - 28 Feb 2023
Viewed by 856
Abstract
In the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Ice-Ocean Boundary)
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