Special Issue "Multiscale, Multiphysics Modelling of Coastal Ocean Processes: Paradigms and Approaches"

A special issue of Journal of Marine Science and Engineering (ISSN 2077-1312).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Hansong Tang
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, The City College of New York, 160 Convent Avenue, New York, NY 10031
Interests: fluid mechanics; numerical methods; computational physics
Mr. C. Reid Nichols
Website
Guest Editor
Marine Information Resources Corporation, 12337 Pans Spring CourtEllicott City, MD 20142
Interests: ocean observations; model testing; date analytics; operations research
Prof. Dr. Donald T. Resio
Website
Guest Editor
College of Computing, Engineering & Construction, University of North Florida, 1 UNF Drive | Jacksonville, FL 32224, USA
Interests: coastal and ocean engineering; meteorology; hydrodynamics
Dr. Don Wright
Website
Guest Editor
Southeastern Universities Research Association, 1201 New York Ave. NW, Suite 430Washington, DC 20005
Interests: science of collaboration; marine science; coastal morphodynamics

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is now important to develop high-fidelity modelling capabilities to simulate multiscale and multiphysics coastal ocean processes, to collect disparate types of date (e.g., time series, imagery, and bathymetry) for model development, and to build confidence in modelling results for applications in operations. Coastal ocean processes involve various types of physical phenomena over a large range of temporal and spatial scales that co-exist and interact. Vital examples are tidal power extraction, oil spill transport and dispersion, propagation and breaking of internal waves, compound coastal flooding, and coastal morphodynamics.

Conventionally, individual coastal ocean phenomena are isolated during modelling and often over simplified or parameterized when they are combined into larger systems using simplistic assumptions, suggesting that direct, high-fidelity simulations must be done to improve the modelling of multiphysics problems. In recent years, emphasis on the needs for better modelling capabilities has led to progress in simulation methods for complex systems (e.g., adaptive mesh resolution, wave-current coupling, ocean–river coupling, and better representation of physics), computer software, and date collation for validation. However, the needs and challenges remain to further the progress.

This Special Issue focuses on papers about necessities, difficulties, and approaches of multiscale and multiphysics modelling, and it includes contributions on assessment of existing models, analysis on their limitations, new methods, model validation, and case studies. It will also focus on collecting and sharing seminal datasets that support model calibration and testing. We welcome high-quality papers from but not limited to the following areas:

  • Computational methods
  • Physical oceanography
  • Marine sciences
  • Hydrology
  • Environmental science
  • Coastal engineering
  • Ocean observations
  • Laboratory experiments

Contributions to this issue will serve as bases and benchmarks, identify future efforts, and lead to better capabilities to simulate multiscale and multiphysics flow problems and to new paradigms for treating various scientific and engineering problems.  It is expected that each submission adheres to the focus of this issue, in particular, it contains discussions on flow phenomena of different types (e.g., ocean currents, surface waves, and internal waves), at different scales (e.g., estuary scale and regional scale), and their interaction and relation.

Interested contributors are encouraged to contact the editors, even a little after the closing date.

Prof. Hansong Tang
Mr. C. Reid Nichols
Prof. Donald T. Resio
Dr. Don Wright
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Multiscale and multiphysics
  • Coastal ocean processes
  • Model assessment and limitation
  • Model coupling
  • Mesh resolution
  • Date analysis
  • Testbeds

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Data-Driven, Multi-Model Workflow Suggests Strong Influence from Hurricanes on the Generation of Turbidity Currents in the Gulf of Mexico
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(8), 586; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8080586 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
Turbidity currents deliver sediment rapidly from the continental shelf to the slope and beyond; and can be triggered by processes such as shelf resuspension during oceanic storms; mass failure of slope deposits due to sediment- and wave-pressure loadings; and localized events that grow [...] Read more.
Turbidity currents deliver sediment rapidly from the continental shelf to the slope and beyond; and can be triggered by processes such as shelf resuspension during oceanic storms; mass failure of slope deposits due to sediment- and wave-pressure loadings; and localized events that grow into sustained currents via self-amplifying ignition. Because these operate over multiple spatial and temporal scales, ranging from the eddy-scale to continental-scale; coupled numerical models that represent the full transport pathway have proved elusive though individual models have been developed to describe each of these processes. Toward a more holistic tool, a numerical workflow was developed to address pathways for sediment routing from terrestrial and coastal sources, across the continental shelf and ultimately down continental slope canyons of the northern Gulf of Mexico, where offshore infrastructure is susceptible to damage by turbidity currents. Workflow components included: (1) a calibrated simulator for fluvial discharge (Water Balance Model - Sediment; WBMsed); (2) domain grids for seabed sediment textures (dbSEABED); bathymetry, and channelization; (3) a simulator for ocean dynamics and resuspension (the Regional Ocean Modeling System; ROMS); (4) A simulator (HurriSlip) of seafloor failure and flow ignition; and (5) A Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) turbidity current model (TURBINS). Model simulations explored physical oceanic conditions that might generate turbidity currents, and allowed the workflow to be tested for a year that included two hurricanes. Results showed that extreme storms were especially effective at delivering sediment from coastal source areas to the deep sea, at timescales that ranged from individual wave events (~hours), to the settling lag of fine sediment (~days). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Structured and Unstructured Models for Application in Operational Ocean Forecasting in Nearshore Waters
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8(7), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse8070484 - 30 Jun 2020
Abstract
The oceanography sub-initiative of Canada’s Oceans Protection Plan was tasked to develop high-resolution nearshore ocean models for enhanced marine safety and emergency response, fitting into the multi-scale, multi-level nested operational ocean forecasting systems. For decision making on eventual 24/7 operational support, two ocean [...] Read more.
The oceanography sub-initiative of Canada’s Oceans Protection Plan was tasked to develop high-resolution nearshore ocean models for enhanced marine safety and emergency response, fitting into the multi-scale, multi-level nested operational ocean forecasting systems. For decision making on eventual 24/7 operational support, two ocean models (a structured grid model, NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean); and an unstructured grid model, FVCOM (Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model), were evaluated. The evaluation process includes the selection of the study area, the requirements for model setup, and the evaluation metrics. The chosen study area, Saint John Harbour in the Bay of Fundy, features strong tides, significant river runoff and a narrow tidal-river channel. Both models were configured with the same sources of bathymetry and forcing data. FVCOM achieved 50-100 m horizontal resolution in the inner harbour and included wetting/drying. NEMO achieved 100 m resolution in the harbour with a three-level one-way nesting configuration. Statistical metrics showed that one-year simulations with both models achieved comparable accuracies against the observed tidal and non-tidal water levels and currents, temperature and salinity, and the trajectories of surface drifters, but the computational cost of FVCOM was significantly less than that of NEMO. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Coastal Flooding and Inundation and Inland Flooding due to Downstream Blocking
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(10), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7100336 - 26 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Extreme atmospheric wind and precipitation events have created extensive multiscale coastal, inland, and upland flooding in United States (U.S.) coastal states over recent decades, some of which takes days to hours to develop, while others can take only several tens of minutes and [...] Read more.
Extreme atmospheric wind and precipitation events have created extensive multiscale coastal, inland, and upland flooding in United States (U.S.) coastal states over recent decades, some of which takes days to hours to develop, while others can take only several tens of minutes and inundate a large area within a short period of time, thus being laterally explosive. However, their existence has not yet been fully recognized, and the fluid dynamics and the wide spectrum of spatial and temporal scales of these types of events are not yet well understood nor have they been mathematically modeled. If present-day outlooks of more frequent and intense precipitation events in the future are accurate, these coastal, inland and upland flood events, such as those due to Hurricanes Joaquin (2015), Matthew (2016), Harvey (2017) and Irma (2017), will continue to increase in the future. However, the question arises as to whether there has been a well-documented example of this kind of coastal, inland and upland flooding in the past? In addition, if so, are any lessons learned for the future? The short answer is “no”. Fortunately, there are data from a pair of events, several decades ago—Hurricanes Dennis and Floyd in 1999—that we can turn to for guidance in how the nonlinear, multiscale fluid physics of these types of compound hazard events manifested in the past and what they portend for the future. It is of note that fifty-six lives were lost in coastal North Carolina alone from this pair of storms. In this study, the 1999 rapid coastal and inland flooding event attributed to those two consecutive hurricanes is documented and the series of physical processes and their mechanisms are analyzed. A diagnostic assessment using data and numerical models reveals the physical mechanisms of downstream blocking that occurred. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Validating an Operational Flood Forecast Model Using Citizen Science in Hampton Roads, VA, USA
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(8), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7080242 - 26 Jul 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Changes in the eustatic sea level have enhanced the impact of inundation events in the coastal zone, ranging in significance from tropical storm surges to pervasive nuisance flooding events. The increased frequency of these inundation events has stimulated the production of interactive web-map [...] Read more.
Changes in the eustatic sea level have enhanced the impact of inundation events in the coastal zone, ranging in significance from tropical storm surges to pervasive nuisance flooding events. The increased frequency of these inundation events has stimulated the production of interactive web-map tracking tools to cope with changes in our changing coastal environment. Tidewatch Maps, developed by the Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS), is an effective example of an emerging street-level inundation mapping tool. Leveraging the Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydro-science Integrated System Model (SCHISM) as the engine, Tidewatch operationally disseminates 36-h inundation forecast maps with a 12-h update frequency. SCHISM’s storm tide forecasts provide surge guidance for the legacy VIMS Tidewatch Charts sensor-based tidal prediction platform, while simultaneously providing an interactive and operationally functional forecast mapping tool with hourly temporal resolution and a 5 m spatial resolution throughout the coastal plain of Virginia, USA. This manuscript delves into the hydrodynamic modeling and geospatial methods used at VIMS to automate the 36-h street-level flood forecasts currently available via Tidewatch Maps, and the paradigm-altering efforts involved in validating the spatial, vertical, and temporal accuracy of the model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Domain Decomposition Method for the Variational Assimilation of the Sea Level in a Model of Open Water Areas Hydrodynamics
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060195 - 23 Jun 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
One of the modern fields in mathematical modelling of water areas is developing hybrid coastal ocean models based on domain decomposition. In coastal ocean modelling a problem to be solved is setting open boundary conditions. One of the methods dealing with open boundaries [...] Read more.
One of the modern fields in mathematical modelling of water areas is developing hybrid coastal ocean models based on domain decomposition. In coastal ocean modelling a problem to be solved is setting open boundary conditions. One of the methods dealing with open boundaries is variational data assimilation. The purpose of this work is to apply the domain decomposition method to the variational data assimilation problem. The method to solve the problem of restoring boundary functions at the liquid boundaries for a system of linearized shallow water equations is studied. The problem of determining additional unknowns is considered as an inverse problem and solved using well-known approaches. The methodology based on the theory of optimal control and adjoint equations is used. In the paper the theoretical study of the problem is carried out, unique and dense solvability of the problem is proved, an iterative algorithm is proposed and its convergence is studied. The results of the numerical experiments are presented and discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Parallel Implementation of a PETSc-Based Framework for the General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(6), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse7060185 - 13 Jun 2019
Abstract
The General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model (GCCOM) is a 3D curvilinear, structured-mesh, non-hydrostatic, large-eddy simulation model that is capable of running oceanic simulations. GCCOM is an inherently computationally expensive model: it uses an elliptic solver for the dynamic pressure; meter-scale simulations requiring memory [...] Read more.
The General Curvilinear Coastal Ocean Model (GCCOM) is a 3D curvilinear, structured-mesh, non-hydrostatic, large-eddy simulation model that is capable of running oceanic simulations. GCCOM is an inherently computationally expensive model: it uses an elliptic solver for the dynamic pressure; meter-scale simulations requiring memory footprints on the order of 10 12 cells and terabytes of output data. As a solution for parallel optimization, the Fortran-interfaced Portable–Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computation (PETSc) library was chosen as a framework to help reduce the complexity of managing the 3D geometry, to improve parallel algorithm design, and to provide a parallelized linear system solver and preconditioner. GCCOM discretizations are based on an Arakawa-C staggered grid, and PETSc DMDA (Data Management for Distributed Arrays) objects were used to provide communication and domain ownership management of the resultant multi-dimensional arrays, while the fully curvilinear Laplacian system for pressure is solved by the PETSc linear solver routines. In this paper, the framework design and architecture are described in detail, and results are presented that demonstrate the multiscale capabilities of the model and the parallel framework to 240 cores over domains of order 10 7 total cells per variable, and the correctness and performance of the multiphysics aspects of the model for a baseline experiment stratified seamount. Full article
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